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Trash. Read this sentence to see how heavily the author is biased: "Israel has failed to make peace with its Palestinian population". It is just the opposite, but the author could at least keep neutrality, blaming both sides.
06 May 2019 (16:27)
HISTORY O F T H E W O R L D M A P BY M A P 001_Half_Title.indd 1 06/06/2018 15:02 002-003_Title.indd 2 06/06/2018 15:02 HISTORY O F T H E W O R L D M A P BY M A P F O R E W O R D B Y PETER SNOW 002-003_Title.indd 3 06/06/2018 15:02 CONTENTS DK LONDON DK INDIA COBALT ID Senior Editor Dharini Ganesh Editor Priyanjali Narain Assistant Editors Aashirwad Jain, Shambhavi Thatte Picture Researcher Deepak Negi Picture Research Manager Taiyaba Khatoon Jackets Editorial Coordinator Priyanka Sharma Managing Editor Rohan Sinha Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh Senior Cartographer Subhashree Bharati Cartographer Reetu Pandey Cartography Manager Suresh Kumar Designer Darren Bland Art Director Paul Reid Editorial Director Marek Walisiewicz Senior Art Editor Vaibhav Rastogi Project Art Editor Sanjay Chauhan, Pooja Pipil Art Editors Anjali Sachar, Sonali Sharma, Sonakshi Singh Assistant Art Editor Mridushmita Bose Managing Art Editor Sudakshina Basu Jacket Designer Suhita Dharamjit Senior DTP Designers Harish Aggarwal, Vishal Bhatia DTP Designers Ashok Kumar, Nityanand Kumar Production Manager Pankaj Sharma Lead Senior Editor Rob Houston Senior Editors Peter Frances, Janet Mohun Editors Suhel Ahmed, Polly Boyd, Claire Gell, Martyn Page, Tia Sarkar, Kaiya Shang, Kate Taylor Project Management Briony Corbett Managing Editor Angeles Gavira Guerrero Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Cartographers Simon Mumford, Ed Merritt, Martin Darlison, Helen Stirling Senior Art Editors Duncan Turner, Ina Stradins Project Art Editors Steve Woosnam-Savage, Francis Wong Designer Ala Uddin Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Jacket Designer Surabhi Wadhwa Producer (Pre-production) Jacqueline Street-Elkayam Producer Jude Crozier Managing Art Editor Michael Duffy Art Director Karen Self Design Director Phil Ormerod 12 From apes to; farmers 14 The first humans 16 Out of Africa 18 The first Australians 20 Peopling the Americas 22 The first farmers 24 Origins of agriculture 26 Villages to towns 30 The first civilizations 32 The first cities 34 Egypt of the pharaohs 36 The first writing 38 Minoans and Mycenaeans 40 Bronze Age China 42 Bronze Age collapse 44 The ancient Levant 46 The Iron Age 48 Assyria and Babylonia 50 Rise of the Persian Empire 52 First cities in the Americas 54 The Phoenicians 56 The Greek city states 58 Greece and Persia at war 60 Alexander the Great 62 The Classical Age 64 Etruscans and the rise of Rome 66 Rome builds its power base 68 Roman Empire at its height 70 Roots of Indian history 72 Mauryan India 74 China’s first emperor 76 Terracotta army 78 Ancient American civilizations 80 Age of migrations 82 Han dynasty 84 The spread of Buddhism 86 The rise of Christianity 10 28 PREHISTORY 7 MYA–3000 bce THE ANCIENT WORLD 3000 bce–500 ce 004-007_Imprint_Contents.indd 4 06/06/2018 15:02 First published in Great Britain in 2018 by Dorling Kindersley Limited, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL Copyright © 2018 Dorling Kindersley Limited A Penguin Random House Company 2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1 001-278615-Oct/2018 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN: 978-0-2412-2614-8 Printed in Malaysia A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW www.dk.com 90 The Middle Ages 92 The Byzantine Empire 94 The ascent of Islam 96 Rule of the caliphs 98 The Vikings 100 The Normans 102 The Silk Road 104 Medieval renaissance 106 The Crusades 108 The inheritors of Rome 110 The Hundred Years War 112 Medieval European trade 114 The Black Death 116 The emperor and the pope 118 The Holy Roman Empire 120 Rise of the Ottomans 122 The Reconquista 124 Medieval East Asia 126 Tang and Song China 128 Medieval Korea and Japan 130 The Mongol conquests 132 Yuan China to the early Ming 134 Temple states of Southeast Asia 136 African peoples and empires 138 Mansa Musa 140 The Polynesians 142 North American cultures 144 Aztec and Inca empires 148 The early modern world 150 Voyages of exploration 152 Spanish conquests in the Americas 154 The Spanish in America 156 The colonization of North America 158 The age of exchange 160 The Renaissance 162 The colonial spice trade 164 Printing 166 The Reformation 168 The Thirty Years War 170 British civil wars 172 Reign of the Ottomans 174 East meets West 176 Mughal India 88 146 178 China from the Ming to the Qing 180 Japan unifies under the Tokugawa 182 The Scientific Revolution 