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The War of Art: Break Through the Blocks and Win Your Inner Creative BattlesSteven Pressfield
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12 November 2013 (22:56)
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ALSO BY STEVEN Last The PRESSFIELD of the Tides of War Gates Fire Legend of The Amazons of Bagger Virtues of Vance War Break Through the Blocks and Win Your Inner Creative Battles STEVEN PRESSFIELD If you purchase this book without a cover you should be aware that this book may have been stolen property and reported as "unsold and destroyed" to the publisher. In such case neither the author nor the publisher has received any payment for this "stripped book." Warner Books Edition Copyright © 2002 by Stephen Pressfield All rights reserved. This Warner Books Edition is published by arrangement with Rugged Land, 276 Canal Street, Fifth Floor, New York, NY 10013 Warner Books Time Warner Book Group 1271 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020 Visit our Web site at www.twbookmark.com. Printed in the United States of America First Warner Book Edition: April 2003 10 9 8 7 6 The Library of Congress has catalogued the hardcover edition as follows: Pressfield, Stephen The war of art : winning the inner creative battle / Stephen Pressfield; foreword by Robert McKee.—1st ed. p. cm. I S B N 1-59071-003-7 1. Creative ability. 2. Creative thinking. 3. Authorship. I. Title. BF408.P74 2002 153.3*5 QB102-701260 ISBN: 0-446-69143-7 (pbk.) Cover design by Brigid Pearson Cover illustration by Milton Glaser 2002102091 theWARofART FOREWORD by Robert McKee S teven Pressfield wrote The War of Art for me. He undoubtedly wrote it for you too, but I know he did it e x p r e s s l y for me b e c a u s e I hold O l y m p i c r e c o r d s for p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n . I can p r o c r a s t i n a t e thinking a b o u t my procrastination problem. I can procrastinate dealing with my problem of procrastinating thinking about my procrastination problem. So Pressfield, that devil, asked me to write this foreword against a deadline, knowing that no matter how much I stalled, eventually I'd have to knuckle down and do the work. At the last possible hour I did, and as I leafed through Book One, "Defining the Enemy," I saw myself staring back guilty-eyed from every page. But then Book Two gave me a battle plan; Book Three, a vision of victory; and as I closed The War of Art, I felt a surge of positive calm. I now know I can win this war. And if I can, so can you. T o b e g i n B o o k O n e , P r e s s f i e l d labels the e n e m y o f creativity Resistance, his all-encompassing term for what Freud called the Death Wish—that destructive force inside human nature that rises whenever we consider a t o u g h , long-term course of action that might do for us or others something that's actually good. He then presents a rogue's gallery of the many manifestations of Resistance. You will recognize each and every one, for this force lives within us a l l — s e l f - s a b o t a g e , s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , s e l f - c o r r u p t i o n . We writers know it as "block," a paralysis whose symptoms can bring on appalling behavior. Some years ago I was as blocked as a Calcutta sewer, so what did I do? I decided to try on all my clothes. To show just how anal I can get, I put on every shirt, pair of pants, sweater, jacket, and sock, sorting them into piles: spring, summer, fall, winter, Salvation Army. Then I tried them on all over again, this time parsing them into spring casual, spring formal, summer c a s u a l . . . Two days of this and I thought I was going mad. Want to know how to cure writer's block? It's not a trip to your psychiatrist. For as Pressfield wisely points out, seeking " s u p p o r t " is Resistance at its most seductive. N o , the cure is found in Book Two: "Turning Pro." Steven Pressfield is the very definition of a pro. I know this b e c a u s e I can't count the times I called the author of The Legend of Bagger Vance to invite him for a round of golf, and although tempted, he declined. Why? Because he was working, and as any writer who has ever taken a backswing knows, golf is a beautifully virulent form of procrastination. In other words, Resistance. Steve packs a discipline forged of Bethlehem steel. I read Steve's Gates of Fire and Tides of War back-toback while traveling in Europe. Now, I'm not a lachrymose guy; I hadn't cried over a book since The Red Pony, but these novels got to me. I found myself sitting in cafes, choking back tears over the selfless courage of those Greeks who shaped and saved Western civilization. As I looked beneath his seamless prose and sensed his depth of research, of knowledge of human nature and society, of vividly imagined telling details, I was in awe of the work, the work, all the work that built the foundation of his riveting creations. And I'm not alone in this appreciation. When I bought the books in London, I was told that Steve's novels are now assigned by Oxford history dons who tell their students that if they wish to rub shoulders with life in classical Greece, read Pressfield. How does an artist achieve that power? In the second book Pressfield lays out the day-by-day, step-by-step campaign of the professional: preparation, order, patience, endurance, acting in the face of fear and failure—no excuses, no bullshit. And best of all, Steve's brilliant insight that first, last, and always, the professional focuses on mastery of the craft. Book Three, "The Higher Realm," looks at Inspiration, that sublime result that blossoms in the furrows of the professional who straps on the harness and plows the fields of his or her art. In Pressfield's words: "When we sit down each day and do our work, power concentrates around u s . . . we become like a magnetized rod that attracts iron filings. Ideas come. Insights accrete." On this, the effect of Inspiration, Steve and I absolutely agree. Indeed, stunning images and ideas arrive as if from nowhere. In fact, these seemingly spontaneous flashes are so amazing, it's hard to believe that our unworthy selves created them. From where, therefore, does our best stuff come? I t ' s on this point, however, the cause of I n s p i r a t i o n , that we see things differently. In Book One Steve traces R e s i s t a n c e down its e v o l u t i o n a r y r o o t s to the g e n e s . I agree. T h e cause is genetic. That negative force, that dark antagonism to creativity, is embedded deep in our humanity. But in Book Three he shifts gears and looks for the cause of Inspiration not in human nature, but on a "higher realm." Then with a poetic fire he lays out his belief in muses and a n g e l s . T h e ultimate s o u r c e o f creativity, h e a r g u e s , i s divine. Many, perhaps most readers, will find Book Three profoundly moving. I, on the other hand, believe that the source of creativity is found on the same plane of reality as Resistance. It, too, is genetic. It's called talent: the innate power to discover the hidden connection between two things—images, ideas, words—that no one else has ever seen before, link them, and create for the world a third, utterly unique work. Like our IQ, talent is a gift from our ancestors. If we're lucky, we inherit it. In the fortunate talented few, the dark dimension of their natures will first resist the labor that creativity demands, but once they commit to the task, their talented side stirs to action and r e w a r d s them with a s t o n i s h i n g feats. T h e s e flashes of creative genius seem to arrive from out o f the b l u e f o r the o b v i o u s r e a s o n : T h e y c o m e f r o m the unconscious mind. In short, if the Muse exists, she does not whisper to the untalented. So although Steve and I may differ on the cause, we agree on the effect: When inspiration touches talent, she g i v e s birth to truth and beauty. And when Steven Pressfield was writing The War of Art, she had her hands all over him. WHAT I I DO get up, take a shower, have breakfast. I read the paper, brush my teeth. If I have phone calls to make, I make them. I've got my coffee now. I put on my lucky work boots and stitch up the lucky laces that my niece Meredith gave me. I head back to my office, crank up the computer. My lucky hooded sweatshirt is draped over the chair, with the lucky charm I got from a gypsy in Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer for only eight bucks in francs, and my lucky L A R G O nametag that came from a dream I once had. I put it on. On my thesaurus is my lucky cannon that my friend Bob Versandi gave me from Morro Castle, Cuba. I point it toward my chair, so it can fire inspiration into me. I say my prayer, which is the Invocation of the Muse from Homer's Odyssey, translation by T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia, which my dear mate Paul Rink gave me and which sits near my shelf with the cuff links that belonged to my father and my lucky a c o r n from the battlefield at T h e r m o p y l a e . I t ' s about ten-thirty now. I sit down and plunge in. When I start making typos, I know I'm getting tired. That's four hours or so. I've hit the point of diminishing returns. I wrap for the day. Copy whatever I've done to disk and stash the disk in the glove compartment of my truck in case there's a fire and I have to run for it. I power down. It's three, three-thirty. The office is closed. How many pages have I produced? I don't care. Are they any good? I don't even think about it. All that matters is I've put in my time and hit it with all I've g o t . All that counts is that, for this day, for this s e s s i o n , I have o v e r c o m e R e s i s t a n c e . WHAT T I KNOW here's a secret that real writers know that wannabe writers don't, and the secret is this: I t ' s not the writing part that's hard. What's hard is sitting down to write. What keeps us from sitting down is Resistance. THE M UNLIVED LIFE o s t o f u s h a v e two l i v e s . T h e life w e l i v e , and the u n l i v e d life within u s . B e t w e e n the two stands Resistance. Have you ever brought home a treadmill and let it gather dust in the attic? Ever quit a diet, a course of yoga, a meditation practice? Have you ever bailed out on a call to embark upon a spiritual practice, dedicate yourself to a humanitarian calling, commit your life to the service of others? Have you ever wanted to be a mother, a doctor, an advocate for the weak and helpless; to run for office, crusade for the planet, campaign for world peace, or to preserve the environment? Late at night have you experienced a vision of the person you might become, the work you could accomplish, the realized being you were meant to be? Are you a writer who doesn't write, a painter who doesn't paint, an entrepreneur who never starts a venture? Then you know what Resistance is. One night I was layin' down, I heard Papa talkin' to Mama. I heard Papa say, to let that boy boogie-woogie. 