Main Psychology: Themes and Variations

Psychology: Themes and Variations

PSYCHOLOGY: THEMES AND VARIATIONS, 10th Edition, is a fusion of the full-length and briefer versions that preceded it. The text continues to offer a superb thematic organization together with practical applications and examples that help students see beyond research to big-picture concepts. Often described as a challenging book that is easy to learn from, the book surveys psychology's broad range of content with three aims: to illuminate the process of research and its relationship to application, to show both the unity and diversity of psychology's subject matter, and to help students master the basic concepts and principles of psychology with as little struggle as possible. Weiten's themes provide unifying threads across chapters that help students to see the connections among different research areas in psychology. A dynamic, teaching-oriented illustration program -- including new color-coded Concept Charts -- further enhances these themes. SA
Volume: 10
Year: 2016
Edition: Hardcover
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
Language: english
Pages: 567 / 755
ISBN 10: 1305498208
ISBN 13: 9781305498204
Series: 10
File: PDF, 39.31 MB
Download (pdf, 39.31 MB)
Preview

You may be interested in

 

Most frequently terms

 
 
You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them.
Tap into engagement
MindTap empowers you to produce your best work—consistently.
MindTap is designed to help you master the material. Interactive
videos, animations, and activities create a learning path designed
by your instructor to guide you through the course and focus on
what’s important.

MindTap delivers real-world
activities and assignments
that will help you in your academic life as well as your career.

Flashcards
ReadSpeaker
Progress App
MyNotes
& Highlights

MindTap helps you stay
organized and efficient
by giving you the study tools to master the material.

Self Quizzing
& Practice

MindTap empowers
and motivates
with information that shows where you stand at all times—both
individually and compared to the highest performers in class.

“MindTap was very useful – it was easy to follow and everything
was right there.”
— Student, San Jose State University

“I’m definitely more engaged because of MindTap.”
— Student, University of Central Florida

“MindTap puts practice questions in a format that works well for me.”
— Student, Franciscan University of Steubenville

Tap into more info at: www.cengage.com/mindtap
Source Code: 14M-AA0105

Engaged with you.
www.cengage.com
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

TeNTh ediTioN

PThemes
sychology
and Variations
Wayne Weiten
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial
review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to
remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous
editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by
ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest.
Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the eBook version.

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Psychology: Themes and Variations,
Tenth Edition
Wayne Weiten
Product Director: Jon-David Hague
Product Manager: Clayton Austin
Content Developer: Michelle Newhart
Product Assistant: Kimiya Hojjat
Marketing Manager: Andrew Ginsberg

© 2017, 2014 Cengage Learning
WCN: 02-200-203
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright
herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by
any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to
photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution,
information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except
as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright
Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Content Project Manager: Michelle Clark
Art Director: Vernon Boes
Manufacturing Planner: Karen Hunt
Production Service: Joan Keyes, Dovetail
Publishing Services
Photo and Text Researcher: Lumina Datamatics
Copy Editor: Jude Berman
Illustrator: Graphic World, Inc.

For product information and technology assistance, contact us at
Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706.
For permission to use material from this text or product,
submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions.
Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to
permissionrequest@cengage.com.

Text and Cover Designer: Liz Harasymczuk
Cover Images: Blue door on green background
© digifuture/123RF, Yellow and orange
peaked door © sowari/123RF, Magenta
doors with cross windows © Sergey
Novikov/123RF, Lime green doors
© edomor/Fotolia.com, Bright orange
doors © nuttakit/Shutterstock.com, Blue
door with mail slot © iolab/Shutterstock
.com, Rustic red door © LesPalenik/
Shutterstock.com, Vintage blue doors
with pattern © Chamille White/
Shutterstock.com
Compositor: Graphic World, Inc.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2015943643
Student Edition: ISBN: 978-1-305-49820-4
Loose-leaf Edition: ISBN: 978-1-305-63055-0
Cengage Learning
20 Channel Center Street
Boston, MA 02210
USA
Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions
with employees residing in nearly 40 different countries and sales in more
than 125 countries around the world. Find your local representative at
www.cengage.com.
Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson
Education, Ltd.
To learn more about Cengage Learning Solutions, visit www.cengage.com.
Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred
online store www.cengagebrain.com.

Printed in Canada
Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2015

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Beth and T. J., this one is for you

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

About the Author
Wayne Weiten is a graduate of Bradley University and received his Ph.D. in social
psychology from the University of Illinois, Chicago in 1981. He has taught at the
College of DuPage and Santa Clara University, and currently teaches at the University of
Nevada, Las Vegas. He has received distinguished teaching awards from Division Two
of the American Psychological Association (APA) and from the College of DuPage. He
is a Fellow of Divisions 1, 2, and 8 of the American Psychological Association and a
Fellow of the Midwestern Psychological Association. In 1991, he helped chair the APA
National Conference on Enhancing the Quality of Undergraduate Education in Psychology. He is a former President of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology and the
Rocky Mountain Psychological Association. In 2006, one of the five national teaching
awards given annually by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology was named in his
honor. Weiten has conducted research on a wide range of topics, including educational
measurement, jury decision making, attribution theory, pressure as a form of stress, and
the technology of textbooks. He is also the co-author of Psychology Applied to Modern
Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century (with Dana S. Dunn and Elizabeth Yost Hammer,
Cengage, 2015, 11th ed.). Weiten has created an educational CD-ROM titled PsykTrek:
A Multimedia Introduction to Psychology, and he recently co-authored a chapter on
the Introductory Psychology course for The Oxford Handbook of Psychology Education
(Weiten & Houska, 2015).

iv

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

to the Instructor
If I had to sum up in a single sentence what I hope will distinguish this text, the sentence
would be this: I have set out to create a paradox instead of a compromise.
Let me elaborate. An introductory psychology text must satisfy two disparate
audiences: professors and students. Because of the tension between the divergent needs
and preferences of these audiences, textbook authors usually indicate that they have
attempted to strike a compromise between being theoretical versus practical, comprehensive versus comprehensible, research oriented versus applied, rigorous versus accessible,
and so forth. However, I believe that many of these dichotomies are false. As Kurt Lewin
once remarked, “What could be more practical than a good theory?” Similarly, is rigorous really the opposite of accessible? Not in my dictionary. I maintain that many of the
antagonistic goals that we strive for in our textbooks only seem incompatible and that we
may not need to make compromises as often as we assume.
In my estimation, a good introductory textbook is a paradox in that it integrates characteristics and goals that appear contradictory. With this in mind, I have endeavored to
write a text that is paradoxical in three ways. First, in surveying psychology’s broad range
of content, I have tried to show that our interests are characterized by diversity and unity.
Second, I have emphasized both research and application and how they work in harmony.
Finally, I have aspired to write a book that is challenging to think about and easy to learn
from. Let’s take a closer look at these goals.

Goals
1. To show both the unity and the diversity of psychology’s subject matter. Students
entering an introductory psychology course are often unaware of the immense diversity of subjects studied by psychologists. I find this diversity to be part of psychology’s
charm, and throughout the book I highlight the enormous range of questions and issues addressed by psychology. Of course, our diversity proves disconcerting for some
students, who see little continuity between such disparate areas of research as neuroscience, motivation, cognition, and abnormal behavior. Indeed, in this era of specialization, even some psychologists express concern about the fragmentation of the field.
However, I believe that there is considerable overlap among the subfields of psychology and that we should emphasize their common core by accenting the connections and
similarities among them. Consequently, I portray psychology as an integrated whole
rather than as a mosaic of loosely related parts. A principal goal of this text, then, is to
highlight the unity in psychology’s intellectual heritage (the themes), as well as the diversity of psychology’s interests and uses (the variations).
2. To illuminate the process of research and its intimate link to application. For me, a
research-oriented book is not one that bulges with summaries of many studies but one
that enhances students’ appreciation of the logic and excitement of empirical inquiry.
I want students to appreciate the strengths of the empirical approach and to see scientific psychology as a creative effort to solve intriguing behavioral puzzles. For this reason, the text emphasizes not only what we know (and don’t know) but how we attempt
to find out. It examines methods in some detail and encourages students to adopt the
skeptical attitude of a scientist and to think critically about claims regarding behavior.
Learning the virtues of research should not mean that students cannot also satisfy their
desire for concrete, personally useful information about the challenges of everyday life.
Most researchers believe that psychology has a great deal to offer those outside the field
and that psychologists should share the practical implications of their work. In this text,
practical insights are carefully qualified and closely tied to data, so that students can see
the interdependence of research and application. I find that students come to appreciate
v

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

the science of psychology more when they see that worthwhile practical applications are
derived from careful research and sound theory.
3. To make the text challenging to think about and easy to learn from. Perhaps most of all,
I have sought to create a book of ideas rather than a compendium of studies. I consistently
emphasize concepts and theories over facts, and I focus on major issues and tough questions
that cut across the subfields of psychology (for example, the extent to which behavior is governed by nature, nurture, and their interaction), as opposed to parochial debates (such as the
merits of averaging versus adding in impression formation). Challenging students to think
also means urging them to confront the complexity and ambiguity of our knowledge. Thus,
the text doesn’t skirt gray areas, unresolved questions, and theoretical controversies. Instead,
readers are encouraged to contemplate open-ended questions, to examine their assumptions
about behavior, and to apply psychological concepts to their own lives. My goal is not simply
to describe psychology but to stimulate students’ intellectual growth.
However, students can grapple with “the big issues and tough questions” only if they
first master the basic concepts and principles of psychology—ideally, with as little struggle
as possible. In my writing, I never let myself forget that a textbook is a tool for teaching.
Accordingly, I have taken great care to ensure that the book’s content, organization, writing,
illustrations, and pedagogical aids work in harmony to facilitate instruction and learning.
Admittedly, these goals are ambitious. If you’re skeptical, you have every right to be.
Let me explain how I have tried to realize the objectives I have outlined.