184 The Dutch golden age MIDDLE AGES 500–1450 ce THE EARLY MODERN WORLD 1450–1700 004-007_Imprint_Contents.indd 5 25/07/2018 10:26 PREHISTORY Dr Rebecca Wragg-Sykes Palaeolithic archaeologist and author, chercheur bénévole PACEA laboratory, Université de Bordeaux THE ANCIENT WORLD Prof Neville Morley Professor of Classics and Ancient History, University of Exeter Prof Karen Radner Alexander von Humboldt Professor of the Ancient History of the Near and Middle East, University of Munich THE MIDDLE AGES Dr Roger Collins Honorary Fellow in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh THE EARLY MODERN WORLD, REVOLUTION AND INDUSTRY Dr Glyn Redford FRHistS, Honorary Fellow, The Historical Association PROGRESS AND EMPIRE, THE MODERN WORLD Prof Richard Overy FBA, FRHistS, Professor of History, University of Exeter CHINA, KOREA, AND JAPAN Jennifer Bond Researcher, SOAS, University of London INDIA Prof David Arnold Professor of Asian and Global History, Warwick University PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICAS Dr Elizabeth Baquedano Honorary Senior Lecturer, Institute of Archaeology, University College London PREHISTORY David Summers, Derek Harvey THE ANCIENT WORLD Peter Chrisp, Jeremy Harwood, Phil Wilkinson THE MIDDLE AGES, THE EARLY MODERN WORLD Philip Parker REVOLUTION AND INDUSTRY Joel Levy PROGRESS AND EMPIRE Kay Celtel THE MODERN WORLD Simon Adams, R G Grant, Sally Regan CONSULTANTSCONTRIBUTORS 230 Cities and industry 232 Industrialized Europe 234 Socialism and anarchism 236 Transport and communications 238 Mass Migrations 240 The age of imperialism 242 The new imperialism 244 Resistance and the Raj 246 Russian Empire expands 248 Africa colonized 250 Foreign powers in China 252 Decline of Qing China 254 Japan transformed 256 American Civil War 258 Science and innovation 260 Expansion of the US 262 Independent Latin America 264 Germany and Italy unified 266 Balkan wars 268 The eve of World War 188 The age of revolution 190 Battle for North America 192 The Seven Years War 194 The Agricultural Revolution 196 The Atlantic slave trade 198 The American Revolution 200 South American independence 202 The Enlightenment 204 The fate of Native Americans 206 The French Revolution 208 Napoleon advances 210 Napoleon’s downfall 212 The Industrial Revolution 214 Industrial Britain 216 Romanticism and nationalism 218 The revolutions of 1848 220 New Zealand and Australia 222 The abolition of slavery 224 Rise of British power in India 226 The Opium Wars 228186 PROGRESS AND EMPIRE 1850–1914REVOLUTION AND INDUSTRY 1700–1850 004-007_Imprint_Contents.indd 6 25/07/2018 10:26 348 Index 359 Acknowledgments 272 The modern world 274 World War I 276 The trenches 278 The wider war 280 The Russian Revolution 282 Political extremism 284 Aftermath of the Great War 286 The Great Depression 288 China and nationalism 290 Soviet Union under Stalin 292 The Spanish Civil War 294 World War II 296 Axis powers advance 298 Occupied Europe 300 The war in the Pacific 302 Germany defeated 304 Japan defeated 306 Hiroshima and Nagasaki 308 Partition of India 310 The founding of communist China 312 Superpowers 314 The Cold War 316 Korean War 318 Decolonization of Southeast Asia 320 European unity 322 Decolonization of Africa 324 Rockets and the space race 326 Civil rights and student revolt 328 The Vietnam Wars 330 US interventions in Latin America 332 Israel and the Middle East 334 Economic boom and environmental cost 336 The collapse of communism 338 War in Yugoslavia 340 Globalization 342 Iran and the Gulf Wars 344 The communications revolution 346 Population and energy 270 THE MODERN WORLD 1914–PRESENT 004-007_Imprint_Contents.indd 7 06/06/2018 15:02 FOREWORD This book tells the story of life on earth in more meticulous detail and with more arresting pictures than I’ve ever seen before. I believe that in this digital age, maps are more important than ever. People are losing sight of the need for them in a world where our knowledge is reduced to the distance between two postcodes. For me a journey – certainly the contemplation of a journey – is a voyage across a map. But this beautiful book offers the added dimension of a state-of-the- art journey through time. These maps display the story of the world in delightfully accessible form. They demonstrate in a spectacular way how there is no substitute for the printed page, for the entrancing spread of colour across paper that we can touch and handle. The maps are large, the colours are bold. Text boxes spring out from places whose history matters. Clear and easily readable graphics reveal the ups and downs of empires, cultures, wars and other events both human and natural that have shaped our world from the beginning. To me, history without