'Cause it's in him and it's got to come out. — J o h n Lee Hooker, "Boogie Chillen" Resistance is the most toxic force on the planet. It is the root of more unhappiness than poverty, disease, and erectile dysfunction. To yield to Resistance deforms our spirit. It stunts us and makes us less than we are and were born to be. If you believe in God (and I do) you must declare Resistance evil, for it prevents us from achieving the life God intended when He endowed each of us with our own unique genius. Genius is a Latin word; the Romans used it to denote an inner spirit, holy and inviolable, which watches over us, guiding us to our calling. A writer writes with his genius; an artist paints with hers; everyone who creates operates from this sacramental center. It is our soul's seat, the vessel that holds our being-in-potential, our star's beacon and Polaris. Every sun casts a shadow, and genius's shadow is Resistance. As powerful as is our soul's call to realization, so potent are the forces of Resistance arrayed against it. Resistance is faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a l o c o m o t i v e , harder to kick than crack c o c a i n e . We 're not alone if w e ' v e been mowed down by Resistance; millions of good men and women have bitten the dust before us. And here's the biggest bitch: We don't even know what hit us. I never did. From age twenty-four to thirty-two, Resistance kicked my ass from East Coast to West and back again thirteen times and I never even knew it existed. I looked everywhere for the enemy and failed to see it right in front of my face. Have you heard this story: Woman learns she has cancer, six months to live. Within days she quits her job, resumes the dream of writing Tex-Mex songs she gave up to raise a family (or starts studying classical Greek, or moves to the inner city and devotes herself to tending babies with A I D S ) . Woman's friends think she's crazy; she herself has never been happier. There's a postscript. Woman's cancer goes into remission. Is that what it takes? Do we have to stare death in the face to make us stand up and confront Resistance? Does Resistance have to cripple and disfigure our lives before we wake up to its existence? How many of us have become drunks and drug addicts, developed tumors and neuroses, succumbed to painkillers, gossip, and compulsive cell-phone use, simply because we don't do that thing that our hearts, our inner genius, is calling us to? Resistance defeats us. If tomorrow morning by some stroke of magic every dazed and benighted soul woke up with the power to take the first step toward pursuing his or her dreams, every shrink in the directory would be out of business. Prisons would stand empty. The alcohol and tobacco industries would collapse, along with the junk food, cosmetic surgery, and infotainment b u s i n e s s e s , not to mention p h a r m a c e u t i c a l c o m p a n i e s , hospitals, and the medical profession from top to bottom. Domestic abuse would become extinct, as would addiction, obesity, migraine headaches, road r a g e , and dandruff. L o o k in your own heart. U n l e s s I'm crazy, right now a still small voice is piping up, telling you as it has ten thousand times, the calling that is yours and yours alone. You know it. No one has to tell you. And unless I'm crazy, you're no closer to taking action on it than you were yesterday or will be tomorrow. You think Resistance isn't real? Resistance will bury you. You know, Hitler wanted to be an artist. At eighteen he took his inheritance, seven hundred kronen, and moved to Vienna to live and study. He applied to the Academy of Fine Arts and later to the School of Architecture. Ever see one of his paintings? Neither have I. Resistance beat him. Call it overstatement but I'll say it anyway: it was easier for Hitler to start World War II than it was for him to face a blank square of canvas. BOOK ONE RESISTANCE Defining the Enemy T h e e n e m y is a v e r y g o o d teacher. —the Dalai Lama RESISTANCE'S GREATEST HITS T he following is a list, in no particular order, of those activities that most c o m m o n l y elicit Resistance: 1) T h e pursuit of any calling in writing, painting, music, film, dance, or any creative art, however marginal or unconventional. 2) T h e launching of any entrepreneurial venture or enterprise, for profit or otherwise. 3) Any diet or health regimen. 4) Any program of spiritual advancement. 5) Any activity whose aim is tighter abdominals. 6) A n y course or p r o g r a m designed to overcome an unwholesome habit or addiction. 7) Education of every kind. 8) Any act of political, moral, or ethical courage, including the decision to change for the better some unworthy pattern of thought or conduct in ourselves. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 05 9) The undertaking of any enterprise or endeavor whose aim is to help others. 10) A n y act that entails c o m m i t m e n t of the heart. T h e decision to get married, to have a child, to weather a rocky patch in a relationship. 11) The taking of any principled stand in the face of adversity. In other words, any act that rejects immediate gratification in favor of long-term growth, health, or integrity. Or, expressed another way, any act that derives from our higher nature instead of our lower. A n y of these will elicit Resistance. Now: what are the characteristics of Resistance? T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE IS INVISIBLE R esistance cannot be seen, touched, heard, or smelled. But it can be felt. We experience it as an energy field radiating from a work-in-potential. It's a repelling force. It's negative. Its aim is to shove us away, distract us, prevent us from doing our work. STEVEN PRESSFIELD RESISTANCE IS INTERNAL R esistance seems to come from outside ourselves. We locate it in spouses, jobs, bosses, kids. "Peripheral opponents," as Pat Riley used to say when he coached the L o s Angeles Lakers. Resistance is not a peripheral opponent. Resistance arises from within. It is self-generated and self-perpetuated. Resistance is the enemy within. 08 THE WAR O F ART RESISTANCE IS INSIDIOUS R esistance will tell you anything to keep you from doing your work. It will perjure, fabricate, falsify; seduce, bully, cajole. Resistance is protean. It will assume any form, if that's what it takes to deceive you. It will reason with you like a lawyer or jam a nine-millimeter in your face like a stickup man. Resistance has no conscience. It will pledge anything to get a deal, then double-cross you as soon as your back is turned. If you take Resistance at its word, you deserve everything you get. Resistance is always lying and always full of shit. STEVEN PRESSFIELD R E S I S T A N C E IS IMPLACABLE R e s i s t a n c e i s l i k e the A l i e n o r the T e r m i n a t o r or the shark in Jaws. It cannot be reasoned with. It u n d e r s t a n d s n o t h i n g but p o w e r . It is an e n g i n e of destruction, programmed from the factory with one object only: to prevent us from doing our work. Resistance is implacable, intractable, indefatigable. Reduce it to a single cell and that cell will continue to attack. T h i s is R e s i s t a n c e ' s nature. It's all it knows. 10 T H E W A R OF A R T R E S I S T A N C E IS IMPERSONAL R esistance is not out to get you personally. It doesn't know who you are and doesn't care. Resistance is a force of nature. It acts objectively. Though it feels malevolent, Resistance in fact operates with the indifference of rain and transits the heavens by the same laws as the stars. When we marshal our forces to combat Resistance, we must remember this. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 11 RESISTANCE IS INFALLIBLE L ike a magnetized needle floating on a surface of oil, Resistance will unfailingly point to true North—mean- ing that calling or action it most wants to stop us from doing. We can use this. We can use it as a c o m p a s s . We can n a v i g a t e by R e s i s t a n c e , letting it g u i d e us to that calling or action that we must follow before all others. Rule of thumb: T h e more important a call or action is to our soul's evolution, the more Resistance we will feel toward pursuing it. 12 T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE IS UNIVERSAL W e ' r e w r o n g i f w e t h i n k w e ' r e the o n l y o n e s s t r u g g l i n g with R e s i s t a n c e . E v e r y o n e who has a b o d y experiences R e s i s t a n c e . STEVEN PRESSFIELD 13 RESISTANCE NEVER SLEEPS H enry Fonda was still throwing up before each stage performance, even when he was seventy-five. In other w o r d s , fear d o e s n ' t go away. T h e warrior and the artist live by the same code of necessity, which dictates that the battle must be fought anew every day. 14 T H E W A R OF A R T R E S I S T A N C E PLAYS FOR K E E P S R esistance's goal is not to wound or disable. Resistance aims to kill. Its target is the epicenter of our being: our genius, our soul, the unique and priceless gift we were put on earth to give and that no one else has but us. Resistance means business. When we fight it, we are in a war to the death. STEVEN PRESSFIELD !5 RESISTANCE IS F U E L E D BY FEAR R esistance has no strength of its own. E v e r y ounce of juice it p o s s e s s e s c o m e s from us. We feed it with power by our fear of it. Master that fear and we conquer Resistance. 16 T H E W A R OF A R T R E S I S T A N C E ONLY OPPOSES IN ONE D I R E C T I O N R esistance obstructs movement only from a lower sphere to a higher. It kicks in when we seek to pursue a calling in the arts, launch an innovative enterprise, or evolve to a higher station morally, ethically, or spiritually. So if y o u ' r e in Calcutta working with the Mother T e r e s a Foundation and y o u ' r e thinking of bolting to launch a career in t e l e m a r k e t i n g . . . relax. R e s i s t a n c e will g i v e you a free p a s s . STEVEN PRESSFIELD RESISTANCE IS MOST POWERFUL AT THE FINISH LINE O dysseus almost got home years before his actual homecoming. Ithaca was in sight, close enough that the sailors could see the smoke of their families' fires on shore. Odysseus was so certain he was safe, he actually lay down for a snooze. It was then that his men, believing there w a s g o l d in an o x - h i d e s a c k a m o n g their c o m m a n d e r ' s possessions, snatched this prize and cut it open. T h e b a g contained the adverse Winds, which King Aeolus had bottled up for O d y s s e u s when the wanderer had touched earlier at his blessed isle. The winds burst forth now in one mad blow, driving Odysseus' ships back across every league of ocean they had with such difficulty traversed, making him endure further trials and sufferings before, at last and alone, he reached home for good. The danger is greatest when the finish line is in sight. At this point, Resistance knows we 're about to beat it. It hits the panic button. It marshals one last assault and slams us with everything it's got. The professional must be alert for this counterattack. Be wary at the end. Don't open that bag of wind. l8 T H E WAR O F ART RESISTANCE RECRUITS ALLIES R esistance by definition is self-sabotage. But there's a parallel peril that must also be guarded against: sabotage by others. When a writer begins to overcome her Resistance—in other words, when she actually starts to write—she may find that those close to her begin acting strange. They may become moody or sullen, they may get sick; they may accuse the awakening writer of "changing," of "not being the person she w a s . " T h e closer these people are to the awakening writer, the more bizarrely they will act and the more emotion they will put behind their actions. They are trying to sabotage her. The reason is that they are struggling, consciously or unconsciously, against their own Resistance. The awakening writer's success becomes a reproach to them. If she can beat these demons, why can't they? Often c o u p l e s or c l o s e friends, even entire families, will enter into tacit compacts whereby each individual p l e d g e s ( u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) to r e m a i n m i r e d in the s a m e s l o u g h in which she and all her c r o n i e s h a v e b e c o m e so c o m f o r t a b l e . T h e highest treason a crab can c o m m i t STEVEN PRESSFIELD 19 is to make a leap for the rim of the bucket. T h e awakening artist must be ruthless, not only with herself but with others. O n c e y o u make your break, you can't turn around for your buddy who catches his trouser leg on the barbed wire. The best thing you can do for that friend (and he'd tell you this himself, if he really is your friend) is to get over the wall and keep motating. The best and only thing that one artist can do for another is to serve as an example and an inspiration. N o w , l e t ' s c o n s i d e r the next a s p e c t o f R e s i s t a n c e : symptoms. 20 T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND PROCRASTINATION P rocrastination is the most c o m m o n manifestation of Resistance b e c a u s e it's the easiest to rationalize. We don't tell o u r s e l v e s , " I ' m never g o i n g to write my s y m p h o n y . " I n s t e a d we say, "I am g o i n g to write my symphony; I'm just g o i n g to start tomorrow." STEVEN PRESSFIELD 21 RESISTANCE AND PROCRASTINATION, PART TWO T he most pernicious aspect of procrastination is that it can become a habit. We don't just put off our lives today; we put them off till our deathbed. Never forget: This very moment, we can change our lives. There never was a moment, and never will be, when we are without the power to alter our destiny. This second, we can turn the tables on Resistance. This second, we can sit down and do our work. 22 T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND SEX S o m e t i m e s R e s i s t a n c e takes the form of sex, or an obsessive preoccupation with sex. Why sex? Because sex provides immediate and powerful gratification. When someone sleeps with us, we feel validated and approved of, even loved. Resistance gets a big kick out of that. It knows it has distracted us with a cheap, easy fix and kept us from doing our work. Of course not all sex is a manifestation of Resistance. In my experience, you can tell by the measure of hollowness you feel afterward. T h e m o r e empty you feel, the m o r e certain you can be that your true motivation w a s not love or even lust but R e s i s t a n c e . It g o e s without saying that this principle applies to d r u g s , shopping, masturbation, T V , gossip, alcohol, and the consumption of all products containing fat, sugar, salt, or chocolate. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 2 3 RESISTANCE AND TROUBLE W e get ourselves in trouble because it's a cheap way to get attention. T r o u b l e is a faux form of fame. It's easier to get busted in the bedroom with the faculty chairman's wife than it is to finish that dissertation on the metaphysics of motley in the novellas of Joseph Conrad. Ill health is a form of trouble, as are alcoholism and drug addiction, proneness to accidents, all neurosis including compulsive screwing-up, and such seemingly benign foibles as jealousy, chronic lateness, and the blasting of rap music at 110 dB from your smoked-glass '95 Supra. Anything that draws attention to ourselves through pain-free or artificial means is a manifestation of Resistance. Cruelty to others is a form of Resistance, as is the willing endurance of cruelty from others. The working artist will not tolerate trouble in her life because she knows trouble prevents her from doing her work. The working artist banishes from her world all sources of trouble. She harnesses the urge for trouble and transforms it in her work. 24 THE WAR O F ART RESISTANCE AND SELF-DRAMATIZATION C reating soap opera in our lives is a symptom of Resistance. Why put in years of work designing a new software interface when you can get just as much attention by bringing home a boyfriend with a prison record? Sometimes entire families participate unconsciously in a culture of self-dramatization. The kids fuel the tanks, the grown-ups arm the phasers, the whole starship lurches from one spine-tingling episode to another. And the crew knows how to keep it going. If the level of drama drops below a certain threshold, someone jumps in to amp it up. D a d gets drunk, Mom gets sick, Janie shows up for church with an Oakland Raiders tattoo. It's more fun than a movie. And it works: N o b o d y gets a damn thing done. Sometimes I think of Resistance as a sort of evil twin to Santa Claus, who makes his rounds house-to-house, making sure that everything's taken care of. When he comes to a house that's hooked on self-dramatization, his ruddy cheeks glow and he giddy-ups away behind his eight tiny reindeer. He knows there'll be no work done in that house. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 2 5 RESISTANCE AND SELF-MEDICATION D o you regularly ingest any substance, controlled or otherwise, whose aim is the alleviation of depression, anxiety, etc.? I offer the following experience: I once worked as a writer for a big New York ad agency. Our boss used to tell us: Invent a disease. Come up with the disease, he said, and we can sell the cure. Attention Deficit Disorder, Seasonal Affect Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder. T h e s e aren't diseases, they're marketing ploys. Doctors didn't discover them, copywriters did. Marketing departments did. D r u g companies did. Depression and anxiety may be real. But they can also be Resistance. When we drug ourselves to blot out our soul's call, we are being good Americans and exemplary consumers. We 're doing exactly what TV commercials and pop materialist culture have been brainwashing us to do from birth. Instead of applying self-knowledge, self-discipline, delayed gratification, and hard work, we simply consume a product. Many pedestrians have been maimed or killed at the intersection of Resistance and Commerce. T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND VICTIMHOOD D octors estimate that seventy to eighty percent of their business is non-health-related. People aren't sick, they're self-dramatizing. Sometimes the hardest part of a medical job is keeping a straight face. As Jerry Seinfeld observed of his twenty years of dating: " T h a t ' s a lot of acting fascinated." T h e acquisition of a condition lends significance to one's existence. An illness, a cross to b e a r . . . Some people go from condition to condition; they cure one, and another pops up to take its place. The condition becomes a work of art in itself, a s h a d o w v e r s i o n of the real c r e a t i v e act the victim is avoiding by expending so much care cultivating his condition. A victim act is a form of passive aggression. It seeks to achieve gratification not by honest work or a contribution made out of one's experience or insight or love, but by the manipulation of others through silent (and not-so-silent) threat. The victim compels others to come to his rescue or to behave as he wishes by holding them hostage to the prospect of his own further illness/meltdown/mental dissolution, or simply by threatening to make their lives so miserable that they do what he wants. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 1TJ Casting yourself as a victim is the antithesis of doing your work. D o n ' t do it. If you're doing it, stop. • 28 T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND T H E C H O I C E OF A MATE S ometimes, if w e ' r e not c o n s c i o u s o f our own R e s i s t a n c e , w e ' l l p i c k as a m a t e s o m e o n e who has or is successfully overcoming Resistance. I'm not sure why. Maybe it's easier to endow our partner with the power that we in fact possess but are afraid to act upon. Maybe it's less threatening to believe that our beloved spouse is worthy to live out his or her unlived life, while we are not. Or maybe we're hoping to use our mate as a model. Maybe we believe (or wish we could) that some of our spouse's power will rub off on us, if we just hang around it long enough. This is how Resistance disfigures love. The stew it creates is rich, it's colorful; Tennessee Williams could work it up into a trilogy. But is it love? If we're the supporting partner, shouldn't we face our own failure to pursue our unlived life, rather than hitchhike on our spouse's coattails? And if we're the supported partner, shouldn't we step out from the glow of our loved one's adoration and instead encourage him to let his own light shine? STEVEN PRESSFIELD 2 9 RESISTANCE AND THIS BOOK W hen I began this book, Resistance almost beat me. This is the form it took. It told me (the voice in my head) that I was a writer of fiction, not nonfiction, and that I shouldn't be exposing these concepts of Resistance literally and overtly; rather, I should incorporate them metaphorically into a novel. That's a pretty damn subtle and convincing argument. The rationalization Resistance presented me with was that I should write, say, a war piece in which the principles of Resistance were expressed as the fear a warrior feels. Resistance also told me I shouldn't seek to instruct, or put myself forward as a purveyor of wisdom; that this was vain, egotistical, possibly even corrupt, and that it would work harm to me in the end. That scared me. It made a lot of sense. What finally convinced me to go ahead was simply that I was so unhappy not g o i n g ahead. I was developing s y m p t o m s . As soon as I sat down and b e g a n , I was okay. 30 T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND UNHAPPINESS What does Resistance feel like? First, unhappiness. We feel like hell. A low-grade misery pervades everything. We're bored, we're restless. We can't get no satisfaction. There's guilt but we can't put our finger on the s o u r c e . We want to go back to bed; we want to get u p a n d p a r t y . W e feel u n l o v e d a n d u n l o v a b l e . W e ' r e d i s g u s t e d . We hate our lives. We hate ourselves. Unalleviated, Resistance mounts to a pitch that becomes unendurable. At this point vices kick in. D o p e , adultery, web s u r f i n g . Beyond that, Resistance becomes clinical. Depression, aggression, dysfunction. Then actual crime and physical self-destruction. Sounds like life, I know. It isn't. It's Resistance. What makes it tricky is that we live in a consumer culture that's acutely aware of this unhappiness and has massed all its profit-seeking artillery to exploit it. By selling us a product, a drug, a distraction. John Lennon once wrote: STEVEN PRESSFIELD 31 Well, you think you're so clever and classless and free But you're all fucking peasants As far as I can see As artists and professionals it is our obligation to enact our own internal revolution, a private insurrection inside our own skulls. In this uprising we free ourselves from the tyranny of consumer culture. We overthrow the programming of advertising, movies, video games, magazines, T V , and M T V by which we have been hypnotized from the cradle. We unplug ourselves from the grid by r e c o g n i z i n g that we will never cure our restlessness by contributing our d i s p o s a b l e income to the b o t t o m line of Bullshit, Inc., but only by d o i n g our w o r k . T H E WAR OF ART RESISTANCE AND FUNDAMENTALISM T he artist and the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t b o t h confront the s a m e i s s u e , the m y s t e r y o f their e x i s t e n c e a s individuals. E a c h asks the s a m e questions: W h o am I? W h y am I here? What is the m e a n i n g of my life? At more primitive stages of evolution, humanity didn't have to deal with such questions. In the states of savagery, of barbarism, in nomadic culture, medieval society, in the tribe and the clan, one's position was fixed by the commandments of the community. It was only with the advent of modernity (starting with the ancient Greeks), with the birth of freedom and of the individual, that such matters ascended to the fore. These are not easy questions. Who am I? Why am I here? They're not easy because the human being isn't wired to function as an individual. We're wired tribally, to act as part of a group. Our psyches are programmed by millions of years of hunter-gatherer evolution. We know what the clan i s ; we k n o w how to fit into the band and the tribe. What we d o n ' t know is how to be a l o n e . We don't know how to be free individuals. The artist and the fundamentalist arise from societies at differing stages of development. The artist is the advanced STEVEN PRESSFIELD model. His culture possesses affluence, stability, enough excess of resource to permit the luxury of self-examination. The artist is grounded in freedom. He is not afraid of it. He is lucky. He was born in the right place. He has a core of selfconfidence, of hope for the future. He believes in progress and evolution. His faith is that humankind is advancing, however haltingly and imperfectly, toward a better world. The fundamentalist entertains no such notion. In his view, humanity has fallen from a higher state. T h e truth is not out there awaiting revelation; it has already been revealed. The word of God has been spoken and recorded by His prophet, be he Jesus, Muhammad, or Karl Marx. Fundamentalism is the philosophy of the powerless, the conquered, the displaced and the dispossessed. Its spawning ground is the wreckage of political and military defeat, as Hebrew fundamentalism arose during the Babylonian captivity, as white Christian fundamentalism appeared in the American South during Reconstruction, as the notion of the Master Race evolved in Germany following World War I. In such desperate times, the vanquished race would perish without a doctrine that restored hope and pride. Islamic fundamentalism ascends from the same landscape of despair and possesses the same tremendous and potent appeal. What exactly is this despair? It is the despair of freedom. The dislocation and emasculation experienced by the individual cut free from the familiar and comforting structures of 34 T H E W A R OF A R T the tribe and the clan, the village and the family. It is the state of modern life. The fundamentalist (or, more accurately, the beleaguered individual who comes to embrace fundamentalism) cannot stand freedom. He cannot find his way into the future, so he retreats to the past. He returns in imagination to the glory d a y s of his race and s e e k s to reconstitute both them and himself in their purer, more virtuous light. He gets back to basics. To fundamentals. Fundamentalism and art are mutually exclusive. There is no such thing as fundamentalist art. This does not mean that the fundamentalist is not creative. Rather, his creativity is inverted. He creates destruction. Even the structures he b u i l d s , his s c h o o l s and networks of o r g a n i z a t i o n , are dedicated to annihilation, of his enemies and of himself. But the fundamentalist reserves his greatest creativity for the fashioning of Satan, the image of his foe, in opposition to which he defines and gives meaning to his own life. Like the a r t i s t , the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t e x p e r i e n c e s R e s i s t a n c e . H e e x p e r i e n c e s it as t e m p t a t i o n to sin. R e s i s t a n c e to the fundamentalist is the call of the Evil One, seeking to seduce him from his virtue. The fundamentalist is consumed with Satan, whom