Special Features
This text has a variety of unusual features, each contributing in its own way to the book’s
paradoxical nature. These special features include unifying themes, Personal Application
sections, Critical Thinking Application sections, a didactic illustration program, an integrated running glossary, Concept Checks, Key Learning Goals, and Practice Tests.

Unifying Themes
Chapter 1 introduces seven key ideas that serve as unifying themes throughout the
text. The themes serve several purposes. First, they provide threads of continuity across
chapters that help students see the connections among various areas of research in psychology. Second, as the themes evolve over the course of the book, they provide a forum
for a relatively sophisticated discussion of enduring issues in psychology thus helping
to make this a “book of ideas.” Third, the themes focus a spotlight on a number of basic
insights about psychology and its subject matter that should leave lasting impressions on
your students. In selecting the themes, the question I asked myself (and other professors)
was, “What do I really want students to remember five years from now?” The resulting
themes are grouped into two sets.
Themes relaTed To Psychology as a Field oF sTudy

Theme 1: Psychology is empirical. This theme is used to enhance the student’s appreciation of psychology’s scientific nature and to demonstrate the advantages of empiricism
over uncritical common sense and speculation. I also use this theme to encourage the
reader to adopt a scientist’s skeptical attitude and to engage in more critical thinking
about information of all kinds.
Theme 2: Psychology is theoretically diverse. Students are often confused by psychology’s theoretical pluralism and view it as a weakness. I don’t downplay or apologize for our field’s theoretical diversity because I honestly believe that it is one of our
greatest strengths. Throughout the book, I provide concrete examples of how clashing
theories have stimulated productive research, how converging on a question from several
perspectives can yield increased understanding, and how competing theories are sometimes reconciled in the end.
vi

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Theme 3: Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context. This theme emphasizes that
psychology is embedded in the ebb and flow of everyday life. The text shows how the
spirit of the times has often shaped psychology’s evolution and how progress in psychology leaves its mark on our society.
Themes relaTed To Psychology’s subjecT maTTer

Theme 4: Behavior is determined by multiple causes. Throughout the book, I emphasize, and repeatedly illustrate, that behavioral processes are complex and that multifactorial causation is the rule. This theme is used to discourage simplistic, single-cause thinking
and to encourage more critical reasoning.
Theme 5: People’s behavior is shaped by their cultural heritage. This theme is intended
to enhance students’ appreciation of how cultural factors moderate psychological processes and how the viewpoint of one’s own culture can distort one’s interpretation of the
behavior of people from other cultures. The discussions that elaborate on this theme do
not simply celebrate diversity. They strike a careful balance: accurately reflecting the research in this area while highlighting both cultural variations and similarities in behavior.
Theme 6: Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior. Repeatedly discussing
this theme permits me to explore the nature-versus-nurture issue in all its complexity.
Over a series of chapters, students gradually learn how biology shapes behavior, how
experience shapes behavior, and how scientists estimate the relative importance of each.
Along the way, students will gain an in-depth appreciation of what we mean when we say
that heredity and environment interact.
Theme 7: Our experience of the world is highly subjective. All of us tend to forget the extent to which we view the world through our own personal lens. This theme is used to explain
the principles that underlie the subjectivity of human experience, to clarify its implications,
and to repeatedly remind readers that their view of the world is not the only legitimate view.
After introducing all seven themes in Chapter 1, I discuss different sets of themes
in each chapter as they are relevant to the subject matter. The connections between a
chapter’s content and the unifying themes are highlighted in a standard section near the end
of the chapter, in which I reflect on the “lessons to be learned” from the chapter. The discussions of the unifying themes are largely confined to these sections, titled “Reflecting on the
Chapter’s Themes.” I have not tried to make every chapter illustrate a certain number of
themes. Rather, the themes were allowed to emerge naturally, and I found that two to five
surfaced in any given chapter. The chart on page viii shows which themes are highlighted in
each chapter. Color-coded icons at the beginning of each chapter and in each “Reflecting on
the Chapter’s Themes” section indicate the specific themes featured in each chapter.

Personal Applications
To reinforce the pragmatic implications of theory and research stressed throughout the
text, each chapter includes a Personal Application section that highlights the practical
side of psychology. Each Personal Application devotes two to three pages of text (rather
than the usual box) to a single issue that should be of special interest to many of your students. Although most of the Personal Application sections have a “how to” character, they
continue to review studies and summarize data in much the same way as the main body
of each chapter. Thus, they portray research and application not as incompatible polarities but as two sides of the same coin. Many of the Personal Applications—such as those
on finding and reading journal articles, understanding art and illusion, and improving
stress management—provide topical coverage unusual for an introductory text.
Critical Thinking Applications
A great deal of unusual coverage can also be found in the Critical Thinking Applications
that follow the Personal Applications. These applications are based on the assumption
To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

vii

Unifying Themes Highlighted in Each Chapter
THEME
1

Chapter

Empiricism

2
Theoretical
Diversity

3
Sociohistorical
Context

4
Multifactorial
Causation

5
Cultural
Heritage

6
Heredity &
Environment

7
Subjectivity
of Experience

1. The evolution of
Psychology
2. The Research enterprise
in Psychology
3. The Biological Bases of
Behavior
4. Sensation and Perception
5. Variations in
Consciousness
6. Learning
7. human Memory
8. Cognition and
intelligence
9. Motivation and emotion
10. human development Across
the Life Span
11. Personality
12. Social Behavior
13. Stress, Coping, and health
14. Psychological disorders
15. Treatment of Psychological
disorders

that critical thinking skills can be taught. They do not simply review research controversies, as is typically the case in other introductory texts. Instead, they introduce and model
a host of critical thinking skills, such as looking for contradictory evidence or alternative
explanations; recognizing anecdotal evidence, circular reasoning, hindsight bias, reification, weak analogies, and false dichotomies; evaluating arguments systematically; and
working with cumulative and conjunctive probabilities.
The specific skills discussed in the Critical Thinking Applications are listed in the accompanying table (see page ix), where they are organized into five categories using a taxonomy
developed by Halpern (1994). In each chapter, some of these skills are applied to topics and
issues related to the chapter’s content. For instance, in the chapter that covers drug abuse
(Chapter 5), the concept of alcoholism is used to highlight the immense power of definitions
and to illustrate how circular reasoning can seem so seductive. Skills that are particularly
important may surface in more than one chapter, so students see them applied in a variety
of contexts. For example, in Chapter 7 students learn how hindsight bias can contaminate
memory, and in Chapter 11 they see how hindsight can distort analyses of personality. Repeated practice across chapters should help students spontaneously recognize the relevance
of specific critical thinking skills when they encounter certain types of information.
viii

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Taxonomy of Skills Covered in the Critical Thinking Applications
Verbal Reasoning and Argument Analysis Skills
Understanding the way definitions shape how people think about issues

Chapter 5

identifying the source of definitions

Chapter 5

Avoiding the nominal fallacy in working with definitions and labels

Chapter 5

Understanding the elements of an argument

Chapter 9

Recognizing and avoiding common fallacies, such as irrelevant reasons, circular reasoning,
slippery slope reasoning, weak analogies, and false dichotomies

Chapters 9 and 10

evaluating arguments systematically

Chapter 9

Understanding how Pavlovian conditioning can be used to manipulate emotions

Chapter 6

developing the ability to detect conditioning procedures used in the media

Chapter 6

Recognizing social influence strategies

Chapter 12

Judging the credibility of an information source

Chapter 12

Skills in Thinking as Hypothesis Testing
Looking for alternative explanations for findings and events

Chapters 1 and 10

Looking for contradictory evidence

Chapters 1 and 3

Recognizing the limitations of anecdotal evidence

Chapters 2 and 15

Understanding the need to seek disconfirming evidence

Chapter 7

Understanding the limitations of correlational evidence

Chapters 10 and 13

Understanding the limitations of statistical significance

Chapter 13

Recognizing situations in which placebo effects might occur

Chapter 15

Skills in Working with Likelihood and Uncertainty
Utilizing base rates in making predictions and evaluating probabilities

Chapter 13

Understanding cumulative probabilities

Chapter 14

Understanding conjunctive probabilities

Chapter 14

Understanding the limitations of the representativeness heuristic

Chapters 8 and 14

Understanding the limitations of the availability heuristic

Chapters 8 and 14

Recognizing situations in which regression toward the mean may occur

Chapter 15

Understanding the limits of extrapolation

Chapter 3

Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Skills
Recognizing framing effects