maps would be unintelligible. A country’s history is shaped by its geography – by its mountains and valleys, its rivers, its climate, its access to the sea, its raw materials and harvests just as much as it is shaped by its population, its industry, its relations with its neighbours and its takeover by invaders from abroad. This book is more than a historical atlas: it describes the 008-009_Foreword.indd 8 06/06/2018 15:03 geography of history but adds revealing pictures as well. For me, the history of the First World War is admirably summed up by the map that describes the build-up to it on pages 268–69 and the following maps and accounts of the fighting including the telling picture of the trenches. I’ve been using maps to tell stories all my life as a television journalist and historian. The stories of the European Union and the collapse of Communism were my constant companions when recounting the events of the last half century. That part of recent history only makes sense if it is also described by maps like those on pages 320–21 and 336–37. I have spent many hours as a journalist making maps with graphics artists at the BBC and ITN to illustrate the story of wars in the Middle East and Vietnam. Far better ones are now displayed for us in this book on pages 328–29 and 332–33. No historian can do justice to the story of the rise and fall of the great empires like that of the French Emperor Napoleon without maps like that on pages 208–11. For its depth of learning and its variety of ways of giving us a picture of the history of our planet, this magnificent account – map by map – is second to none. PETER SNOW, 2018 ▽ Documenting the world Pages from the Catalan Atlas, drawn and written in 1375, show Europe, north Africa, and Asia. Over time, the maps of cartographers pass into the hands of historians and continue to feed our knowledge of how and why the geography and politics of the world have changed. 008-009_Foreword.indd 9 06/06/2018 15:03 010-011_Chapter1_Opener.indd 10 06/06/2018 15:03 PREHISTORY BEFORE WRITTEN RECORDS BEGAN IN AROUND 3000 BCE, THE STORY OF HUMANS WAS RECORDED FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS BY THE FOSSILS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRACES OUR ANCESTORS LEFT BEHIND. 010-011_Chapter1_Opener.indd 11 06/06/2018 15:03 12 P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 B c e Scientific evidence links all humans to apes. Specifically, chimpanzees are our closest non-human relatives, and DNA – the ultimate bloodline indicator – suggests that we separated from a common ancestor some 6.5 million years ago (MYA). Indeed, humans are apes – albeit in an upright, naked form. Monkeys, apes, and humans are primates that have a large brain, grasping digits, forward-facing eyes, and nails instead of claws. Fossilized remains of animals that lived in the distant past provide tantalizing evidence of just how apes became modern humans. Skeletons turn into fossils when they become mineralized into rock – a process that usually takes at least 10,000 years. Fossilized remains are usually fragmentary, but an expertise in anatomy helps scientists use the fossil record to reconstruct extinct species. Fossils can also be dated so scientists can build up a chronology of evolutionary change. For example, African fossils of a primate called Proconsul, dated to 21–14 MYA, resembled a monkey. But it lacked a tail – a feature more typical of apes – suggesting that Proconsul could have been the earliest known member of the ape family. Hominids and hominins Modern great apes (gorillas, orang-utans, and chimpanzees), humans, and their prehistoric relatives are united in a biological family called hominids. As well as lacking a tail, they have bigger brains than their monkey ancestors. This meant that many prehistoric hominids doubtless used tools to forage for food – just as chimpanzees do today. Great apes also became bigger than monkeys and many spent more time on the ground. One group evolved to walk on two legs, which freed grasping hands for other tasks. This group – called hominins – includes humans and their immediate ancestors, and dates back at least 6.2–6.0 million years to the species Orrorin tugenensis – a very early bipedal hominin found in Kenya. The first humans Not all hominins were direct ancestors of living people, but at least one branch of the genus Australopithecus might have been. Belonging to the genus Homo, the first humans were fully bipedal, with arched feet that no longer had opposable grasping toes and an S-shaped spine centred above a wide pelvis. Such adaptations helped them run quickly on open ground. The earliest species – Homo habilis, from 2.4 MYA – may have △ Flint and stone For nearly 2 