he loves as he loves death. Is it coincidence that the suicide bombers of the World Trade Center frequented strip clubs during their training, or that they conceived of their reward as a squadron of virgin brides and the license to STEVEN PRESSFIELD 35 ravish them in the fleshpots of heaven? The fundamentalist hates and fears women because he sees them as vessels of Satan, temptresses like D e l i l a h who seduced S a m s o n from his power. To combat the call of sin, i.e., Resistance, the fundamentalist plunges either into action or into the study of sacred texts. He loses himself in these, much as the artist does in the process of creation. T h e difference is that while the one looks forward, hoping to create a better world, the other looks backward, seeking to return to a purer world from which he and all have fallen. T h e h u m a n i s t b e l i e v e s that h u m a n k i n d , a s indiv i d u a l s , is called upon to co-create the world with G o d . T h i s is why he v a l u e s human life so highly. In his view, t h i n g s do p r o g r e s s , life d o e s e v o l v e ; each individual has v a l u e , at least potentially, in advancing this cause. T h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t cannot c o n c e i v e of this. In his society, dissent is not just crime but a p o s t a s y ; it is heresy, t r a n s g r e s s i o n against G o d Himself. When fundamentalism wins, the world enters a dark age. Yet still I can't condemn one who is drawn to this philosophy. I consider my own inner journey, the advantages I've had of education, affluence, family support, health, and the blind good luck to be born American, and still I have learned to exist as an autonomous individual, if indeed I have, only by a whisker, and at a cost I would hate to have to reckon up. T H E W A R OF A R T It may be that the human race is not ready for freedom. T h e air of liberty may be too rarefied for us to breathe. Certainly I wouldn't be writing this book, on this subject, if living with freedom were easy. T h e paradox seems to be, as Socrates demonstrated long ago, that the truly free individual is free only to the extent of his own self-mastery. While those who will not g o v e r n t h e m s e l v e s are c o n d e m n e d to find masters to govern over them. STEVEN PRESSFIELD RESISTANCE AND CRITICISM I f you find y o u r s e l f criticizing other p e o p l e , y o u ' r e probably doing it out of Resistance. When we see others beginning to live their authentic selves, it drives us crazy if we have not lived out our own. Individuals who are realized in their own lives almost never criticize o t h e r s . If they s p e a k at all, it is to offer encouragement. Watch yourself. Of all the manifestations o f R e s i s t a n c e , most only harm o u r s e l v e s . C r i t i c i s m and cruelty h a r m others as well. T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND SELF-DOUBT S elf-doubt can be an ally. T h i s is b e c a u s e it s e r v e s as a n i n d i c a t o r o f a s p i r a t i o n . I t reflects l o v e , l o v e o f something we dream of doing, and desire, desire to do it. If you find yourself asking yourself (and your friends), "Am I really a writer? Am I really an artist?" chances are you are. T h e counterfeit innovator is wildly self-confident. T h e real one is scared to death. STEVEN PRESSFIELD RESISTANCE AND FEAR Are you paralyzed with fear? T h a t ' s a good sign. Fear is good. Like self-doubt, fear is an indicator. Fear tells us what we have to do. R e m e m b e r our rule of thumb: T h e m o r e scared we are of a work or calling, the m o r e sure we can be that we have to do it. Resistance is experienced as fear; the degree of fear equates to the strength of Resistance. Therefore the more fear we feel about a specific enterprise, the more certain we can be that that enterprise is important to us and to the growth of our soul. That's why we feel so much Resistance. If it meant nothing to us, there'd be no Resistance. H a v e y o u e v e r w a t c h e d Inside the Actors Studio? The host, James Lipton, invariably asks his guests, "What factors make you decide to take a particular r o l e ? " The actor always answers: "Because I'm afraid of it." The professional tackles the project that will make him stretch. He takes on the assignment that will bear him into uncharted waters, compel him to explore unconscious parts of himself. T H E W A R OF A R T Is he scared? Hell, yes. H e ' s petrified. (Conversely, the professional turns down roles that he's done before. H e ' s not afraid of them anymore. Why waste his time?) So if you're paralyzed with fear, it's a good sign. It shows you what you have to do. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 4i RESISTANCE AND LOVE R esistance is directly proportional to love. If you're feeling massive Resistance, the good news is, it means t h e r e ' s tremendous love there too. If you didn't love the project that is terrifying you, you wouldn't feel anything. T h e opposite of love isn't hate; it's indifference. The more Resistance you experience, the more important your unmanifested art/project/enterprise is to you—and the more gratification you will feel when you finally do it. 42 THE WAR O F ART RESISTANCE AND BEING A STAR G randiose fantasies are a symptom of Resistance. T h e y ' r e the sign of an amateur. T h e professional has learned that success, like happiness, comes as a by-product of work. T h e professional concentrates on the work and allows rewards to c o m e or not c o m e , whatever they like. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 43 RESISTANCE AND ISOLATION S ometimes we balk at embarking on an enterprise because we're afraid of being alone. We feel comfortable with the tribe around us; it makes us nervous going off into the woods on our own. Here's the trick: We're never alone. As soon as we step outside the campfire glow, our Muse lights on our shoulder like a butterfly. The act of courage calls forth infallibly that deeper part of ourselves that supports and sustains us. Have you seen interviews with the young John Lennon or Bob D y l a n , when the reporter tries to ask about their p e r s o n a l s e l v e s ? T h e b o y s deflect these q u e r i e s with withering sarcasm. Why? Because Lennon and Dylan know that the part of them that writes the songs is not "them," not the personal self that is of such surpassing fascination to their boneheaded interrogators. Lennon and Dylan also know that the part of themselves that does the writing is too sacred, too precious, too fragile to be redacted into sound bites for the titillation of would-be idolators (who are themselves caught up in their own Resistance). So they put them on and blow them off. It is a commonplace among artists and children at play that 44 T H E W A R OF A R T they're not aware of time or solitude while they're chasing their v i s i o n . T h e h o u r s fly. T h e s c u l p t r e s s and the treeclimbing tyke both look up blinking when Mom calls, "Suppertime!" STEVEN PRESSFIELD 45 RESISTANCE AND ISOLATION, PART TWO F riends sometimes ask, "Don't you get lonely sitting by yourself all d a y ? " At first it seemed odd to hear myself answer No. Then I realized that I was not alone; I was in the book; I was with the characters. I was with my Self. Not only do I not feel alone with my characters; they are more vivid and interesting to me than the people in my real life. If you think about it, the case can't be otherwise. In order for a book (or any project or enterprise) to hold our attention for the length of time it takes to unfold itself, it has to plug into some internal perplexity or passion that is of paramount importance to us. That problem becomes the theme of our work, even if we can't at the start understand or articulate it. As the characters arise, each e m b o d i e s infallibly an aspect of that dilemma, that perplexity. These characters might not be interesting to anyone else but t h e y ' r e a b s o l u t e l y f a s c i n a t i n g t o us. T h e y are u s . Meaner, smarter, sexier v e r s i o n s of o u r s e l v e s . I t ' s fun to be with them b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e wrestling with the s a m e i s s u e that has its h o o k s into u s . T h e y ' r e our soul m a t e s , our l o v e r s , our best friends. E v e n the v i l l a i n s . E s p e c i a l l y the villains. T H E W A R OF A R T Even in a book like this, which has no characters, I don't feel alone because I'm imagining the reader, whom I conjure as an aspiring artist much like my own younger, less grizzled self, to whom I hope to impart a little starch and inspiration and prime, a little, with some hard-knocks wisdom and a few tricks of the trade. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 47 RESISTANCE AND HEALING H ave you ever spent time in Santa F e ? T h e r e ' s a s u b c u l t u r e o f " h e a l i n g " t h e r e . T h e i d e a i s that t h e r e ' s s o m e t h i n g t h e r a p e u t i c i n the a t m o s p h e r e . A safe p l a c e to go and get y o u r s e l f together. T h e r e are o t h e r p l a c e s (Santa B a r b a r a and O j a i , C a l i f o r n i a , c o m e t o mind), u s u a l l y p o p u l a t e d b y u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s p e o p l e with m o r e time and m o n e y than they know what to do with, in which a culture of healing also o b t a i n s . T h e concept in all t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t s s e e m s to be that o n e n e e d s to complete his healing before he is ready to do his work. This way of thinking (are you ahead of m e ? ) is a form of Resistance. What are we trying to heal, anyway? The athlete knows the day will never come when he wakes up pain-free. He has to play hurt. Remember, the part of us that we imagine needs healing is not the part we create from; that part is far deeper and s t r o n g e r . T h e part we create from can't be t o u c h e d by a n y t h i n g o u r p a r e n t s d i d , o r s o c i e t y d i d . T h a t part i s u n s u l l i e d , u n c o r r u p t e d ; s o u n d p r o o f , w a t e r p r o o f , and T H E W A R OF A R T b u l l e t p r o o f . In fact, the m o r e t r o u b l e s w e ' v e g o t , the better and richer that part becomes. The part that needs healing is our personal life. Personal life has nothing to do with work. Besides, what better way of healing than to find our center of self-sovereignty? Isn't that the whole point of healing? I washed up in New York a couple of decades ago, making twenty bucks a night driving a cab and running away fulltime from doing my work. One night, alone in my $110-amonth sublet, I hit bottom in terms of having diverted myself into so many phony channels so many times that I couldn't rationalize it for one more evening. I dragged out my ancient Smith-Corona, dreading the experience as pointless, fruitless, meaningless, not to say the most painful exercise I could think of. For two hours I made myself sit there, torturing out some trash that I chucked immediately into the shitcan. That was enough. I put the machine away. I went back to the kitchen. In the sink sat ten days of dishes. For some reason I had enough excess energy that I decided to wash them. The warm water felt pretty good. The soap and sponge were doing their thing. A pile of clean plates began rising in the drying rack. To my amazement I realized I was whistling. It hit me that I had turned a corner. I was okay. I would be okay from here on. Do you understand? I hadn't written anything good. It STEVEN PRESSFIELD might be years before I would, if I ever did at all. T h a t didn't matter. What counted was that I had, after y e a r s of running from it, actually sat down and done my work. Don't get me wrong. I've got nothing against true healing. We all need it. But it has nothing to do with doing our work and it can be a colossal exercise in Resistance. Resistance loves "healing." Resistance knows that the more psychic e n e r g y we expend d r e d g i n g and r e - d r e d g i n g the tired, b o r i n g injustices of our p e r s o n a l l i v e s , the less j u i c e we have to do our w o r k . T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND SUPPORT H ave you ever been to a workshop? These boondoggles are colleges of Resistance. They ought to give out Ph.D.'s in Resistance. What better way of avoiding work than g o i n g to a workshop? But what I hate even worse is the word support. S e e k i n g s u p p o r t from friends and family is like h a v i n g your p e o p l e g a t h e r e d a r o u n d at your d e a t h b e d . I t ' s nice, but when the ship s a i l s , all they can do is stand on the d o c k w a v i n g g o o d b y e . A n y support we get from p e r s o n s of flesh and b l o o d is like M o n o p o l y m o n e y ; it's not legal tender in that sphere where we have to do our work. In fact, the more energy we spend stoking up on support from c o l l e a g u e s and loved ones, the weaker we b e c o m e and the less capable of handling our b u s i n e s s . My friend Carol had the following dream, at a time when her life felt like it was careening out of control: She was a p a s s e n g e r on a b u s . B r u c e S p r i n g s t e e n was driving. Suddenly Springsteen pulled over, handed Carol the keys, and bolted. In the dream Carol was panicking. How could she drive this huge rolling Greyhound? By now all the STEVEN PRESSFIELD 51 passengers were staring. Clearly no one else was gonna step forward and take charge. Carol took the wheel. To her amazement, she found she could handle it. Later, analyzing the dream, she figured Bruce Springsteen was "The Boss." The boss of her psyche. The bus was the vehicle of her life. T h e Boss was telling Carol it was time to take the wheel. More than that, the dream, by actually setting her down in the driver's seat and letting her feel that she could control the vehicle on the road, was providing her with a simulator run, to prime her with the confidence that she could actually take command in her life. A dream like that is real support. It's a check you can cash when you sit down, alone, to do your work. P.S. When your deeper Self delivers a dream like that, don't talk about it. Don't dilute its power. The dream is for you. It's between you and your Muse. Shut up and use it. The only exception is, you may share it with another comrade-in-arms, if sharing it will help or encourage that comrade in his or her own endeavors. 