Chapter 8

Understanding loss aversion

Chapter 8

Using evidence-based decision making

Chapter 2

Recognizing the bias in hindsight analysis

Chapters 7 and 11

Seeking information to reduce uncertainty

Chapter 13

Making risk-benefit assessments

Chapter 13

Generating and evaluating alternative courses of action

Chapter 13

Recognizing overconfidence in human cognition

Chapter 7

Understanding the limitations and fallibility of human memory

Chapter 7

Understanding how contrast effects can influence judgments and decisions

Chapter 4

Recognizing when extreme comparitors are being used

Chapter 4

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

ix

Reality Checks
Each chapter includes three or four Reality Checks, which address common misconceptions related to psychology and provide direct refutations of the misinformation.
These Reality Checks are sprinkled throughout the chapters, appearing adjacent to the
relevant material. Examples of misconceptions that are dispelled include the myth that
B. F. Skinner raised his daughter in a Skinner box, which led to her becoming severely
disturbed (Chapter 1); the notion that people use only 10% of their brains (Chapter 3);
the assumption that people who are color blind see the world in black and white (Chapter 4);
and the idea that it is dangerous to awaken someone who is sleepwalking (Chapter 5).
Most of the misconceptions covered in these Reality Checks were addressed in previous editions, but not with direct refutations. In other words, accurate information was
provided on the issues, but usually without explicitly stating the misconception and
providing a rebuttal. Why the change in strategy? The impetus was a fascinating article
in Teaching of Psychology by Patricia Kowalski and Annette Taylor (2009). This article
summarized evidence that students typically come into introductory psychology with
a variety of misconceptions and that, for the most part, they tend to leave the course
with their misconceptions intact. To see if this problem could be ameliorated, they tested
the impact of direct refutations on students’ misconceptions in the introductory course.
Their data suggested that explicit repudiations of erroneous ideas reduce students’ misconceptions more effectively than the simple provision of correct information. With that
evidence in mind, I decided to craft this feature that explicitly confronts and disputes
common fallacies that range from oversimplified to profoundly inaccurate. Because the
Reality Checks mostly supplement the normal coverage in the text, I chose to keep them
concise. For the most part, they can be found in the margins of the pages.
A Didactic Illustration Program
When I first outlined my plans for this text, I indicated that I wanted every aspect of the
illustration program to have a genuine didactic purpose and that I wanted to be deeply
involved in its development. In retrospect, I had no idea what I was getting myself into,
but it has been a rewarding learning experience. In any event, I have been intimately involved in planning every detail of the illustration program. I have endeavored to create a
program of figures, diagrams, photos, and tables that work hand in hand with the prose
to strengthen and clarify the main points in the text.
The most obvious results of our didactic approach to illustration are the Illustrated
Overviews that combine tabular information, photos, diagrams, and sketches to provide
exciting overviews of key ideas in the areas of methods, sensation and perception, learning, personality theory, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. But I hope you will also
notice the subtleties of the illustration program. For instance, diagrams of important concepts (conditioning, synaptic transmission, EEGs, experimental design, and so forth) are
often repeated in several chapters (with variations) to highlight connections among research areas and to enhance students’ mastery of key ideas. Numerous easy-to-understand
graphs of research results underscore psychology’s foundation in research, and photos and
diagrams often bolster each other (for example, see the treatment of classical conditioning
in Chapter 6). Color is used carefully as an organizational device, and visual schematics
help simplify hard-to-visualize concepts (see, for instance, the figure explaining reaction
range for intelligence in Chapter 8). All of these efforts have gone toward the service of one
master: the desire to make this an inviting book that is easy to learn from.
Integrated Running Glossary
An introductory text should place great emphasis on acquainting students with psychology’s technical language—not for the sake of jargon, but because a great many of our key
terms are also our cornerstone concepts (for example, independent variable, reliability,
and cognitive dissonance). This text handles terminology with a running glossary embedded in the prose itself. The terms are set off in blue boldface italics, and the definitions
x

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

follow in blue, boldface roman type. This approach retains the two advantages of a conventional running glossary: vocabulary items are made salient, and their definitions are
readily accessible. However, it does so without interrupting the flow of discourse, while
eliminating redundancy between text matter and marginal entries.

Concept Checks
To help students assess their mastery of important ideas, Concept Checks are sprinkled throughout the book. In keeping with my goal of making this a book of ideas, the
Concept Checks challenge students to apply ideas instead of testing rote memory. For
example, in Chapter 6 the reader is asked to analyze realistic examples of conditioning
and identify conditioned stimuli and responses, reinforcers, and schedules of reinforcement. Many of the Concept Checks require the reader to put together ideas introduced in
different sections of the chapter. For instance, in Chapter 4 students are asked to identify
parallels between vision and hearing. Some of the Concept Checks are quite challenging,
but students find them engaging, and they report that the answers (available in Appendix A
in the back of the book) are often illuminating.
Key Learning Goals
To help students organize, assimilate, and remember important ideas, each major section of every chapter begins with a succinct set of Key Learning Goals. The Key Learning
Goals are found adjacent to the level-one headings that begin each major section. The
Key Learning Goals are thought-provoking learning objectives that should help students
focus on the key issues in each section.
Practice Tests
In addition to the answers to the Concept Checks, Appendix A at the back of the book
includes a Practice Test for each chapter in the text. These twelve-item multiple-choice
Practice Tests should give students realistic assessments of their mastery of specific chapters and valuable practice taking the type of test that many of them will face in the classroom (if the instructor uses the Test Bank). This feature grew out of some research that
I conducted on students’ use of textbook pedagogical devices (see Weiten, Guadagno, &
Beck, 1996). This research indicated that students pay scant attention to some standard
pedagogical devices. When I grilled my students to gain a better understanding of this
finding, it quickly became apparent that students are very pragmatic about pedagogy.
Essentially, their refrain was “We want study aids that will help us pass the next test.” With
this mandate in mind, I devised the Practice Tests. They should be useful, as I took most
of the items from Test Banks for previous editions.
In addition to the special features just described, the text includes a variety of
more conventional, tried-and-true features. The back of the book contains a standard
alphabetical glossary. Opening outlines preview each chapter, I make frequent use of italics
for emphasis, and I depend on frequent headings to maximize organizational clarity. The
preface for students describes these pedagogical devices in more detail.

Content
The text is divided into 15 chapters that follow a traditional ordering. The chapters are
not grouped into sections or parts, primarily because such groupings can limit your
options if you want to reorganize the order of topics. The chapters are written in a way
that facilitates organizational flexibility, as I always assumed that some chapters might be
omitted or presented in a different order.
The topical coverage in the text is relatively conventional, but there are some subtle departures from the norm. For instance, Chapter 1 presents a relatively “meaty” discussion of
the evolution of ideas in psychology. This coverage of history lays the foundation for many
of the crucial ideas emphasized in subsequent chapters. The historical perspective is also
To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xi

my way of reaching out to the students who find that psychology isn’t what they expected
it to be. If we want students to contemplate the mysteries of behavior, we must begin by
clearing up the biggest mysteries of them all: “Where did these rats, statistics, synapses,
and genes come from; what could they possibly have in common; and why doesn’t this
course bear any resemblance to what I anticipated?” I use history as a vehicle to explain
how psychology evolved into its modern form and why misconceptions about its nature
are so common.
I also devote an entire chapter (Chapter 2) to the scientific enterprise—not just the
mechanics of research methods but also the logic behind them. I believe that an appreciation of the nature of empirical evidence can contribute greatly to improving students’
critical thinking skills. Ten years from now, many of the “facts” reported in this book will
have changed, but an understanding of the methods of science will remain invaluable.
An introductory psychology course, by itself, isn’t going to make a student think like a
scientist, but I can’t think of a better place to start the process.

Changes in the Tenth Edition
A good textbook must evolve with the field of inquiry it covers, as well as new directions
in higher education. Although the professors and students who used the first nine editions
of this book did not clamor for alterations, there are some changes. First and foremost, this
book represents a blended version of the full-length and briefer versions that preceded it.
The last decade has seen a pronounced trend toward greater brevity in textbooks in psychology (Weiten & Houska, 2015), as well as many other fields. This trend is not limited
to undergraduate texts, as I have also witnessed it in the medical textbooks that I often
consult on topics such as neuroscience, sleep, pediatrics, and psychiatry. This new emphasis on brevity made the retention of separate versions of different length unnecessary.
Hence, in writing the tenth edition of this book, I used the previous briefer version as the
starting point. However, in many places I was able to further condense the coverage from
the briefer version, allowing me to import a variety of topics that formerly appeared only
in the full-length version. So, the result is something more than just the next edition of the
briefer version. Rather, it is a fusion of the two previous versions, although its length (in
words) is very close to recent editions of the briefer version.
You will also find a variety of other changes in this edition. The graphic design of the
text has been refreshed and improved in a variety of ways. We have strived for a cleaner,
less cluttered look. In the line art, we have increased the use of color-coded text, and
wherever possible, we have replaced drawings of humans with actual photos that are integrated into our graphics and diagrams. And we have worked to increase the pedagogical value of the photos by pairing each one with an explanatory caption and eliminating
photos that were largely decorative. We have also refreshed the treatments of the levelone headings and the Concept Checks. At the end of each chapter, we have replaced the
Reviews of Key Learning Goals—which were conventional, narrative summaries—with
more conceptual and concise Concept Charts. The Chapter Concept Charts are colorcoded, hierarchically organized overviews that create “snapshots” of the chapters that
allow students to quickly see the relationships between ideas and sections.
Of course, the book has been thoroughly updated to reflect recent advances in the
field. One of the exciting things about psychology is that it is not a stagnant discipline.
It continues to move forward at what seems a faster and faster pace. This progress has
necessitated a host of specific content changes that you’ll find sprinkled throughout the
chapters. Also reflecting this progress, more than 1200 of the reference citations in the
book are new to this edition. Following is a partial list of specific changes in each chapter.
These changes are presented in relation to the ninth edition of the briefer version, so the
list includes various topics imported from the ninth edition of the full-length version.