million years, human technology was represented by stone flake tools and hand axes. These were made by hitting flint or other workable rock with stone to produce sharp cutting edges. FROM APES TO FARMERS The history of humankind is rooted in a part of the animal kingdom that includes monkeys, apes, and other primates. It took millions of years of evolution – over countless generations – for apelike ancestors to become modern Homo sapiens. THE RISE OF MODERN HUMANS Even before the emergence of modern humans (Homo sapiens) almost 300,000 YA, hominins had developed the traits that would make them a dominating force on the planet. From just under 1 MYA, hominins were controlling fire – for cooking, and later to help with manufacturing processes. But with Homo sapiens came a more complex culture. Archaeological evidence indicates that these modern humans dispersed widely from their centre of origin in Africa before 200,000 YA. 180,000 YA 160,000 YA 140,000 YA 120,000 YA 165,000 YA Earliest evidence of pigment use at Pinnacle Point, South Africa, for painting or as part of a tool handle CULTURE DISPERSAL TECHNOLOGY △ Lucy Shown here are the fossilized remains of the apelike Lucy – a member of the genus Australopithecus from east Africa from over 3 MYA. The fossil is sufficiently complete to suggest that Lucy walked upright on two legs. 135–100,000 YA Seashells perforated and used as ornamental beads in Middle East and North Africa are first jewellery – and earliest evidence of drilling 185,000 YA Homo sapiens migrates from Africa and into Asia 1.5 million years after the first hominins first left the African continent “We can see the focus, the centre of evolution, for modern humans in Africa.” C H R I S S T R I N G E R , B R I T I S H A N T H R O P O L O G I S T 012-013_From_Apes_to_farmers.indd 12 06/06/18 3:33 PM 13F RO M A P E S TO FA R M E R S remained in Africa, but we know that later other Homo species dispersed widely across Eurasia. The rise of Homo sapiens Only one species of human – Homo sapiens – came to dominate the world after emerging from Africa about a quarter of a million years ago. Remarkably, brain capacity doubled between Homo habilis and Homo sapiens. Bigger brainpower meant that humans could skilfully manipulate the environment and resources around them – ultimately leading to the emergence of complex cultures and technologies. For much of its time, Homo sapiens coexisted with other human species. In Ice-Age Eurasia, chunky-bodied Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) successfully lived in a range of environmental conditions, developing their own advanced cultures. But the world’s climate became especially unsuitable, and only Homo sapiens prevailed. They spread further – reaching Australia by 65,000 YA and South America possibly by 18,500 YA. Evidently, Homo sapiens had the social structures to succeed in ways that their competitors could not. The first modern humans were efficient hunter- gatherers, inventing new technologies that helped them acquire more food and travel further. This meant that they thrived in many different places, from the frozen Arctic to the hot tropics. Then, within the last 20,000 years, all around the world modern humans began to abandon their nomadic ways in favour of fixed settlements, turning their skills to farming the land, supporting bigger societies and – ultimately – setting the seeds of civilization itself. ◁ Close cousins Neanderthals – the closest extinct human species to modern humans, Homo sapiens – had larger skulls with more prominent eyebrows. Homo sapiens and Neanderthals were sufficiently similar to interbreed where they coexisted. △ Early artists These depictions of Ice Age animals on the walls of the Lascaux caves in southern France are about 17,000 years old. Similar paintings nearby show that prehistoric humans had developed a degree of creative expression as early as 30,000 years ago. 80,000 YA 0 40,000 YA Oldest securely dated painting includes a handprint in an Indonesian cave 65,000 YA Australia and New Guinea – then connected by land – are colonized by boat 60,000 YA Microliths in Africa – small stone tools, including blades – first used for cutting and scraping, the earliest known processing technology 30,000 YA Needles used for sewing in Europe and Russia 25,000 YA Siberian Homo sapiens settles on the continental shelf between Ice Age Russia and Alaska, before dispersing through the Americas 15,000 YA First use of ladders in Lascaux Caves, France 92,000 YA Evidence of the earliest known ritual burial of the dead at Qafzeh Cave, Israel 44,000 YA Homo sapiens migrate from Asia into Europe, mixing with European Neanderthals and eventually replacing them 28,000 YA Spectacular double