52 T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND RATIONALIZATION R ationalization is Resistance's right-hand man. Its job is to keep us from feeling the shame we would feel if we truly faced what cowards we are for not doing our work. MICHAEL D o n ' t knock r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . Where would we be w i t h o u t i t ? I d o n ' t know anyone who can g e t through t h e day w i t h o u t two o r t h r e e j u i c y r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s . T h e y ' r e more important than s e x . SAM Aw, come on! N o t h i n g ' s more important than s e x . MICHAEL Oh yeah? Have you e v e r gone a week without a rationalization? — J e f f Goldblum and Tom Berenger, in Lawrence Kasdan's The Big Chill STEVEN PRESSFIELD But rationalization has its own sidekick. It's that part of our psyche that actually believes what rationalization tells us. It's one thing to lie to ourselves. It's another thing to believe it. 54 T H E W A R OF A R T RESISTANCE AND RATIONALIZATION, PART TWO R esistance is fear. But Resistance is too cunning to show itself naked in this form. Why? Because if Resistance lets us see clearly that our own fear is preventing us from doing our work, we may feel shame at this. And shame may drive us to act in the face of fear. Resistance doesn't want us to do this. So it brings in Rationalization. Rationalization is Resistance's spin doctor. It's Resistance's way of hiding the Big Stick behind its back. Instead of showing us our fear (which might shame us and impel us to do our w o r k ) , Resistance presents us with a series of plausible, rational justifications for why we shouldn't do our work. What's particularly insidious about the rationalizations that Resistance presents to us is that a lot of them are true. They're legitimate. Our wife may really be in her eighth month of pregnancy; she may in truth need us at home. Our department may really be instituting a changeover that will eat up hours of our time. Indeed it may make sense to put off finishing our dissertation, at least till after the baby's born. W h a t R e s i s t a n c e l e a v e s out, of c o u r s e , is that all this m e a n s diddly. T o l s t o y had thirteen kids and w r o t e STEVEN PRESSFIELD 55 War and Peace. Lance Armstrong had cancer and won the Tour de France three years and counting. 56 T H E W A R OF A R T R E S I S T A N C E CAN BE BEATEN I f Resistance couldn't be beaten, there would be no Fifth Symphony, no Romeo and Juliet, no Golden Gate Bridge. Defeating Resistance is like giving birth. It seems absolutely impossible until you remember that women have been pulling it off successfully, with support and without, for fifty million years. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 57 BOOK TWO COMBATING RESISTANCE Turning Pro It is one thing to study w a r and another to live the w a r r i o r ' s life. —Telamon of Arcadia, m e r c e n a r y o f the fifth century B . C . PROFESSIONALS AND AMATEURS A spiring artists defeated by Resistance share one trait. They all think like amateurs. They have not yet turned pro. The moment an artist turns pro is as epochal as the birth of his first child. With one stroke, everything changes. I can state absolutely that the term of my life can be divided into two parts: before turning pro, and after. To be clear: When I say professional, I don't mean doctors and lawyers, those of "the professions." I mean the Professional as an ideal. The professional in contrast to the amateur. Consider the differences. The amateur plays for fun. The professional plays for keeps. To the amateur, the game is his avocation. To the pro it's his vocation. T h e amateur plays part-time, the professional full-time. The amateur is a weekend warrior. The professional is there seven days a week. The word amateur comes from the Latin root meaning "to love." The conventional interpretation is that the amateur pursues his calling out of love, while the pro does it for 62 T H E W A R OF A R T money. Not the way I see it. In my view, the amateur does not love the game enough. If he did, he would not pursue it as a sideline, distinct from his "real" vocation. The professional loves it so much he dedicates his life to it. He commits full-time. That's what I mean when I say turning pro. Resistance hates it when we turn pro. STEVEN PRESSFIELD A PROFESSIONAL S omeone once asked Somerset Maugham if he wrote on a schedule or only when struck by inspiration. "I write only when inspiration strikes," he replied. "Fortunately it strikes every morning at nine o'clock sharp." T h a t ' s a pro. In terms of Resistance, Maugham was saying, "I despise R e s i s t a n c e ; I will not let it faze m e ; I will sit down and do my w o r k . " M a u g h a m r e c k o n e d a n o t h e r , d e e p e r truth: that b y performing the mundane physical act of sitting down and starting to work, he set in motion a mysterious but infallible sequence of events that would produce inspiration, as surely as if the g o d d e s s had synchronized her watch with his. He knew if he built it, she would come. T H E W A R OF A R T W H A T A W R I T E R ' S DAY F E E L S L I K E I wake up with a gnawing sensation of dissatisfaction. Already I feel fear. Already the loved ones around me are starting to fade. I interact. I'm present. But I'm not. I'm not thinking about the work. I've already consigned that to the Muse. What I am aware of is Resistance. I feel it in my guts. I afford it the utmost respect, because I know it can defeat me on any given day as easily as the need for a drink can o v e r c o m e an alcoholic. I go through the chores, the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , the o b l i g a t i o n s of daily life. A g a i n I ' m there but not really. T h e clock is running in my head; I know I can i n d u l g e in daily crap for a little while, but I must cut it off when the bell r i n g s . I'm keenly aware of the Principle of Priority, which states (a) you must know the difference between what is urgent and what is important, and (b) you must do what's important first. What's important is the work. That's the game I have to suit up for. T h a t ' s the field on which I have to leave everything I've got. Do I really believe that my work is crucial to the planet's survival? Of course not. But it's as important to me as STEVEN PRESSFIELD 65 catching that mouse is to the hawk circling outside my window. H e ' s hungry. He needs a kill. So do I. I'm done with my chores now. It's time. I say my prayer and head out on the hunt. The sun isn't up yet; it's cold; the fields are sopping. Brambles scratch my ankles, branches snap back in my face. The hill is a sonofabitch but what can you do? Set one foot in front of another and keep climbing. An hour passes. I'm warmer now, the pace has got my blood going. The years have taught me one skill: how to be miserable. I know how to shut up and keep humping. This is a great asset because it's human, the proper role for a mortal. It d o e s not offend the g o d s , but elicits their intercession. My bitching self is receding now. T h e instincts are taking over. Another hour passes. I turn the corner of a thicket and there he is: the nice fat hare I knew w o u l d s h o w up if I just kept p l u g g i n g . Home from the hill, I thank the immortals and offer up their portion of the kill. They brought it to me; they deserve their share. I am grateful. I joke with my kids beside the fire. They're happy; the old man has brought home the bacon. The old lady's happy; she's cooking it up. I'm happy; I've earned my keep on the planet, at least for this day. Resistance is not a factor now. I don't think of the hunt and I don't think of the office. T h e tension drains from my 66 T H E W A R OF A R T neck and back. What I feel and say and do this night will not be coming from any disowned or unresolved part of me, any part corrupted by Resistance. I go to sleep content, but my final thought is of R e s i s t a n c e . I will wake up with it t o m o r r o w . A l r e a d y I am s t e e l i n g myself. STEVEN PRESSFIELD HOW T O B E M I S E R A B L E I n my younger days dodging the draft, I somehow wound up in the Marine Corps. There's a myth that Marine training turns baby-faced recruits into bloodthirsty killers. Trust me, the Marine Corps is not that efficient. What it does teach, however, is a lot more useful. T h e Marine C o r p s teaches you how to be miserable. T h i s is invaluable for an artist. Marines love to be miserable. Marines derive a perverse satisfaction in having colder chow, crappier equipment, and higher c a s u a l t y rates than any outfit of d o g f a c e s , s w a b jockeys, or flyboys, all of whom they despise. Why? Because these candy-asses don't know how to be miserable. T h e artist committing himself to his calling has v o l unteered for hell, whether he knows it or not. He will be dining for the duration on a diet of isolation, rejection, self-doubt, despair, ridicule, contempt, and humiliation. The artist must be like that Marine. He has to know how to be miserable. He has to love being miserable. He has to take pride in being more miserable than any soldier or swabbie or jet jockey. Because this is war, baby. And war is hell. 68 T H E W A R OF A R T WE'RE ALL PROS ALREADY All of us are pros in one area: our jobs. We get a paycheck. We work for money. We are professionals. Now: Are there principles we can take from what we're already successfully doing in our workaday life and apply to our artistic aspirations? What exactly are the qualities that define us as professionals? 1) We show up every day. We might do it only because we have to, to keep from getting fired. But we do it. We show up every day. 2) We show up no matter what. In sickness and in health, come hell or high water, we stagger in to the factory. We might do it only so as not to let down our co-workers, or for other, less noble reasons. But we do it. We show up no matter what. 3) We stay on the job all day. Our minds may wander, but our bodies remain at the wheel. We pick up the phone when it rings, we assist the customer when he seeks our help. We don't go home till the whistle blows. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 4) We are committed over the long haul. Next year we may go to another job, another company, another country. But we'll still be working. Until we hit the lottery, we are part of the labor force. 5) The stakes for us are high and real. T h i s is about survival, feeding our families, educating our children. It's about eating. 6) We accept remuneration for our labor. We're not here for fun. We work for money. 