xii

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology

Updated discussion of pathological gambling in the chapter-opening vignette
Expanded discussion of William James’s contributions
Expanded coverage of the contributions of humanistic psychology
New discussion of the role of newly invented computers in the cognitive revolution
New data on how many students embrace flawed models of how they learn and remember
New discussion of how students overestimate their ability to multitask while studying
Revised discussion of the value of text highlighting in the coverage of study skills
New research on how surfing the Internet in class undermines academic performance
Coverage of gender differences in spatial skills in the Critical Thinking Application includes
new analysis attributing such differences to males’ higher testosterone levels
• Coverage of gender differences in spatial skills in the Critical Thinking Application features
new study that failed to find gender disparities on a naturalistic wayfinding task
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology

• New example of steps in a scientific investigation using an interesting study of how the color
red leads men to view women as more attractive and sexually desirable
• Added discussion of how manipulating two or more variables in an experiment can permit
the detection of interactions between variables
• New example of naturalistic observation focuses on how larger plate sizes lead to increased
eating at real-world buffets
• Another new example of naturalistic observation profiles a study of how depression affects
everyday social behavior
• New example of case-study research evaluating anxiety and depressive disorders as risk
factors for dementia
• New discussion of how clinicians sometimes publish individual case histories to share
insights regarding effective treatment
• New example of survey research focusing on trends in tobacco use among American high
school students
• Another new example of survey research describes a Danish study on age trends in the
experience of hangovers after binge drinking
• New discussion of how placebo effects amplify the effects of genuine drugs
• New coverage of proposed method for evaluating the ethical acceptability of animal
studies

Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behavior
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

New information on axons’ patterns of myelinization
New data on the number of neurons versus glial cells in the human brain
Updated coverage of glial cells’ role in nervous system signaling
New coverage of how glial cells may contribute to various diseases
New estimate of the number of neurons in the human brain
New study of how LSAT preparation results in changes in brain structure
New research on brain plasticity finds structural changes in the brains of taxi drivers who
master the layout of London
New brain-imaging studies of hemispheric lateralization, including findings that highlight
the extensive and dynamic nature of interhemispheric communication
New study suggests that exceptional connectivity between the right and left hemispheres
may have contributed to Albert Einstein’s brilliance
New studies relating oxytocin to relationship fidelity in men, and fathers’ engagement with
their infant children
New data on oxytocin and personality, and susceptibility to deception
New coverage of genetic mapping
New discussion of “missing heritability” in molecular genetics research
New data debunking the notion that people are left-brained or right-brained
New findings on how musical training may change the architecture of the brain and provide
cognitive benefits late in life

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xiii

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

New information on how dilation of the pupils is an indicator of interest in something
Revised estimate of the number of rods and cones in the retina
New discussion of whether face-detector cells are devoted exclusively to facial recognition
New discussion of individual differences in facial recognition ability
Added coverage of how people have a tendency to see what they want to see
New research on inattentional blindness
Section on visual illusions now includes discussion of the Ames room
New coverage of auditory localization
New coverage of the perception of flavor and the role of smell in this process
New data on the number of odors humans can distinguish
Added discussion of how humans perform poorly in odor identification tasks
New discussion of the prevalence and cost of chronic pain in America
New research demonstrating the role of endorphins in pain relief
New discussion of sensory integration of stimulus inputs
Streamlined Application on art and illusion

Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness

• New coverage of the typical contents of conscious experience
• New data on the extent to which our minds wander from the task at hand
• Coverage of sleep stages follows revised guidelines of the American Academy of Sleep
Medicine scoring system
• New data on gender and age-related changes in sleep architecture
• New data on the degree to which drowsy driving increases accident risk
• New findings on how sleep enhances complicated decision making and problem solving
• New research on the link between sleep duration and academic performance
• New data on how insomnia is related to increases in a remarkable diversity of health
problems
• Startling new findings on how the use of sleep medication is associated with elevated
mortality
• New graphic depicting the vicious circle of dependence on sleeping pills
• Coverage of narcolepsy includes discussion of how it is caused by dysregulation of REM
sleep due to loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus
• New data on the prevalence of sleep apnea and its mortality risk and effects on cognitive
functioning
• New findings on the prevalence of somnambulism
• New graphic showing sleep stages where sleepwalking and REM behavior disorder occur
• Expanded discussion of the risk for injuries among sleepwalkers
• Updated description of Cartwright’s problem-solving/mood-regulation view of dreaming
• New findings on how meditation is associated with decreases in anxiety and negative
emotions and increases in empathy and well-being
• New discussion of how meditation is used as an adjunct in treatment of depression, anxiety
disorders, and chronic pain
• New discussion of the reformulation of OxyContin to make it less susceptible to abuse
• New discussion of binge drinking among college students and associated problems
• New data relating binge drinking to impaired neural functioning in the adolescent brain
• New findings on the extent to which excessive drinking is related to elevated mortality
• New graphic on stimulant drugs and neurotransmitter activity
• New discussion of marijuana use in relation to attention, learning, and memory
• New research on the extent to which marijuana intoxication impairs driving
• Expanded discussion of the importance of sound sleep hygiene in facilitating quality sleep
• New discussion of the use of melatonin and alcohol for their sedative properties
• New data supporting the assertion that everyone dreams even if they do not remember their
dreams
• New data on individual differences in the likelihood of dream recall
• New data on the prevalence of alcohol-related deaths due to accidents and other acute
incidents
• New data on alcohol and chronic diseases

xiv

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 6: Learning

• New coverage of studies of evaluative conditioning
• New discussion of theoretical issues related to evaluative conditioning
• New discussion of how the renewal effect in classical conditioning makes it difficult to
extinguish troublesome phobias
• Expanded discussion of stimulus generalization, with added graphic
• New coverage of how panic disorder may be due to overly broad stimulus generalization
• New coverage of the renewal effect in operant conditioning and the context-dependent
nature of operant extinction
• Added coverage of “roborats” trained through shaping and the use of remote-controlled
discriminative stimuli
• New discussion of how corporal punishment remains commonplace in spite of evidence on
its negative effects
• New naturalistic observation study of physical punishment in the home, which shows that
it is routinely used in anger, not used as a last resort, not limited to major offenses, and not
very effective
• Added graphic on possible causality underlying the correlation between reliance on physical
punishment and increased aggressiveness in children
• Added coverage of Tolman’s classic work on latent learning and cognitive maps
• New findings on how exposure to media violence distorts subjects’ perceptions of aggressive
acts in everyday life
• New discussion of whether the effects of media violence on aggression are weak effects
• New coverage of the benefits that can be derived from playing video games

Chapter 7: Human Memory

• New coverage of research suggesting that the people who multitask the most tend to be the
least adept at it
• New data on mind-wandering in relation to working memory capacity
• New evidence of flashbulb memories for positive events
• Added coverage of how knowledge is represented in memory
• Added coverage of semantic networks in memory storage
• New data on the portion of people who believe that memory operates like pulling up a
mental videotape
• New research shows that the misinformation effect can distort basic factual knowledge as
well as personal memories
• New example of how forgetting is functional in making room for new memories
• New coverage of theory that asserts that decay does occur in long-term memory
• New large-sample study documenting the creation of false memories for fabricated political
events
• New research on the process of reconsolidation
• New theory that neurogenesis may contribute to forgetting
• Expanded description of episodic versus semantic memory
• Expanded description of the distinction between retrospective and prospective memory
• New discussion of how prospective memory failures can have disastrous effects in the
workplace
• New findings on test-enhanced learning
• Expanded discussion of the eyewitness post-identification feedback effect
• New data on how often faulty eyewitness testimony contributes to wrongful convictions

Chapter 8: Cognition and Intelligence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

New section on theories of language acquisition, with new graphic
New research suggesting that the human brain is wired for learning language
New section on bilingualism and the pace of language development
New section on how bilingualism affects cognitive processes
New coverage of the linguistic relativity hypothesis
New coverage of how language affects the perception of colors
New research on the cause of functional fixedness and how it can be overcome
Expanded discussion of why mental sets occur and how they are not necessarily bad