child burial in eastern Europe shows complex hunter-gatherer cultures living on the steppes 5,000 YA A new wave of colonists – the Austronesians – migrates from Asia, across New Guinea, and reaches islands of the Pacific Ocean 20,000 YA60,000 YA 40,000 YA 012-013_From_Apes_to_farmers.indd 13 06/06/18 3:33 PM 14 E t h i o p i a n H i g h l a n d s G r e a t R i f t V a l l e y A T L A N T I C O C E A N A F R I C A Temara Dar-es-Soltan Jebel Irhoud Tighenif Hauah Fteah Bahr el Ghazali Middle Awash Omo Lake Turkana Koobi Fora Olduvai Gorge Laetoli Kabwe Makapansgat Border Cave Klasies River Mouth Die Kelders Florisbad Taung Elandsfontein Rabat Lomekwi Tugen Hills Ndutu Taramsa Toros-Menalla Singa Casablanca A t l a s M o u n t a i n s C r a d l e o fH u m a n k i n d Rising Star Cave N ile Congo Z am bezi Lake N yasa Lake Tanganyika La ke Vic tor ia Madagascar M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e We have fossil evidence for the existence of about 20 different species of African “hominin” – members of the human lineage that diverged from that of chimpanzees 7–10 million years ago. Each has been assigned to a biological group or “genus”, but the relationships between the groups and species are still debated. Only certain hominins were the ancestors of modern humans; others, such as the Paranthropus species, may represent evolutionary dead ends. Human evolution was not an inevitable, linear progression from apes. Some of our ancestors developed adaptations – in different combinations – that would ultimately mark out modern humans. Perhaps most notably, a larger brain enabled complex thought and behaviour, including the development of stone-tool technologies, while walking on two legs became the main form of locomotion. The earliest fossils assigned to our species – dated to around 300,000 years ago – were found in Morocco, but other early specimens have been found widely dispersed across Africa. This has led scientists to believe that the evolution of modern humans probably happened on a continental scale. 300,000 YA The earliest remains of Homo sapiens in the fossil record were unearthed here in Morocco “I think Africa was the cradle, the crucible that created us as Homo sapiens.” PA L E O A N T H R O P O L O G I S T D O N A L D J O H A N S O N , 2 0 0 6 THE FIRST HUMANS The human story began in Africa 7 or 6 million years ago. Through the fossil record of this vast continent we can draw a complex family tree of human relatives of which our species, Homo sapiens, is the last to survive. THE FIRST HUMANLIKE APES 7–5.5 MYA The sparse record of the earliest hominins – Sahelanthropus and Orrorin – shows that although they had shorter faces and smaller teeth, they had brains no larger than those of chimpanzees. The sole Sahelanthropus skull was discovered in Chad, far removed from other hominin sites in eastern and southern Africa. Fossils of both Orrorin and Ardipithecus kadabba are thought to exhibit features linked to developing two-legged locomotion. 1 Sahelanthropus Orrorin Ardipithecus EARLY HOMININ MIGRATION Archaeological evidence from Asia and Europe suggests that by about 2 million years ago, hominins had begun to leave Africa for the first time – long before Homo sapiens began to disperse (see pp.16–17). Experts once assumed that the migration corresponded with the appearance of Homo ergaster, but older species might have been the pioneers – a 1.7-million-year-old fossil found in Dmanisi, Georgia, resembles the earlier Homo habilis. The earliest known hominin fossils from Southeast Asia are of Homo erectus – an Asian variant of Homo ergaster, found on the the island of Java and dating to 1.8 million years ago. Stone tools from the Nihewan Basin, China, date to 1.6 million years ago. Two sites in Spain’s Sierra de Atapuerca show that hominins had reached western Europe by 1.2 million years ago. Likely route KEY Sites of fossil finds ◁ Turkana Boy The skull of a young, male Homo ergaster was found along with his well-preserved, nearly complete skeleton near Lake Turkana, Kenya. Because his brain was about 60 per cent the size of a modern human’s, his skull narrows immediately behind the eye sockets. Sahelanthropus skull E U R O P E A S I A A F R I C A Boxgrove Hexian Nihewan Lantian Sangiran Ngandong Atapuerca Ceprano Lake Turkana Olduvai Gorge Buia Daka Bodo Swanscombe Ubeidiya Happisburgh Mauer Tautavel Isernia la Pineta Konso-Gardula Dmanisi Nanjing Yunxian Mojokerto Trinil Narmada Koobi Fora Olorgesailie Zhoukoudian Steinheim Petralona Kocabas 1.6–1.3 MYA 1.8 MYA 1.7 MYA 1.2 MYA0.95–0.5 MYA MORE THAN 1.8 MYA 014-015_First_Humans.indd 14 06/06/18 4:04 PM 15 E t h i o p i a n H i g h l a n d s G r e a t R i f t V a l l e y A T L A N T I C O C E A N