7) We do not overidentify with our jobs. We may take pride in our work, we may stay late and c o m e in on weekends, but we recognize that we are not our job descriptions. T h e amateur, on the other hand, overidentifies with his a v o c a t i o n , his artistic aspiration. He defines himself by it. He is a musician, a painter, a p l a y w r i g h t . R e s i s t a n c e l o v e s this. R e s i s t a n c e k n o w s that the amateur c o m p o s e r will never write his s y m p h o n y b e c a u s e he is overly invested in its s u c c e s s and overterrified of its failure. T h e amateur takes it so s e r i o u s l y it p a r a l y z e s him. 8) We master the technique of our jobs. 9) We have a sense of humor about our jobs. 10) We receive praise or blame in the real world. T H E W A R OF A R T N o w consider the amateur: the aspiring painter, the wannabe playwright. H o w does he pursue his calling? O n e , he d o e s n ' t show up every day. Two, he d o e s n ' t show up no matter what. T h r e e , he d o e s n ' t stay on the job all day. He is not committed over the l o n g haul; the stakes for him are illusory and fake. He d o e s not get money. A n d he overidentifies with his art. He d o e s not have a sense of humor about failure. You don't hear him bitching, " T h i s fucking trilogy is killing m e ! " Instead, he d o e s n ' t write his trilogy at all. The amateur has not mastered the technique of his art. Nor does he expose himself to judgment in the real world. If we show our poem to our friend and our friend says, "It's wonderful, I love it," that's not real-world feedback, that's our friend b e i n g nice to u s . N o t h i n g is as e m p o w e r i n g as real-world validation, even if it's for failure. T h e first p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t i n g j o b I ever h a d , after seventeen years of trying, was on a movie called King Kong Lives. I and my partner-at-the-time, Ron Shusett (a brilliant writer and producer who also did Alien and Total Recall) hammered out the screenplay for Dino DeLaurentiis. We loved it; we were sure we had a hit. Even after w e ' d seen the finished film, we were certain it w a s a b l o c k b u s t e r . We invited everyone we knew to the premiere, even rented out the joint next d o o r for a p o s t - t r i u m p h b l o w o u t . G e t there early, we warned our friends, the place'11 be mobbed. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 71 Nobody showed. There was only one guy in line beside our guests and he was muttering something about spare c h a n g e . In the theater, our friends endured the m o v i e in mute stupefaction. When the lights came up, they fled like cockroaches into the night. Next day came the review in Variety: " . . . Ronald Shusett and Steven Pressfield; we hope these are not their real names, for their parents' sake." When the first week's grosses came in, the flick barely registered. Still I clung to hope. Maybe it's only tanking in urban areas, maybe it's playing better in the burbs. I motored to an Edge City multiplex. A youth manned the popcorn booth. "How's King Kong Lives?" I asked. He flashed thumbs-down. "Miss it, man. It sucks." I was crushed. Here I was, forty-two years old, divorced, childless, having given up all normal human pursuits to chase the dream of being a writer; now I've finally got my name on a big-time Hollywood production starring Linda Hamilton, and what happens? I'm a loser, a phony; my life is worthless, and so am I. My friend T o n y K e p p e l m a n s n a p p e d me out of it by asking if I was gonna quit. Hell, no! "Then be happy. You're where you wanted to be, aren't you? So you're taking a few blows. That's the price for being in the arena and not on the sidelines. Stop complaining and be grateful." That was when I realized I had become a pro. I had not yet had a success. But I had had a real failure. 72 T H E W A R OF A R T F O R LOVE OF T H E GAME T o clarify a point about p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m : T h e p r o fessional, though he accepts money, does his work out of love. He has to love it. Otherwise he wouldn't devote his life to it of his own free will. The professional has learned, however, that too much love can be a bad thing. T o o much love can make him choke. The seeming detachment of the professional, the cold-blooded character to his demeanor, is a compensating device to keep him from loving the game so much that he freezes in action. Playing for money, or adopting the attitude of one who plays for money, lowers the fever. Remember what we said about fear, love, and Resistance. The more you love your art/calling/enterprise, the more important its accomplishment is to the evolution of your soul, the more you will fear it and the more Resistance you will e x p e r i e n c e f a c i n g it. T h e p a y o f f o f p l a y i n g - t h e game-for-money is not the money (which you may never see anyway, even after you turn pro). The payoff is that playing the g a m e for money p r o d u c e s the p r o p e r p r o f e s s i o n a l STEVEN PRESSFIELD 73 attitude. It inculcates the lunch-pail mentality, the hard-core, hard-head, hard-hat state of mind that shows up for work despite rain or snow or dark of night and s l u g s it out day after day. The writer is an infantryman. He knows that progress is measured in yards of dirt extracted from the enemy one day, one hour, one minute at a time and paid for in blood. The artist wears combat boots. He looks in the mirror and sees GI J o e . Remember, the Muse favors working stiffs. She hates prima donnas. To the gods the supreme sin is not rape or murder, but pride. To think of yourself as a mercenary, a gun for hire, implants the proper humility. It purges pride and preciousness. R e s i s t a n c e l o v e s p r i d e and p r e c i o u s n e s s . R e s i s t a n c e s a y s , " S h o w me a writer w h o ' s too g o o d to take J o b X or A s s i g n m e n t Y and I'll show y o u a g u y I can c r a c k like a w a l n u t . " Technically, the professional takes money. Technically, the pro plays for pay. But in the end, he does it for love. N o w let's consider: Professional? T H E WAR OF A R T What are the aspects of the A P R O F E S S I O N A L IS P A T I E N T R esistance outwits the amateur with the oldest trick in the book: It uses his own enthusiasm against him. R e s i s t a n c e g e t s us to p l u n g e i n t o a p r o j e c t with an overambitious and unrealistic timetable for its completion. It knows we can't sustain that level of intensity. We will hit the wall. We will crash. The professional, on the other hand, understands delayed gratification. He is the ant, not the grasshopper; the tortoise, not the hare. Have you heard the legend of Sylvester Stallone staying up three nights straight to churn out the screenplay for Rocky? I don't know, it may even be true. But it's the most pernicious species of myth to set before the awakening writer, because it seduces him into believing he can pull off the big score without pain and without persistence. The professional arms himself with patience, not only to give the stars time to align in his career, but to keep himself from flaming out in each individual work. He knows that any job, whether it's a novel or a kitchen remodel, takes twice as long as he thinks and costs twice as much. He accepts that. He recognizes it as reality. The professional steels himself at the start of a project, STEVEN PRESSFIELD 75 reminding himself it is the Iditarod, not the sixty-yard dash. He conserves his energy. He prepares his mind for the long haul. He sustains himself with the knowledge that if he can just keep those huskies mushing, sooner or later the sled will pull in to Nome. 76 T H E WAR OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL SEEKS ORDER W hen I lived in the back of my Chevy van, I had to dig my typewriter out from beneath layers of tire tools, dirty laundry, and moldering paperbacks. My truck was a nest, a hive, a hellhole on wheels whose sleeping surface I had to clear each night just to carve out a foxhole to snooze in. The professional cannot live like that. He is on a mission. He will not tolerate disorder. He eliminates chaos from his world in order to banish it from his mind. He wants the carpet vacuumed and the threshold swept, so the Muse may enter and not soil her gown. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 77 A PROFESSIONAL DEMYSTIFIES A pro views her work as craft, not art. Not because she believes art is devoid of a mystical dimension. On the contrary. She understands that all creative endeavor is holy, but she doesn't dwell on it. She knows if she thinks about that too much, it will p a r a l y z e her. So she concentrates on technique. T h e professional masters how, and l e a v e s what and why to the g o d s . L i k e S o m e r s e t M a u g h a m she doesn't w a i t for i n s p i r a t i o n , s h e a c t s i n the a n t i c i p a t i o n o f its apparition. T h e professional i s acutely aware of the intangibles that go into inspiration. Out of respect for them, she lets them work. She grants them their sphere while she concentrates on hers. T h e sign of the amateur is overglorification of and p r e o c c u p a t i o n with the mystery. T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l shuts up. She d o e s n ' t talk about it. She d o e s her work. T H E WAR OF A R T A P R O F E S S I O N A L A C T S IN T H E FACE OF FEAR T he amateur believes he must first overcome his fear; then he can do his work. T h e professional knows that fear can never be overcome. He knows there is no such thing as a fearless warrior or a dread-free artist. What Henry Fonda does, after puking into the toilet in his dressing room, is to clean up and march out onstage. H e ' s still terrified but he forces h i m s e l f forward in spite of his terror. He k n o w s that once he gets out into the action, his fear will recede and h e ' l l be okay. STEVEN PRESSFIELD A PROFESSIONAL ACCEPTS NO EXCUSES T he amateur, underestimating Resistance's cunning, permits the flu to keep him from his chapters; he believes the serpent's voice in his head that says mailing off that manuscript is more important than doing the day's work. The professional has learned better. He respects R e s i s t a n c e . He k n o w s if he c a v e s in today, no matter how p l a u s i b l e the pretext, h e ' l l be twice as likely to cave in tomorrow. T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w s that R e s i s t a n c e is like a telemarketer; if y o u so much as s a y hello, y o u ' r e finished. T h e pro d o e s n ' t even pick up the p h o n e . He s t a y s at w o r k . T H E W A R OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL PLAYS IT AS IT LAYS M y friend the Hawk and I were playing the first hole at Prestwick in Scotland; the wind was howling out of the left. I started an eight-iron thirty yards to windward, but the gale caught it; I watched in dismay as the ball sailed hard right, hit the green going sideways, and bounded off into the cabbage. "Sonofabitch!" I turned to our caddie. "Did you see the wind take that shot!?" He gave that look that only Scottish caddies can give. "Well, y e ' v e got t' play th' wind now, don't y e ? " T h e professional conducts his business in the real world. Adversity, injustice, bad hops and rotten calls, even good b r e a k s and lucky b o u n c e s all c o m p r i s e the g r o u n d over which the c a m p a i g n must be w a g e d . T h e field is level, the p r o f e s s i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d s , only in heaven. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 8l A P R O F E S S I O N A L IS P R E P A R E D I 'm not talking about craft; that goes without saying. T h e professional is prepared at a deeper level. He is prepared, each day, to confront his own self-sabotage. T h e professional understands that Resistance is fertile and ingenious. It will throw stuff at him that he's never seen before. T h e professional prepares mentally to absorb blows and to deliver them. His aim is to take what the day gives him. He is prepared to be prudent and prepared to be reckless, to take a beating when he has to, and to go for the throat when he can. He understands that the field alters every day. His goal is not victory (success will come by itself when it wants to) but to handle himself, his insides, as sturdily and steadily as he can. 82 T H E W A R OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL DOES NOT SHOW OFF A professional's work has style; it is distinctively his own. But he doesn't let his signature grandstand for him. His style serves the material. He does not impose it as a means of drawing attention to himself. This doesn't mean that the professional doesn't throw down a 360 tomahawk jam from time to time, just to let the boys know he's still in business. STEVEN PRESSFIELD A PROFESSIONAL DEDICATES HIMSELF TO MASTERING TECHNIQUE T he p r o f e s s i o n a l respects his craft. He d o e s not consider himself superior to it. He r e c o g n i z e s the contributions of those who have g o n e before him. He apprentices himself to them. The professional dedicates himself to mastering technique not b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e s technique is a s u b s t i t u t e for i n s p i r a t i o n b u t b e c a u s e h e w a n t s t o b e i n p o s s e s s i o n o f the full a r s e n a l o f s k i l l s w h e n i n s p i r a t i o n does c o m e . T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l is sly. He knows that by toiling b e s i d e the front d o o r of techn i q u e , he l e a v e s r o o m for g e n i u s to enter by the b a c k . T H E WAR OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL DOES NOT HESITATE TO ASK FOR HELP T iger Woods is the greatest golfer in the world. Yet he has a teacher; he works with Butch Harmon. And Tiger doesn't endure this instruction or suffer through it—he revels in it. It's his keenest professional joy to get out there on the practice tee with Butch, to learn m o r e about the g a m e he l o v e s . Tiger Woods is the consummate professional. It would never occur to him, as it would to an amateur, that he knows everything, or can figure everything out on his own. On the contrary, he seeks out the most knowledgeable teacher and listens with both ears. T h e student of the game knows that the levels of revelation that can unfold in golf, as in any art, are inexhaustible. STEVEN PRESSFIELD A PROFESSIONAL DISTANCES HERSELF FROM HER I N S T R U M E N T T he pro stands at one remove from her instrument— meaning her person, her body, her voice, her talent; the physical, mental, emotional, and psychological being she uses in her work. She does not identify with this instrument. It is simply what God gave her, what she has to work with. She assesses it coolly, impersonally, objectively. The professional identifies with her consciousness and her will, not with the matter that her consciousness and will manipulate to serve her art. D o e s Madonna walk around the house in cone bras and come-fuck-me bustiers? She's too busy planning D - D a y . Madonna does not identify with "Madonna." Madonna employs "Madonna." 86 T H E WAR OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL DOES NOT TAKE FAILURE (OR S U C C E S S ) PERSONALLY W hen people say an artist has a thick skin, what they mean is not that the person is dense or numb, but that he has seated his professional c o n s c i o u s ness in a place other than his personal ego. It takes tremendous strength o f c h a r a c t e r t o d o t h i s , b e c a u s e o u r d e e p e s t i n s t i n c t s run counter to it. Evolution has p r o g r a m m e d us to feel rejection in our guts. T h i s is how the tribe enforced obedience, by wielding the threat of expulsion. Fear of rejection isn't just psychological; it's b i o l o g i c a l . It's in our cells. Resistance knows this and uses it against us. It uses fear of rejection to paralyze us and prevent us, if not from d o i n g our work, then from exposing it to public evaluation. I had a dear friend who had labored for years on an excellent and deeply personal novel. It was done. H e h a d i t i n its m a i l i n g b o x . B u t h e c o u l d n ' t m a k e himself send it off. Fear of rejection unmanned him. T h e professional cannot take rejection p e r s o n a l l y because to do so reinforces Resistance. Editors are not the enemy; critics are not the enemy. Resistance is the enemy. T h e battle is inside our own heads. We cannot let STEVEN PRESSFIELD external criticism, even if it's true, fortify our internal foe. T h a t foe is strong enough already. A professional schools herself to stand apart from her performance, even as she gives herself to it heart and soul. The Bhagavad-Gita tells us we have a right only to our labor, not to the fruits of our labor. All the warrior can give is his life; all the athlete can do is leave everything on the field. The professional loves her work. She is invested in it wholeheartedly. But she does not forget that the work is not her. Her artistic self contains many works and many performances. Already the next is percolating inside her. The next will be better, and the one after that better still. The professional self-validates. She is tough-minded. In the face of indifference or adulation, she assesses her stuff coldly and objectively. Where it fell short, she'll improve it. Where it triumphed, she'll make it better still. She'll work harder. She'll be back tomorrow. The professional gives an ear to criticism, seeking to learn and grow. But she never forgets that R e s i s t a n c e is u s i n g criticism against her on a far more diabolical level. Resistance enlists criticism to reinforce the fifth column of fear already at work inside the artist's head, seeking to break her will and crack her dedication. The professional does not fall for this. Her resolution, before all others, remains: No matter what, I will never let Resistance beat m e . 88 T H E W A R OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL ENDURES ADVERSITY I had been in Tinseltown five years, had finished nine screenplays on spec, none of which had sold. Finally I got a meeting with a big producer. He kept taking phone calls, even as I pitched my stuff. He had one of those headset things, so he didn't even have to pick up a receiver; the calls c a m e in and he t o o k them. F i n a l l y one c a m e that w a s personal. "Would you mind?" he asked, indicating the door. "I need some privacy on this one." I exited. The door closed behind me. Ten minutes passed. I was standing out by the s e c r e t a r i e s . T w e n t y m o r e m i n u t e s p a s s e d . F i n a l l y the producer's door opened; he came out pulling on his jacket. " O h , I'm so sorry!" He had forgotten all about me. I'm human. This hurt. I wasn't a kid either; I was in my forties, with a rap sheet of failure as long as your arm. T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l cannot let himself take humiliation personally. Humiliation, like rejection and criticism, is the external reflection of internal Resistance. T h e professional endures adversity. He lets the birdshit splash down on his slicker, remembering that it comes clean with a heavy-duty hosing. He himself, his creative center, STEVEN PRESSFIELD cannot be buried, even beneath a mountain of guano. His core is bulletproof. Nothing can touch it unless he lets it. I saw a fat happy old g u y once in his C a d i l l a c on the freeway. He had the A / C going, Pointer Sisters on the C D , puffing on a stogie. His license plate: DUES PD The professional keeps his eye on the doughnut and not on the hole. He reminds himself it's better to be in the arena, getting stomped by the bull, than to be up in the stands or out in the parking lot. T H E W A R OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL SELF-VALIDATES A to n amateur lets the negative opinion of others unman him. He takes external criticism to heart, allowing it trump his own belief in himself and his work. Can you stand another Tiger Woods story? With four Resistance loves this. holes to go on the final day of the 2001 Masters (which Tiger went on to win, completing the all-four-majors-at-one-time Slam), some chucklehead in the gallery snapped a camera shutter at the top of Tiger's backswing. Incredibly, Tiger was able to pull up in mid-swing and back off the shot. But that wasn't the amazing part. After looking daggers at the malefactor, Tiger recomposed himself, stepped back to the ball, and striped it 310 down the middle. That's a professional. It is tough-mindedness at a level most of us can't comprehend, let alone emulate. But let's look more closely at what Tiger did, or rather what he didn't do. First, he didn't react reflexively. He didn't allow an act that by all rights should have provoked an automatic response of rage to actually produce that rage. He controlled his reaction. He governed his emotion. S e c o n d , he didn't take it p e r s o n a l l y . He could have STEVEN PRESSFIELD 91 perceived this shutterbug's act as a deliberate blow aimed at him individually, with the intention of throwing him off his shot. He could have reacted with outrage or indignation or cast himself as a victim. He didn't. Third, he didn't take it as a sign of heaven's malevolence. He could have experienced this bolt as the malice of the golfing gods, like a bad hop in baseball or a linesman's miscall in tennis. He could have groaned or sulked or surrendered mentally to this injustice, this interference, and used it as an excuse to fail. He didn't. What he did do was maintain his sovereignty over the moment. He understood that, no matter what blow had befallen him from an outside agency, he himself still had his job to do, the shot he needed to hit right here, right now. And he knew that it remained within his power to produce that shot. Nothing stood in his way except whatever emotional upset he himself chose to hold on to. Tiger's mother, Kultida, is a Buddhist. Perhaps from her he had learned compassion, to let go of fury at the h e e d l e s s n e s s of an o v e r z e a l o u s shutter-clicker. In any event T i g e r W o o d s , the ultimate professional, vented his anger quickly with a look, then recomposed himself and returned to the task at hand. The professional cannot allow the actions of others to define his reality. Tomorrow morning the critic will be gone, but the writer will still be there facing the blank page. Nothing matters but that he keep working. Short of a family T H E WAR OF ART crisis or the outbreak of World War III, the professional shows up, ready to serve the gods. Remember, Resistance wants us to cede sovereignty to others. It wants us to stake our self-worth, our identity, our reason-for-being, on the response of others to our work. Resistance knows we can't take this. No one can. T h e professional blows critics off. He doesn't even hear them. Critics, he reminds himself, are the unwitting mouthpieces of Resistance and as such can be truly cunning and pernicious. T h e y can articulate in their reviews the same toxic venom that Resistance itself concocts inside our heads. That is their real evil. Not that we believe them, but that we believe the Resistance in our own minds, for which critics serve as unconscious spokespersons. T h e professional learns to recognize envy-driven criticism and to take it for what it is: the supreme compliment. T h e critic hates most that which he would have done himself if he had had the guts. STEVEN PRESSFIELD 93 A PROFESSIONAL R E C O G N I Z E S HER LIMITATIONS S he gets an agent, she gets a lawyer, she gets an accountant. She knows she can only be a professional at one thing. She b r i n g s in other p r o s and treats them with respect. T H E W A R OF A R T A PROFESSIONAL REINVENTS HIMSELF G oldie Hawn once observed that there are only three ages for an actress in Hollywood: "Babe, D.A., and Driving Miss Daisy." She was making a different point, but the truth remains: As artists we serve the Muse, and the Muse may have more than one job for us over our lifetime. The professional does not permit himself to b e c o m e h i d e b o u n d within o n e i n c a r n a t i o n , h o w e v e r comfortable or s u c c e s s f u l . Like a transmigrating s o u l , h e s h u c k s his o u t w o r n b o d y and d o n s a n e w o n e . H e c o n t i n u e s his j o u r n e y . STEVEN PRESSFIELD A P R O F E S S I O N A L IS R E C O G N I Z E D BY OTHER PROFESSIONALS T he professional senses who has served his time and who hasn't. Like Alan Ladd and Jack Palance circling each other in Shane, a gun recognizes another gun. T H E WAR OF A R T YOU, INC W hen I first moved to L o s Angeles and made the acquaintance of working screenwriters, I learned that many had their own corporations. They provided their writing services not as themselves but as "loan-outs" from their one-man businesses. Their writing contracts were f / s / o — " f o r services o f " — t h e m s e l v e s . I had never seen this before. I thought it was pretty cool. For a writer to incorporate himself has certain tax and financial advantages. But what I love about it is the metaphor. I like the idea of being Myself, Inc. That way I can wear two hats. I can hire myself and fire myself. I can even, as Robin Williams once remarked of writer-producers, blow smoke up my own ass. M a k i n g y o u r s e l f a c o r p o r a t i o n ( o r just thinking of yourself in that way) reinforces the idea of professionalism b e c a u s e it s e p a r a t e s the a r t i s t - d o i n g - t h e - w o r k from the will-and-consciousness-running-the-show. No matter how much abuse is heaped on the head of the former, the latter takes it in stride and keeps on trucking. C o n v e r s e l y with success: You-the-writer may get a swelled head, but you-theb o s s remember how to take y o u r s e l f down a p e g . STEVEN PRESSFIELD Have you ever worked in an office? Then you know about Monday morning status meetings. T h e group assembles in the conference room and the boss goes over what assignments each team member is