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xv

• New discussion of the concept of insight and whether insights emerge suddenly or incrementally
• New mention of how changing the representation of problems contributes to insight
and creativity
• New research on factors influencing the likelihood of choice overload
• New brain-imaging research on the deliberation-without-attention effect
• Expanded discussion of complexities in dual-process theories
• New graphic on laypersons’ conceptions of intelligence
• Expanded discussion of issues with heritability estimates
• New molecular genetics research that estimates the heritability of intelligence in an entirely
new way
• New discussion of the failure to find specific genes that govern intelligence
• Expanded discussion of how socioeconomic disadvantage contributes to cultural disparities
in IQ scores
• Expanded description of Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence
• New research on how living abroad enhances creativity
• New Critical Thinking Application on pitfalls in reasoning about decisions
• New coverage of framing effects, with a graphic

Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

New research on how the quantity of food served affects the amount eaten
New discussion of stress-induced eating
New coverage of the prevalence and health consequences of obesity
New coverage of evolutionary explanations of rising obesity
New coverage of the causes of obesity
Two new graphics on the genetics and medical consequences of obesity
New material on gender disparities in the use of pornography, self-stimulation, and
extramarital sex
New research on gender differences in interest in casual sex
New data on how gender disparities in mating preferences may be shaped by culture
Updated data on the prevalence of homosexuality
New discussion of how the belief that the vast majority of people are either straight or gay
is a misleading oversimplification
Updated data on genetic factors and sexual orientation
New material on the ramifications of high need for achievement in the world of work
New discussion of how people experience mixed emotions
Expanded explanation of why our affective forecasting is often inaccurate
New graphic depicting the results of a study on affective forecasting
New research and theory on the role of the amygdala in the regulation of fear
New graphic provides overview of the facial-feedback hypothesis
New evidence favoring the facial-feedback hypothesis from a study of Botox and depression
New critique of the notion that facial expressions of emotions transcend culture
New discussion of how subjective well-being is predictive of important life outcomes
New research on materialism and subjective well-being
New research on how spending on experiences rather than material goods, and on others
rather than oneself, are associated with greater happiness
New discussion of religiosity and happiness
Revised discussion of marital status and happiness emphasizing the importance of relationship satisfaction

Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Life Span
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

xvi

Updated data on the age of viability
New graphic on highlights of fetal development
New findings on the effects of maternal stress on prenatal development
New research on how children learn to walk
New coverage of how physical growth in early childhood occurs in sudden bursts of growth
New coverage of the effects of day care on attachment
New findings on how parental responsiveness influences variations in the pace of language
development

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

New discussion of the importance of vocabulary growth
Streamlined coverage of cognitive development
New coverage of disparities in Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s theories of cognitive development
New discussion of the importance of private speech in Vygotsky’s theory
New research on infants’ apparently innate understanding of what is edible
Added graphic on relations between age and stages of moral reasoning
New discussion of Haidt’s view that moral reasoning is often used to rationalize moral
intuitions
New research relating adolescent risk-taking to the brain’s early-maturing reward system
overpowering the late-maturing prefrontal cortex
New research linking identity confusion to maladaptive behavioral outcomes
Added graphic on emerging adulthood as a stage marked by feeling between adolescence
and adulthood
Revised overview of research on the stability of personality in adulthood
New discussion of the influence of optimism in adjusting to new roles in marriage
New data and graphic on how the division of housework between husbands and wives has
changed over the years
New findings on whether relationship satisfaction declines after the transition to
parenthood
New data and graphic on how the prevalence of chronic diseases climbs with age
New discussion of psychological factors that have protective value in diminishing the
deleterious effects of aging on physical health
New findings suggesting that the erosion of cognitive speed may begin in people’s
mid-twenties
New discussion of attitudes about death and dying
New coverage of the work of Kübler-Ross on reactions to bereavement
New discussion of cultural variations in dealing with bereavement
New coverage of various patterns of grieving
Revised coverage of gender differences in relational/verbal aggression

Chapter 11: Personality
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

New coverage of how factor analysis is used in personality research
New data on correlates of agreeableness and openness to experience
New coverage of repressive coping style in discussion of psychoanalytic theory
New findings relating reaction formation to homophobia
New discussion of defense mechanisms and mental health
New research relating reduced reliance on defense mechanisms to progress in therapy
New graphic depicting Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious
New discussion of Adler’s concept of overcompensation
New discussion of Adler’s emphasis on social context and birth order
Expanded critique of Freudian theory
New graphic on the operant view of personality development
New research on the correlates of self-efficacy
New research supporting a key tenet of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
New graphic summarizing twin studies of the Big Five personality traits
New discussion of genetic mapping in relation to specific personality traits
New research testing evolutionary analyses of the origins of individual differences
in extraversion
New research relating narcissism to empathy and consumer preferences
New research showing that narcissism is more prevalent in upper social classes
New research on narcissism and entrepreneurial activity
New research showing the upside and downside of narcissism as it relates to leadership
New coverage of the distinction between grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism
Revised assessment of the cross-cultural universality of the five-factor model
New data on the inaccuracy of perceptions of national character
New discussion of the public exposure of the Rorschach inkblots on the Internet
New discussion of how hindsight bias leads to single-cause thinking and overconfidence in
analyzing decisions that went awry

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xvii

Chapter 12: Social Behavior

• Expanded coverage of the attractiveness stereotype and its relation to perceptions of
personality and job success
• New discussion of the consequences of the attractiveness stereotype for unattractive individuals
• New coverage of how people draw inferences about others based on instant reactions to
their faces
• New data on perceptions of competence based on facial features and political success
• New discussion of how Weiner’s model of attribution can shed light on people’s explanations
for poverty
• New discussion of how liberals and conservatives make different attributions for poverty
• New data on Protestantism and the fundamental attribution error
• Expanded discussion of the matching hypothesis
• Updated coverage regarding trends in the erosion of passionate love
• New findings on attachment anxiety and problems in intimate relationships
• New discussion of the assumption that arranged marriages are less successful than those
based on romantic love
• New coverage of how Facebook usage relates to loneliness and other aspects of well-being
• New discussion of how online matching sites have changed the landscape of dating and
mating
• New research showing a lower percentage of marital breakups in relationships formed
online as opposed to offline
• New discussion of why women’s waist-to-hip ratio is an aspect of physical attractiveness that
transcends culture
• New research examining whether evolutionary hypotheses regarding gender differences in
mating preferences hold up in speed-dating situations
• New evolutionary research on how menstrual cycles influence women’s mating preferences
and strategies
• New evolutionary research on how men use conspicuous consumption to signal wealth and
success to potential mating partners
• New discussion of how men tend to overestimate women’s sexual interest, whereas women
tend to underestimate men’s sexual interest
• New research linking implicit attitudes to real-world behavior
• New discussion of the tendency for people to see others as more conforming than themselves
• New coverage of normative versus informational influence as factors contributing
to conformity
• New discussion of the factors that promoted high levels of obedience in Milgram’s classic
study
• New coverage of whether Milgram’s study reflects blind obedience and whether it can really
explain the Holocaust
• New critique of the Stanford Prison Simulation
• New research on group polarization and groupthink
• New discussion of how racially based stereotypes can lead people to see a weapon that is not
really there
• New coverage of how modern prejudice often involves unintentional, inconspicuous
microaggressions
• New discussion of how negative stereotypes can be used to justify discrimination
• New analysis suggesting that ingroup favoritism fosters more discrimination than outgroup
hostility

Chapter 13: Stress, Coping, and Health

New findings on physical and mental health problems in the aftermath of natural disasters
New research on hassles as a form of stress and mortality
New data linking emotional reactivity to stress to mood disorders ten years later
New research on stress, materialism, and compulsive shopping
Expanded coverage of the subtypes and symptoms of Internet addiction
New coverage of the prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with other
psychological symptoms
• New discussion of how healthful coping responses may or may not be effective
•
•
•
•
•
•

xviii

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

New research on how outbursts of anger temporarily increase one’s risk for a heart attack
New findings on the association between social isolation and health
New research on the surprising benefits of weak social ties
New findings suggesting that the link between optimism and health transcends culture
Expanded discussion of why conscientiousness promotes health and longevity
New discussion of the relationship between social class and health
New research on how one’s stress mindset affects one’s response to stress
New evidence linking moderate levels of adversity to future resilience
New data linking exercise to reduced vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease
New data linking humor to health