A F R I C A Temara Dar-es-Soltan Jebel Irhoud Tighenif Hauah Fteah Bahr el Ghazali Middle Awash Omo Lake Turkana Koobi Fora Olduvai Gorge Laetoli Kabwe Makapansgat Border Cave Klasies River Mouth Die Kelders Florisbad Taung Elandsfontein Rabat Lomekwi Tugen Hills Ndutu Taramsa Toros-Menalla Singa Casablanca A t l a s M o u n t a i n s C r a d l e o fH u m a n k i n d Rising Star Cave N ile Congo Z am bezi Lake N yasa Lake Tanganyika La ke Vic tor ia Madagascar M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a T H E F I R S T H U M A N S HOMO SAPIENS PREVAILS 300,000–50,000 YA When the first Homo sapiens became established, all other known African hominins died out, except one. Fossil remains recently dated to 335,000–236,000 years ago suggest that a species named Homo naledi was inhabiting southern Africa at about the time Homo sapiens first appeared. Whether the species interacted is unknown, but with Homo naledi’s disappearance, our species would have had Africa to itself. 4 OUR OWN GENUS APPEARS 2.58 MYA–300,000 YA Homo habilis, the first member of our genus in the fossil record, evolved and, for a time, lived alongside later Australopithecus and Paranthropus species. Stone tools from this period have been found, but it is difficult to assign them to species. Homo ergaster was the first hominin to have humanlike body proportions. It likely gave rise to Homo heidelbergensis, from which modern humans evolved. 3 4.2 MYA Numerous species of Paranthropus and early human ancestors were first discovered in the Omo-Turkana Basin 294,000–224,000 YA A partial cranium found at Florisbad, South Africa, appears to be that of a transitional individual with features common in both Homo heidelbergensis and Homo sapiens c. 200,000 YA Excavations at this cave near the Libyan coast have produced evidence of continual occupation by modern humans for many thousands of years 335,000–236,000 YA The Cradle of Humankind site contains the Rising Star Cave system where fossils of Homo naledi were first discovered in 2013 HUMANLIKE APES DIVERSIFY 5.3–2.58 MYA Fossils from this time indicate a diversity of hominin species. Fossils of Ardipithecus ramidus, found in Ethiopia, include the oldest near-complete hominin skeleton. Later, Kenyanthropus – known from a single skull – and early Paranthropus – with its enormous molars – lived alongside several species of the genus Australopithecus, one of which left the famous Laetoli footprints 3.7–3.0 MYA (right), showing that a striding gait had evolved. 2 HOMININ FOSSIL RECORD The discovery of human fossils and artefacts across Africa has helped identify different genera and species of early humans. This map shows key locations of fossil remains and artefacts, along with the era in which their owners once lived. The dates of individual finds and periods are given in terms of “millions of years ago” (MYA) or simply “years ago” (YA). 8 MYA 6 MYA 4 MYA 2 MYA 0 1 2 3 4 TIMELINE Homo naledi Homo sapiens Australopithecus Paranthropus c.1.8–1.6 MYA One of our earliest ancestors, Homo habilis, lived here alongside Paranthropus boisei for thousands of years c.350,000 YA Found in 1973, the Ndutu cranium has features common to both Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens, and has been assigned to Homo heidelbergensis 3.6–3 MYA The discovery of Australopithecus bahrelghazali fossils in Chad extended the known range of Australopithecus species 300,000–125,000 YA The very robust Homo heidelbergensis cranium found in Kabwe, Zambia, in 1921, once held a brain approaching the size of modern humans’ 3.3 MYA The oldest stone tools ever discovered, from the archaeological site of Lomekwi, pre-date the appearance of the Homo genus Handaxe, probably H. ergaster 5.8 MYA The history of hominin occupation of the Middle Awash site in Ethiopia’s Afar Depression stretches back to the time of Ardipithecus kadabba Australopithecus Paranthropus Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo heidelbergensis Ardipithecus Kenyanthropus 014-015_First_Humans.indd 15 06/06/2018 16:23 P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e16 S A H U L A F R I C A A S I A E U R O P E Matenkupkum, Balof, and Panakiwuk Huon Peninsula Jerimalai Yamashita-cho Tianyuan Cave Zhoukoudian Ust-mil Mal’ta Malaia Syia Kara-Bom Denisova Cave Ust Karakol Mamontovaya Kurya Byzovaia Kostenki Bacho Kiro Misliya Cave Jebel Faya Herto / Middle Awash Singa Omo Kibish Laetoli Border Cave Florisbad Klasies River MouthBlombos Caves Jwalapuram Balangoda Lenggong Valley Tam Pa Ling caves Skhul Qafzeh Taramsa Pestera cu Oase Cioclovina Mladec Vogelherd Kents Cavern Les Rois Lagar Velho Temara Dar-es-Soltan Jebel Irhoud Hohle Fels Chatelperron Gorham’s Cave Hauah Fteah Yana Teshik Tash Okladnikov Cave Al Wusta Migration routes Fossil site Archaeological site EUROPE COLONIZED 50,000–25,000 YA Despite its relative proximity to Africa, modern humans did not start to colonize Europe until around 50,000 years ago. Early sites suggest that they spread along coastlines and rivers, starting in the eastern Mediterranean. Although little fossil evidence exists, the rich archaeological material includes the first figurative carvings and musical instruments. 