responsible for in the coming week. When the meeting breaks up, an assistant prepares a work sheet and distributes it. When this hits your desk an hour later, you know exactly what you have to do that week. I have one of those meetings with myself every Monday. I sit down and go over my assignments. Then I type it up and distribute it to myself. I have corporate stationery and corporate business cards and a corporate checkbook. I write off corporate expenses and pay corporate taxes. I have different credit cards for myself and my corporation. If we think of ourselves as a corporation, it gives us a healthy distance on ourselves. We're less subjective. We don't take blows as personally. We're more cold-blooded; we can price our wares more realistically. Sometimes, as Joe Blow himself, I'm too mild-mannered to go out and sell. But as Joe Blow, Inc., I can pimp the hell out of myself. I'm not me anymore. I'm Me, Inc. I'm a pro. T H E WAR OF A R T A CRITTER THAT KEEPS COMING W hy does Resistance yield to our turning pro? Because Resistance is a bully. Resistance has no strength of its own; its power derives entirely from our fear of it. A bully will back down before the runtiest twerp who stands his ground. The essence of professionalism is the focus upon the work and its demands, while we are doing it, to the exclusion of all else. The ancient Spartans schooled themselves to regard the enemy, any enemy, as nameless and faceless. In other words, they believed that if they did their work, no force on earth could stand against them. In The Searchers, John Wayne and Jeffrey Hunter pursue the war chief, Scar, who has kidnapped their young kinswoman, played by Natalie Wood. Winter stops them, but Wayne's character, Ethan Edwards, does not slacken his resolve. He'll return to the trail in spring, he declares, and, sooner or later, the fugitive's vigilance will slacken. STEVEN PRESSFIELD ETHAN Seems he n e v e r l e a r n s t h e r e ' s such a t h i n g a s a c r i t t e r t h a t might j u s t keep comin' So w e ' l l find 'em in t h e end, on. I promise you t h a t . Just as sure as the turning of the e a r t h . T h e pro keeps coming on. He beats Resistance at its own game by being even more resolute and even more implacable than it is. IOO T H E WAR OF A R T NO MYSTERY T here's no mystery to turning pro. It's a decision brought about by an act of will. We make up our mind to view ourselves as p r o s and we do it. Simple as that. STEVEN PRESSFIELD IOI BOOK THREE BEYOND RESISTANCE Higher Realm T h e first duty is to s a c r i f i c e to the g o d s and p r a y them to grant y o u the t h o u g h t s , w o r d s , and d e e d s likely t o render y o u r c o m m a n d m o s t p l e a s i n g t o the g o d s and to b r i n g yourself, y o u r friends, and y o u r c i t y the f u l l e s t m e a s u r e o f a f f e c t i o n a n d g l o r y and a d v a n t a g e . —Xenophon, The Cavalry Commander ANGELS IN THE ABSTRACT T he next few chapters are g o i n g to be about those invisible psychic forces that support and sustain us in our journey toward ourselves. I plan on using terms like muses and angels. Does that make you uncomfortable? If it does, you have my permission to think of angels in the abstract. Consider these forces as being impersonal as gravity. Maybe they are. It's not hard to believe, is it, that a force exists in every grain and seed to make it grow? Or that in every kitten or colt is an instinct that impels it to run and play and learn. Just as Resistance can be thought of as personal (I've said Resistance "loves" such-and-such or "hates" such-and-such), it can also be viewed as a force of nature as impersonal as entropy or molecular decay. S i m i l a r l y the call to g r o w t h can be conceptualized as personal (a daimon or genius, an angel or a muse) or as i m p e r s o n a l , like the tides or the t r a n s i t i n g of V e n u s . Either way works, as long as we're comfortable with it. Or if extra-dimensionality doesn't sit well with you in any form, think of it as "talent," p r o g r a m m e d into our genes T H E W A R OF A R T by evolution. T h e point, for the thesis I'm seeking to put forward, is that there are forces we can call our allies. As Resistance works to keep us from becoming who we were born to be, equal and opposite powers are counterpoised against it. These are our allies and angels. STEVEN PRESSFIELD IO7 APPROACHING THE MYSTERY W hy have I stressed professionalism so heavily in the preceding chapters? Because the most important thing about art is to work. Nothing else matters except sitting down every day and trying. Why is this so important? B e c a u s e when we sit down day after day and keep g r i n d i n g , something mysterious starts to happen. A p r o c e s s is set into motion by which, inevitably and infallibly, heaven c o m e s to our aid. Unseen forces enlist in our c a u s e ; serendipity reinforces our p u r p o s e . This is the other secret that real artists know and wannabe writers don't. When we sit down each day and do our work, power concentrates around us. The Muse takes note of our dedication. She approves. We have earned favor in her sight. When we sit down and work, we become like a magnetized rod that attracts iron filings. Ideas come. Insights accrete. Just as Resistance has its seat in hell, so Creation has its home in heaven. And it's not just a witness, but an eager and active ally. What I call P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m s o m e o n e else might call the Artist's C o d e or the Warrior's Way. It's an attitude of T H E W A R OF A R T egolessness and service. T h e Knights of the Round Table were chaste and self-effacing. Yet they dueled dragons. W e ' r e facing dragons too. Fire-breathing griffins of the soul, whom we must outfight and outwit to reach the treasure of our self-in-potential and to release the maiden w h o is G o d ' s plan and destiny for ourselves and the answer to w h y we were put on this planet. STEVEN PRESSFIELD INVOKING THE MUSE T he quote from Xenophon that opens this section comes from a pamphlet called The Cavalry Commander, in which the celebrated warrior and historian proffers instruction to those young gentlemen who aspired to be officers of the Athenian equestrian corps. He declares that the commander's first duty, before he mucks out a stable or seeks funding from the D e f e n s e R e v i e w B o a r d , is to sacrifice to the g o d s and invoke their aid. I do the same thing. The last thing I do before I sit down to work is say my prayer to the Muse. I say it out loud, in absolute earnest. Only then do I get down to business. In my late twenties I rented a little house in Northern California; I had gone there to finish a novel or kill myself trying. By that time I had blown up a marriage to a girl I loved with all my heart, screwed up two careers, blah blah, etc., all because (though I had no understanding of this at the time) I could not handle R e s i s t a n c e . I had one novel nine-tenths of the way through and another at ninety-nine hundredths before I threw them in the trash. I couldn't finish 'em. I didn't have the guts. In yielding thusly to Resistance, I fell prey to e v e r y v i c e , evil, distraction, y o u - n a m e - i t I I O THE WAR O F ART mentioned heretofore, all leading nowhere, and finally washed up in this sleepy California town, with my Chevy van, my cat Mo, and my antique Smith-Corona. A g u y named Paul R i n k lived down the street. L o o k him up, he's in Henry Miller's Big Sur and the Oranges of Hieronymus Bosch. Paul w a s a writer. He lived in his camper, "Moby Dick." I started each day over coffee with Paul. He turned me on to all kinds of authors I had never heard of, lectured me on self-discipline, dedication, the evils of the marketplace. But best of all, he shared with me his prayer, the Invocation of the Muse from Homer's Odyssey, the T. E. Lawrence translation. Paul typed it out for me on his even-more-ancient-than-mine manual Remington. I still have it. It's yellow and parched as dust; the merest puff would blow it to powder. In my little house I had no TV. I never read a newspaper or went to a m o v i e . I just w o r k e d . O n e afternoon I w a s banging away in the little bedroom I had converted to an office, when I heard my neighbor's radio playing outside. Someone in a loud voice was declaiming " . . . to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." I came out. What's going on? "Didn't you hear? Nixon's out; they got a new guy in there." I had missed Watergate completely. I was determined to keep working. I had failed so many times, and caused myself and people I loved so much pain STEVEN PRESSFIELD III thereby, that I felt if I crapped out this time I would have to hang myself. I didn't know what Resistance was then. No one had schooled me in the concept. I felt it though, big-time. I experienced it as a compulsion to self-destruct. I could not finish what I started. T h e closer I got, the more different ways I'd find to screw it up. I worked for twenty-six months straight, taking only two out for a stint of migrant labor in Washington State, and finally one day I got to the last page and typed out: T H E E N D . I never did find a buyer for the book. Or the next one, either. It was ten years before I got the first check for something I had written and ten more before a novel, The Legend of Bagger Vance, was actually published. But that moment when I first hit the keys to spell out T H E E N D was epochal. I remember rolling the last page out and adding it to the stack that was the finished manuscript. N o b o d y knew I was done. N o b o d y cared. But I knew. I felt like a dragon I'd been fighting all my life had just dropped dead at my feet and gasped out its last sulfuric breath. Rest in peace, motherfucker. Next morning I went over to Paul's for coffee and told him I had finished. " G o o d for y o u , " he said without looking up. "Start the next one today." 112 T H E W A R OF A R T INVOKING THE MUSE, PART B TWO e f o r e I met P a u l , I had n e v e r heard of the M u s e s . He enlightened me. T h e Muses were nine sisters, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, which means "memory." Their names are Clio, Erato, Thalia, Terpsichore, Calliope, Polyhymnia, Euterpe, Melpomene, and Urania. Their job is to inspire artists. Each Muse is responsible for a different art. T h e r e ' s a neighborhood in N e w Orleans where the streets are named after the Muses. I lived there once and had no idea; I thought they were just weird names. Here's Socrates, in Plato's Phaedrus, on the "noble effect of heaven-sent madness": The third type of possession and madness is possession by the Muses. When this seizes upon a gentle and virgin soul it rouses it to inspired expression in lyric and other sorts of poetry, and glorifies countless deeds of the heroes of old for the instruction of posterity. But if a man comes to the door of poetry untouched by the madness of the Muses, believing that technique alone will make him a good poet, he and his sane compositions never reach perfection, but are utterly eclipsed by the performances of the inspired madman. STEVEN PRESSFIELD T h e G r e e k way of a p p r e h e n d i n g the m y s t e r y w a s to personify it. T h e ancients sensed powerful primordial forces in the world. To make them approachable, they gave them human faces. T h e y called them Zeus, A p o l l o , Aphrodite. American Indians felt the same mystery but rendered it in animistic forms—Bear Teacher, H a w k Messenger, Coyote Trickster. O u r ancestors were keenly cognizant of forces and energies whose seat was not in this material sphere but in a loftier, more m y s t e r i o u s one. What did they believe about this higher reality? First, they believed that death did not exist there. The gods are immortal. The gods, though not unlike humans, are infinitely more powerful. To defy their will is futile. To act toward heaven with pride is to call down calamity. Time and space display an altered existence in this higher dimension. The gods travel "swift as thought." They can tell the future, some of them, and though the playwright Agathon tells us, This alone is denied to God: the power to undo the past yet the immortals can play tricks with time, as we ourselves may sometimes, in dreams or visions. 114 T H E W A R OF A R T The universe, the Greeks believed, was not indifferent. The gods take an interest in human affairs, and intercede for good or ill in our designs. The contemporary view is that all this is charming but preposterous. Is it? Then answer this. Where did Hamlet come from? Where did the Parthenon come from? Where did Nude Descending a Staircase come from? STEVEN PRESSFIELD T E S T A M E N T OF A V I S I O N A R Y Eternity is in love with the creations of time. - W i l l i a m