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

• Expanded discussion of how the stigma of mental illness is a source of stress and an
impediment to treatment
• New discussion of the exponential growth of the DSM system and its tendency to medicalize
everyday problems
• New discussion of how people with generalized anxiety disorder hope their worry will
prepare them for the worst and its association with physical health problems
• Agoraphobia covered as an independent disorder rather than a complication of panic
disorder
• Added explanation of why multiple personality disorder was renamed dissociative identity
disorder
• Revised explanation of sociocognitive views of dissociative identity disorder
• New clarification that not all individuals with bipolar illness experience episodes
of depression
• Revised data on the prevalence and course of depression
• New data relating severity of depression and sense of hopelessness to suicidality
• New table on suicide prevention
• New coverage of hormonal factors in the etiology of depression
• Added discussion of excessive reassurance seeking as social factor in depression
• New coverage of stormy social relations as a source of stress generation in the etiology
of depression
• New discussion of how stress becomes progressively less of a factor as people go through
more recurrences of episodes of depression
• New discussion of how and why schizophrenia subtypes were discarded in DSM-5
• New tabular overview of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia
• New coverage of brain overgrowth as etiological factor in autism spectrum disorder
• New section on personality disorders, including a table describing all ten DSM-5 personality
disorder diagnoses
• New coverage of antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and
borderline personality disorder
• New discussion of the etiology of personality disorders
• Coverage of eating disorders condensed and moved into the main body of the chapter
• Revised data on the prevalence of various eating disorders
• New mention of peer influence and history of child abuse as etiological factors in eating
disorders
• New research on the importance of early life stress in increasing the risk for a wide variety of
adult-onset disorders many years later
• New research on genetic and neurobiological overlap among depression, bipolar disorder,
schizophrenia, and autism
• New Personal Application on legal issues related to psychological disorders
• New discussion of the insanity defense and misconceptions about its use
• New coverage of involuntary commitment and problems in predicting dangerousness

Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders

• New findings on the importance of empathy and unconditional positive regard to
therapeutic climate
• New graphic on improvement in therapy over time

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xix

• New coverage of common factors as an explanation for the beneficial effects of therapy
• New empirical effort to partition the variance in therapeutic outcomes to quantify the
influence of common factors
• New data on prescription trends for antianxiety, antipsychotic, antidepressant, and moodstabilizing drugs
• New discussion of long-acting, injectable antipsychotic medications
• Revised coverage of the side effects of SSRI antidepressants
• New data on antidepressants, suicide, and the FDA warnings
• New coverage of how the medicalization of psychological disorders has undermined the
provision of psychotherapy
• New data on the availability and use of ECT
• New findings on relapse rates after ECT treatment
• New research on ECT and autobiographical memory loss
• New research on the effect of ethnic matching between therapist and client
• New discussion of the need to expand the delivery of clinical services to reduce the number
of people who go untreated
• New discussion of how therapy can be delivered via videoconferencing and telephone
• New coverage of computerized treatments delivered via the Internet
• New data on psychiatric readmission rates
• New discussion of how the homeless mentally ill are often incarcerated, meaning that the
revolving door problem refers not only to psychiatric facilities, but also to jails and prisons
• New discussion of a recent JAMA opinion piece arguing for a rollback of deinstitutionalization policies

MindTap™
MindTap for Psychology: Themes and Variations creates a unique learning path that fosters increased comprehension and efficiency. It engages students and empowers them to
produce their best work—consistently. In MindTap, course material is seamlessly integrated with videos, activities, apps, and more.
In MindTap, instructors can:
• control the content. Instructors select what students see and when they see it.
• create a unique learning path. In MindTap, your textbook is enhanced with
multimedia and activities to encourage and motivate learning and retention,
moving students up the learning taxonomy. Materials can be used as-is or be
modified to match an instructor’s syllabus exactly.
• integrate their own content. Instructors can modify the MindTap Reader using
their own documents or by pulling from sources like RSS feeds, YouTube videos,
websites, Google docs, and more.
• follow student progress. Powerful analytics and reports provide a snapshot of class
progress, the time students spend logging into the course, and completion to help
instructors assess levels of engagement and identify problem areas.

Other Supplementary Materials
The teaching/learning package that has been developed to supplement Psychology: Themes
and Variations includes many other useful tools for instructors. The development of all supplements for this text have been carefully coordinated so that they are mutually supportive.

Instructor’s Resource Manual (by Randolph A. Smith)
The Instructor's Resource Manual (IRM) was developed under the guidance of Randolph
Smith, the former editor of the journal Teaching of Psychology. It contains a wealth of
detailed suggestions for lecture topics, class demonstrations, exercises, discussion questions, and suggested readings organized around the content of each chapter in the text.
Instructors will appreciate how this array of materials facilitates efforts to teach the introductory course.
xx

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Test Bank (by Jeff Holmes)
A large, diversified, and carefully constructed Test Bank accompanies this text. The questions are closely tied and tagged to each chapter’s Key Learning Goals. The items are categorized using a simplified Bloom’s taxonomy as (a) understand, (b) apply, and (c) think
critically. Data on item difficulty are included for many questions. These tags can be used
to sort and filter to help instructors find the questions they need. For this edition, Jeff
Holmes of Ithaca College carefully scrutinized every item for quality before he even began the update to accommodate the revised content of the text. To keep item quality high,
we decided to keep the items per chapter at a manageable number. It is quicker, easier,
and more efficient to select test questions from a reasonable number of items than to sift
through hundreds and hundreds of items, which inevitably include superficial variations
on the same questions.
Online PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Decks
These are designed to facilitate an instructor’s use of PowerPoint in lectures. Slides are
provided for each chapter; they contain main concepts with figures, graphics, and tables
to visually illustrate main points from the text. The Notes section of the slide provides
guidelines and text references to support lecture preparation. Slides have been designed
to be easily modifiable so instructors are able to customize them with their own materials.

To The insTrucTor

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xxi

Acknowledgments
Creating an introductory psychology text is a complicated challenge, and a small army of
people have contributed to the evolution of this book. Foremost among them are the psychology editors I have worked with—Claire Verduin, C. Deborah Laughton, Phil Curson,
Eileen Murphy, Edith Beard Brady, Michele Sordi, Jon-David Hague, Tim Matray, and
Clay Austin—and the developmental editor for the first edition of this book, John Bergez.
They have helped me immeasurably, and each has become a treasured friend along the
way. I am especially indebted to Claire, who educated me in the intricacies of textbook
publishing, and to John, who has left an enduring imprint on my writing.
The challenge of meeting a difficult schedule in producing this book was undertaken
by a talented team of people coordinated by Joan Keyes, who did a superb job of pulling
it all together. Credit for coordination of the text design goes to Vernon Boes, who was
very creative in building on the previous design. Jude Berman did an outstanding job in
copyediting the manuscript. Over the years, Fred Harwin and Carol Zuber-Mallison have
made stellar contributions to the artwork.
A number of psychologists deserve thanks for the contributions they made to this
book. I am grateful to Diane Halpern for her work on the Critical Thinking Applications;
to Susan Koger and Britain Scott for crafting a compelling online appendix on sustainability; to Rick Stalling and Ron Wasden for their work on previous editions of the Study
Guide; to Jeff Holmes for his revision of the Test Bank; to Randy Smith for his work on
the Instructor’s Resource Manual; to Harry Upshaw, Larry Wrightsman, Shari Diamond,
Rick Stalling, and Claire Etaugh for their help and guidance over the years; and to the
chapter consultants listed on page xxiii and the reviewers listed on pages xxiv-xxvi, who
provided insightful and constructive critiques of various portions of the manuscript.
Many other people have also contributed to this project, and I am grateful to all of
them for their efforts. Bill Roberts, Tom Dorsaneo, Nancy Sjoberg, John Odam, Fiorella
Ljunggren, Jim Brace-Thompson, Susan Badger, Sean Wakely, Eve Howard, Linda
Rill, Margaret Parks, Kim Russell, Lauren Keyes, Jennie Redwitz, Pat Waldo, Kristin
Makarewycz, Liz Rhoden, and Trina Tom helped with varied aspects of previous editions.
At Cengage, Michelle Clark, Kimiya Hojjat, and especially Shelli Newhart made valuable
contributions to the current edition. At the College of DuPage, where I taught until 1991,
all of my colleagues in psychology provided support and information at one time or another, but I am especially indebted to Barb Lemme, Alan Lanning, Pat Puccio, and Don
Green. I also want to thank my former colleagues at Santa Clara University (especially
Tracey Kahan, Tom Plante, and Jerry Burger) and my current colleagues at UNLV, who
have been fertile sources of new ideas. And I am indebted to the many graduate students
who I have worked with at UNLV, and to Gabriel Allred and Vince Rozalski, who helped
complete the new reference entries.
My greatest debt is to my wife, Beth Traylor, who has been a steady source of
emotional sustenance while enduring the rigors of her medical career, and to my son
T. J., for making dad laugh all the time.
Wayne Weiten

xxii

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

chApter consultAnts
Chapter 1
David Baker
University of Akron
Charles L. Brewer
Furman University
C. James Goodwin
Wheeling Jesuit University
E. R. Hilgard
Stanford University
David Hothersall
Ohio State University
Michael G. Livingston
St. John’s University
Chapter 2
Larry Christensen
Texas A & M University
Francis Durso
University of Oklahoma
Donald H. McBurney
University of Pittsburgh
Wendy Schweigert
Bradley University
Chapter 3
Nelson Freedman
Queen’s University at
Kingston
Michael W. Levine
University of Illinois,
Chicago
Corinne L. McNamara
Kennesaw State University
James M. Murphy
Indiana University–Purdue
University at Indianapolis
Paul Wellman
Texas A & M University
Chapter 4
Stephen Blessing
University of Tampa
Nelson Freedman
Queen’s University at
Kingston
Kevin Jordan
San Jose State University
Michael W. Levine
University of Illinois,
Chicago
John Pittenger
University of Arkansas,
Little Rock