4 MIGRATION OF EARLY HUMANS The series of arrows on this map represents the probable migration routes of early modern humans based on current archaeological and genetic evidence. Also highlighted are some of the most significant archaeological sites that have yielded tools and cultural evidence, and locations where important fossils have been discovered. THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO TIMELINE 3 4 5 6 7 2 1 300 250 150 100 50 0200 INTERACTION WITH NEANDERTHALS 50,000–28,000 YA Neanderthals had been living in Europe for hundreds of thousands of years before modern humans arrived. Although the timing and locations are unknown, ancient genetics suggests thousands of interbreeding events. Some fossils attributed to modern humans show features associated with Neanderthals, leading some scientists to speculate that these individuals may be hybrids. 5 Fossil site Archaeological site EARLY ASIAN EXPANSIONS 194,000–88,000 YA The earliest evidence of modern humans living outside Africa are a partial jaw and teeth from Misliya Cave in Israel, dated to 194,000–177,000 years ago. Fossils from Skhul and Qafzeh, also in Israel, dated to around 120,000 years ago possibly represent a subsequent wave of expansion. The discovery of an 88,000-year-old finger bone in Al Wusta, Saudi Arabia, has extended the range of early migrations to the Arabian Peninsula. 2 Migration routes Fossil site EASTERN COASTAL ROUTE 80,000–40,000 YA The genetic trail of modern humans leaving Africa leads through the Middle East, then along the coast of south Asia. People living off rich coastal resources may have made swift progress. Fossil evidence proves that they reached Borneo by 40,000 years ago, while Australian sites have been dated to 65,000 years ago. 3 Migration routes Fossil site Archaeological site HOMO SAPIENS IN AFRICA 300,000–70,000 YA Before Homo sapiens first left Africa they flourished as a species and began to exhibit what we might recognize as “modern” behaviour. Excavations at the Blombos Caves, on the southern tip of Africa, have produced some of the earliest evidence of complex thought and innovation, including jewellery, engraved stones, refined bone tools, projectile weapons, and painting materials. 1 Fossil site Archaeological site Land exposed due to lower sea level 20,000 YA KEY 42,000–37,000 YA DNA extracted from remains of Homo sapiens from Pestera cu Oase, Romania, is estimated to be 5–11 per cent Neanderthal, meaning that it had a Neanderthal relation within 4–6 generations 38,700–36,200 YA A male from Kostenki is one of the oldest modern humans found in Europe 300,000 YA Jebel Irhoud is the site of the earliest Homo sapiens yet found – a kind of proto-Homo sapiens with a modern, flat face but a primitive rear skull 38,000–30,000 YA Balangoda Man in Sri Lanka represents the earliest reliably dated record of anatomically modern humans in south Asia 35,000 YA Border Cave yielded the Lebombo Bone to archaeologists – this bears marks suggesting a counting tally, similar to those used in recent times by the San people of the Kalahari 24,000 YA According to DNA analysis, Mal’ta Boy shares a close ancestry with the male found in Kostenki, Europe 016-017_Out_of_Africa.indd 16 06/06/18 4:04 PM O U T O F A F R I C A 17 S A H U L A F R I C A A S I A E U R O P E Matenkupkum, Balof, and Panakiwuk Huon Peninsula Jerimalai Yamashita-cho Tianyuan Cave Zhoukoudian Ust-mil Mal’ta Malaia Syia Kara-Bom Denisova Cave Ust Karakol Mamontovaya Kurya Byzovaia Kostenki Bacho Kiro Misliya Cave Jebel Faya Herto / Middle Awash Singa Omo Kibish Laetoli Border Cave Florisbad Klasies River MouthBlombos Caves Jwalapuram Balangoda Lenggong Valley Tam Pa Ling caves Skhul Qafzeh Taramsa Pestera cu Oase Cioclovina Mladec Vogelherd Kents Cavern Les Rois Lagar Velho Temara Dar-es-Soltan Jebel Irhoud Hohle Fels Chatelperron Gorham’s Cave Hauah Fteah Yana Teshik Tash Okladnikov Cave Al Wusta Ancient hominins had moved from Africa into Asia and Europe well over a million years before our species first appeared (see p.14). But the details of how Homo sapiens relates to these earlier species are still emerging gradually with every fossil and archaeological discovery from the period. Genetic and archaeological evidence now overwhelmingly