Main Elemental Analysis: An Introduction to Modern Spectrometric Techniques

Elemental Analysis: An Introduction to Modern Spectrometric Techniques

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Qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of substance mixtures was a do-
main of the classical wet chemical methods for centuries. Even at the second half of
the 20th century the qualitative and quantitative analytical practicum was the cum-
bersome start into the Chemists´ career.
At about 1950, attractive spectroscopy methods started to appear on the market.
X- ray fluorescence techniques, spark optical emission spectrometers were intro-
duced in many laboratories between 1950 and 1960. Flame atomic absorption spec-
trometry (FAAS) was marketed starting from 1960. In 1970, the graphite furnace
AAS was added. The rapid distribution of optical emission spectrometry (OES)
started with addition of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source to the spec-
trometers in 1975. Elemental analysis was further enhanced with addition of induc-
tively coupled plasma - mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) between 1980 and 1985.
Using spectroscopy and electrochemical analytical methods, trace and ultra-
trace analysis to unimaginably low detection limits became possible. The last 2 dec-
ades of the last century can be denominated as the grand decades of research in
elemental spectrometric determinations. There was hope, to gain all necessary
chemical information through physical methods. Each of the new techniques and
each of the additions to spectrometric methods were promoted to be interference
free and coming close to “absolute analysis”. With intensive use of these methods
in industrial, environmental, medical laboratories, however, it soon became obvi-
ous that there are no interference free methods and there is chemistry involved in
the analytical process. Thus, there is a continuing need for trained analysts to prop-
erly use and extend the capabilities of modern spectrometers. At present, the fully
automatic working machine with artificial intelligence replacing the analytical
chemist is not on the horizon.
Categories: Physics
Year: 2019
Publisher: De Gruyter
Language: english
Pages: 416
ISBN 13: 978-3-11-050107-0
File: PDF, 5.68 MB
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