Chrislyn E. Randell
Metropolitan State College
of Denver
Lawrence Ward
University of British
Columbia
Chapter 5
Frank Etscorn
New Mexico Institute of
Mining and Technology
Tracey L. Kahan
Santa Clara University
Charles F. Levinthal
Hofstra University
Wilse Webb
University of Florida
Chapter 6
A. Charles Catania
University of Maryland
Michael Domjan
University of Texas, Austin
William C. Gordon
University of New Mexico
Russell A. Powell
Grant MacEwan College
Barry Schwartz
Swarthmore College
Deborah L. Stote
University of Texas, Austin
Chapter 7
Tracey L. Kahan
Santa Clara University
Ian Neath
Purdue University
Tom Pusateri
Loras College
Stephen K. Reed
San Diego State University
Patricia Tenpenny
Loyola University, Chicago
Chapter 8
John Best
Eastern Illinois University
David Carroll
University of Wisconsin,
Superior
Charles Davidshofer
Colorado State University

Shalynn Ford
Teikyo Marycrest University
Richard J. Haier
University of California,
Irvine
Tom Pusateri
Loras College
Stephen K. Reed
San Diego State University
Timothy Rogers
University of Calgary
Dennis Saccuzzo
San Diego State University
Chapter 9
Robert Franken
University of Calgary
Russell G. Geen
University of Missouri
Douglas Mook
University of Virginia
D. Louis Wood
University of Arkansas,
Little Rock
Chapter 10
Ruth L. Ault
Davidson College
John C. Cavanaugh
University of Delaware
Claire Etaugh
Bradley University
Doug Friedrich
University of West Florida
Barbara Hansen Lemme
College of DuPage
Chapter 11
Susan Cloninger
Russel Sage College
Caroline Collins
University of Victoria
Howard S. Friedman
University of California,
Riverside
Christopher F. Monte
Manhattanville College
Ken Olson
Fort Hays State University

Chapter 12
Jerry M. Burger
Santa Clara University
Donelson R. Forsyth
Virginia Commonwealth
University
Stephen L. Franzoi
Marquette University
Cheryl Kaiser
Michigan State University
Chapter 13
Robin M. DiMatteo
University of California,
Riverside
Jess Feist
McNeese State University
Regan A. R. Gurung
University of Wisconsin,
Green Bay
Chris Kleinke
University of Alaska,
Anchorage
Chapter 14
David A. F. Haaga
American University
Richard Halgin
University of Massachusetts,
Amherst
Chris L. Kleinke
University of Alaska,
Anchorage
Elliot A. Weiner
Pacific University
Chapter 15
Gerald Corey
California State University,
Fullerton
Herbert Goldenberg
California State University,
Los Angeles
Jane S. Halonen
Alverno College
Thomas G. Plante
Santa Clara University

xxiii

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

revIewers
Lyn Y. Abramson
University of Wisconsin
Bill Adler
Collin County Community
College
James R. M. Alexander
University of Tasmania
Gordon A. Allen
Miami University of Ohio
Randy Allen
Trocaire College
Elise L. Amel
University of St. Thomas
Elizabeth S. Athens
Kennesaw State University
Ruth L. Ault
Davidson College
Jeff D. Baker
Southeastern Louisiana
University
Bart Bare
Caldwell Community
College
Mark Basham
Regis University
Gina J. Bates
Southern Arkansas
University
Scott C. Bates
Utah State University
Marcelle Bartolo
Abela Southern New
Hampshire
University
Derryl K. Beale
Cerritos Community College
Holly Beard
Midlands Technical College
Ashleah Bectal
U.S. Military Academy
Robert P. Beitz
Pima County Community
College
Daniel R. Bellack
Trident Technical College
Mitchell Berman
University of Southern
Mississippi
Chris A. Bjornsen
Longwood University
Stephen Blessing
University of Tampa

Charles B. Blose
MacMurray College
Frederick Bonato
Saint Peter’s College
Robert Bornstein
Miami University
Bette L. Bottoms
University of Illinois,
Chicago
Lyn Boulter
Catawba College
Amy Badura Brack
Creighton University
Edward Brady
Belleville Area College
Nicole Bragg
Mount Hood Community
College
Allen Branum
South Dakota State
University
Robert G. Bringle
Indiana University–Purdue
University Indianapolis
Michael Brislawn
Bellevue Community College
David R. Brodbeck
Sir Wilfred Grenfall College,
Memorial University of
Newfoundland
Paula Brown-Weinstock
Fulton-Montgomery
Community College
Dan W. Brunworth
Kishwaukee College
David M. Buss
University of Texas, Austin
James Butler
James Madison University
Kate Byerwalter
Grand Rapids Community
College
Mary M. Cail
University of Virginia
James F. Calhoun
University of Georgia
William Calhoun
University of Tennessee
Cheryl Camenzuli
Hofstra University
Cari B. Cannon
Santiago Canyon College

Elaine Cassel
Lord Fairfax Community
College
Heather Chabot
New England College
Monica Chakravertti
Mary Washington College
Janet L. Chapman
U.S. Military Academy
Kevin Chun
University of San Francisco
Jennifer Clark
University of North Carolina
Michael Clayton
Youngstown State University
Elizabeth Coccia
Austin Community College
Francis B. Colavita
University of Pittsburgh
Thomas B. Collins
Mankato State University
Luis Cordon
Eastern Connecticut State
University
Stan Coren
University of British
Columbia
Verne C. Cox
University of Texas at
Arlington
Kenneth Cramer
University of Windsor
Dianne Crisp
Kwantlen University College
Christopher Cronin
Saint Leo University
Norman Culbertson
Yakima Valley College
Robert DaPrato
Solano Community College
Betty M. Davenport
Campbell University
Stephen F. Davis
Emporia State University
Peggy A. DeCooke
Purchase College SUNY
Kenneth Deffenbacher
University of Nebraska
Kathy Denton
Douglas College
Marcus Dickson
Wayne State University

Deanna L. Dodson
Lebanon Valley College
Delores Doench
Southwestern Community
College
Roger Dominowski
University of Illinois,
Chicago
Joan Doolittle
Anne Arundel Community
College
Dale V. Doty
Monroe Community College
Robert J. Douglas
University of Washington
Kimberley Duff
Cerritos College
Jim Duffy
Sir Wilfred Grenfall College,
Memorial University of
Newfoundland
David Eckerman
University of North Carolina
James Eison
Southeast Missouri State
University
Kenneth Elliott
University of Maine,
Augusta
Pamela G. Ely
St. Andrews Presbyterian
College
M. Jeffrey Farrar
University of Florida
Meredyth Fellows
West Chester University
Donald Fields
University of New
Brunswick
Alison Finstad
University of North Dakota
Thomas P. Fitzpatrick
Rockland Community
College
Bob Fletcher
Truckee Meadows
Community College
Karen E. Ford
Mesa State College
Donelson R. Forsyth
Virginia Commonwealth
University

xxiv

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Leslie D. Frazier
Florida International
University
Christina Frederick
Southern Utah University
Barry Fritz
Quinnipiac College
William J. Froming
University of Florida
Mary Ellen Fromuth
Middle Tennessee State
University
Dean E. Frost
Portland State University
Nancy Frye
Long Island University
Ronald Gage-Mosher
Imperial Valley College
Judy Gentry
Columbus State Community
College
Cassandra Germain
Campbell University
Linda Gibbons
Westark College
Amber Gilewski
Burlington County College
Doba Goodman
York University
Jeffrey D. Green
Soka University
Richard Griggs
University of Florida
Arthur Gutman
Florida Institute of
Technology
Robert Guttentag
University of North
Carolina, Greensboro
Cheryl Hale
Jefferson College
Jane Halonen
James Madison University
Kevin B. Handey
Germanna Community
College
Roger Harnish
Rochester Institute of
Technology
Philip L. Hartley
Chaffey College
Brad M. Hastings
Mount Aloysius College
Glenn R. Hawkes
Virginia Commonwealth
University

Myra D. Heinrich
Mesa State College
Paul Herrle
College of Southern Nevada
George Hertl
Northwest Mississippi
Community College
Patricia Hinton
Cumberland College
Lyllian B. Hix
Houston Community
College
Mark A. Hopper
Loras College
John P. Hostetler
Albion College
Jeremy Ashton Houska
Nevada State University
Stephen Hoyer
Pittsburgh State University
Allen I. Huffcutt
Bradley University
Bruce Hunsberger
Wilfrid Laurier University
Mir Rabiul Islam
Charles Sturt University
Mississippi
Heide Island
University of Montana
Nancy Jackson
Johnson & Wales University
Robert A. Johnston
College of William and Mary
Robert Kaleta
University of Wisconsin,
Milwaukee
Cindy Kamilar
Pikes Peak Community
College
Margaret Karolyi
University of Akron
Jagdeep Kaur-Bala
University of Oregon
Sheila Kennison
Oklahoma State University
Alan R. King
University of North Dakota
Melvyn B. King
State University of New
York, Cortland
James Knight
Humboldt State University
Mike Knight
Central State University
Ronald Kopcho
Mercer Community College

Mark Krause
University of Portland
Barry J. Krikstone
Saint Michael’s College
Jerry N. Lackey
Stephen F. Austin State
University
Robin L. Lashley
Kent State University,
Tuscarawas
Peter Leppman
University of Guelph
Charles F. Levinthal
Hofstra University
Gary Levy
University of Wyoming
Wolfgang Linden
University of British
Columbia
John Lindsay
Georgia College & State
University
Evan Loehle-Conger
Madison Area Technical
College
Laura Madson
New Mexico State
University
Kathleen Malley-Morrison
Boston University
Diane Martichuski
University of Colorado,
Boulder
Donald McBurney
University of Pittsburgh
Kathleen McCormick
Ocean County College
David G. McDonald
University of Missouri
Deborah R. McDonald
New Mexico State University
Siobhan McEnaney-Hayes
Chestnut Hill College
Ronald K. McLaughlin
Juniata College
Marisa McLeod
Santa Fe Community College
Sean P. Meegan
University of Utah
Steven E. Meier
University of Idaho
Sheryll Mennicke
University of Minnesota
Mitchell Metzger
Pennsylvania State
University, Shenango

Le’Ann Milinder
New England College
Antoinette R. Miller
Clayton State University
Richard Miller
Western Kentucky
University
Jack J. Mino
Holyoke Community College
Joel Morogovsky
Brookdale Community
College
Mary Morris
Northern Territory
University
Dirk W. Mosig
University of Nebraska at
Kearney
Dan Mossler
Hampden-Sydney College
Darwin Muir
Queen’s University at
Kingston
David R. Murphy
Waubonsee Community
College
Eric S. Murphy
University of Alaska,
Anchorage
James M. Murphy
Indiana University–Purdue
University Indianapolis
Michael Murphy
Henderson State University
Carnot E. Nelson
University of South Florida
John Nezlek
College of William and Mary
Bonnie J. Nichols
Mississippi County
Community College
Bonnie Nicholson
University of Southern
Mississippi
Rachel Nitzberg
University of California,
Davis
Susan Nolan
Seton Hall University
David L. Novak
Lansing Community College
Caroline Olko
Nassau Community College
Richard Page
Wright State University

reViewers

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xxv

Joseph J. Palladino
University of Southern
Indiana
John N. Park
Mankato State University
Phil Pegg
Western Kentucky
University
Gayle Pitman
Sacramento City College
Bobby J. Poe
Belleville Area College
Edward I. Pollack
West Chester University of
Pennsylvania
Gary Poole
Simon Fraser University
Michael Poulin
State University of New
York, Buffalo
Russell Powell
Grant MacEwan College
Tracy Powell
Western Oregon University
Maureen K. Powers
Vanderbilt University
Rose Preciado
Mount San Antonio College
Janet Proctor
Purdue University
Frank. J. Provenzano
Greenville Technical College
Rebecca L. Rahschulte
Ivy Tech Community
College
Bryan Raudenbush
Wheeling Jesuit University
Robin Raygor
Anoka-Ramsey Community
College
Celia Reaves
Monroe Community
College

xxvi

Sean Reilley
Morehead State University
Gary T. Reker
Trent University
Daniel W. Richards
Houston Community
College
Elizabeth A. Rider
Elizabethtown College
Alysia Ritter
Murray State University
Vicki Ritts
St. Louis Community
College, Meramec
James Rodgers
Hawkeye Community
College
Jayne Rose
Augustana College
Kenneth M. Rosenberg
State University of New
York, Oswego
Lori Rosenthal
Lasell College
Patricia Ross
Laurentian University
Eileen Roth
Glendale Community
College
Ana Ruiz
Alvernia College
Angela Sadowski
Chaffey College
Sabato D. Sagaria
Capital University
Roger Sambrook
University of Colorado,
Colorado Springs
H. R. Schiffman
Rutgers University
Heide Sedwick
Mount Aloysius College

George Shardlow
City College of San Francisco
Fred Shima
California State University
Dominguez Hills
Susan A. Shodahl
San Bernardino Valley
College
Randolph A. Smith
Ouachita Baptist University
Steven M. Smith
Texas A & M University
Thomas Smith
Vincennes University
Rita Smith-Wade-El
Millersville University of
Pennsylvania
Susan Snycerski
San Jose State University
James L. Spencer
West Virginia State College
Steven St. John
Rollins College
Paul Stager
York University
Jutta M. Street
Campbell University
Marjorie Taylor
University of Oregon
Frank R. Terrant, Jr.
Appalachian State
University
Tim Tomczak
Genesee Community College
Iva Trottier
Concordia College
Travis Tubre
University of Southern
Jim Turcott
Kalamazoo Valley
Community College
Donald Tyrrell
Franklin and Marshall
College

Mary Ann Valentino
Reedley College
Robin Valeri
St. Bonaventure University
Frank J. Vattano
Colorado State University
Doris C. Vaughn
Alabama State University
Wayne Viney
Colorado State University
Paul Vonnahme
New Mexico State University
Shelly Watkins
Modesto Junior College
Julia Watson
Lakeland Community
College
Will Wattendorf
Adirondack Community
College
Paul Wellman
Texas A & M University
Keith D. White
University of Florida
Randall D. Wight
Ouachita Baptist University
Carol Winters-Smith
Bay Path College
Daniel E. Wivagg
Baylor University
D. Louis Wood
University of Arkansas,
Little Rock
John W. Wright
Washington State University
Cecilia Yoder
Oklahoma City Community
College
Dawn Young
Bossier Parish Community
College

reViewers

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

brief contents
Chapter 1 The Evolution of Psychology

1

Chapter 10 Human Development Across the Life Span

338

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Improving Academic
Performance 23
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Developing Critical
Thinking Skills: An Introduction 26

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Understanding Gender
Differences 370
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Are Fathers Essential
to Children’s Well-Being? 374

Chapter 2 The Research Enterprise in Psychology

Chapter 11 Personality

30

378

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Finding and Reading Journal
Articles 58
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: The Perils of Anecdotal
Evidence: “I Have a Friend Who . . .” 60

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Understanding Personality
Assessment 411
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Hindsight in Everyday
Analyses of Personality 414

Chapter 3 The Biological Bases of Behavior

Chapter 12 Social Behavior

64

418

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Evaluating The Concept of “Two
Minds in One” 99
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Building Better Brains:
The Perils of Extrapolation 102

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Understanding Prejudice 449
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Analyzing
Credibility and Social Influence Tactics 452

Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Appreciating Art and Illusion 139
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Recognizing Contrast
Effects: It’s All Relative 142

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Improving Coping and Stress
Management 482
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Thinking Rationally
About Health Statistics and Decisions 486

Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness

Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders

106

146

Chapter 13 Stress, Coping, and Health

456

490

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Addressing Practical Questions
About Sleep and Dreams 176
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Is Alcoholism a Disease?
The Power of Definitions 178

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Understanding Psychological
Disorders and the Law 526
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Working with
Probabilities in Thinking About Mental Illness 528

Chapter 6 Learning

Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders

182

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Achieving Self-Control Through
Behavior Modification 215
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Recognizing Contrast
Effects: It’s All Relative 218

Appendix A

Practice Tests and Answers to
the Concept Checks A1

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Improving Everyday Memory 252
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Understanding the
Fallibility of Eyewitness Accounts 256

Appendix B

Statistical Methods A21

Chapter 8 Cognition and Intelligence

References

R1

Name Index

I1

Chapter 7 Human Memory

222

260

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Measuring and Understanding
Creativity 296
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Understanding Pitfalls in
Reasoning About Decisions 298

Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion

532

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Looking for a Therapist 561
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: From Crisis to
Wellness—But Was It the Therapy? 564

Glossary

G1

Subject Index I14
Integrated Coverage Index I29

302

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Exploring the Ingredients of
Happiness 331
CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Analyzing Arguments:
Making Sense out of Controversy 334

xxvii

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1

THE EVOLuTION
OF PSyCHOLOGy
1.1

Psychology’s Early History

1

3

A New Science is Born
The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism
Versus Functionalism
Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture
Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviorism
Makes its debut
Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes
The humanists Revolt

1.2

Psychology’s Modern History

11

Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession
Psychology Returns to its Roots: Renewed interest in
Cognition and Physiology
Psychology Broadens its horizons: increased interest in
Cultural diversity
Psychology Adapts: The emergence of evolutionary
Psychology
Psychology Moves in a Positive direction

1.3

Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified

15

Research Areas in Psychology
Professional Specialties in Psychology

1.4

Seven unifying Themes

18

Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study
Themes Related to Psychology’s Subject Matter

1.5

PeRSoNAL APPLiCATioN: Improving Academic

Performance

23

developing Sound Study habits
improving Your Reading
Getting More out of Lectures

1.6

CRiTiCAL ThiNkiNG APPLiCATioN: Developing

Critical Thinking Skills: An Introduction

26

The Skills and Attitudes of Critical Thinking
The Need to Teach Critical Thinking
An example

Concept Chart

28

xxix

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 2

THE RESEARCH
ENTERPRISE IN
PSyCHOLOGy 30
2.1

Looking for Laws: The Scientific Approach
to Behavior 31
Goals of the Scientific enterprise
Steps in a Scientific investigation
Advantages of the Scientific Approach

2.2

Looking for Causes: Experimental Research

37