favours the Recent African Origin model, also known as the “Out-of- Africa” theory, which proposes that Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and later spread across the Old World, replacing all other hominin species. Homo sapiens first left Africa some time after 200,000 years ago, and some groups appear to have reached east Asia by at least 80,000 “I, too, am convinced that our ancestors came from Africa.” K E N YA N PA L A E O A N T H R O P O L O G I S T R I C H A R D L E A K E Y, 2 0 0 5 years ago, and perhaps as early as 120,000 years ago. Either via the Horn of Africa or the Sinai Peninsula, the first migrants travelled east along Asia’s southern coastline, and either north into China or eastwards across Southeast Asia. Subsequent groups headed through central and eastern Asia and finally northwest into Europe. As they moved into new territories, Homo sapiens‘ progress may have been hindered, particularly in Europe, by their encounters with other hominins, including Neanderthals and Denisovans. Little is yet known of the Denisovans, but the Neanderthal was the first fossil hominin discovered and is now known from thousands of specimens. Evidence of interaction with both species lives on in our genes. △ The emergence of art The Venus of Brassempouy (France), dating to about 25,000 years ago, features one of the earliest known representations of the human face. OUT OF AFRICA The modern human, Homo sapiens, is a truly global species, inhabiting every continent. Our colonization of the planet started before 177,000 years ago, when groups began dispersing from their African homeland. By 40,000 years ago, our species lived in northern Europe and central and east Asia, and had crossed the sea to Australia. THE STORY IN OUR GENES EVIDENCE IN HUMAN DNA The Vedda people of Sri Lanka DNA analysis has been used to show that these are the earliest native inhabitants of Sri Lanka. By comparing the genetic make-up of living people from all over the world, scientists are able to analyse the evolutionary relationships between different populations. This has enabled them to confirm our African origins and describe how and when our species spread around the world. Genetic material (DNA) has also been extracted from the fossils of some extinct species. Analysis of the DNA of Neanderthals and Denisovans has revealed that they both interbred with Homo sapiens and contributed some of their genes to modern human populations. Migration routes Fossil site Archaeological site CENTRAL TO EAST ASIA 120,000–45,000 YA Populations that spread to central and eastern Asia probably came from those that had originally colonized coastal southern Asia. The cold, bleak environments they encountered to the north would have demanded great adaptability. Those that reached the far northeast would give rise to the populations that went on to colonize the Americas. 7 MYSTERIOUS DENISOVANS 150,000–50,000 YA DNA analysis of a finger bone and two teeth from Denisova Cave in Siberia has identified a previously unknown and distinct population, the Denisovans. Although their remains have only been found at one site, their genes indicate that they were widespread. Contemporaries of the Neanderthals, they also interbred with this species, as well as with Homo sapiens. 6 Fossil site 40,000 YA Around 70 stone axes were found buried in dated volcanic sediment layers 45,000 YA Tools, along with mammoth and rhinoceros bones, show humans living above the Arctic Circle during the Ice Age 120,000–80,000 YA Human remains at Tianyuan cave are the oldest in east Asia 016-017_Out_of_Africa.indd 17 06/06/18 4:04 PM 18 P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e Nawarla Gabarnmung 45,000 YA Madjedbebe Rock Shelter 65,000 YA Upper Swan River 40,000 YA Devil’s Lair 48,000 – 43,000 YA Willandra Lakes 40,000 YA Penrith 50,000 – 40,000 YA Tasmania 30,000 YA A U S T R A L I A During the last ice age, Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania were joined in a single landmass (see p.17), which was colonized by a seafaring people who crossed the seas from Asia on bamboo vessels. These people were the first Australians. Their journey through the continent followed coastlines and river valleys. Archaeological evidence suggests that by 30,000 years ago, they had spread far and wide, from Tasmania in the south to the Swan River in the west and northwards into New Guinea. Indigenous Australians Australia’s indigenous peoples were seminomadic; instead of developing agricultural societies, they moved with the seasons. They lived in small family groups but were connected through extensive social networks. Already adept at hunting and gathering, they developed new technologies such as boomerangs, fish traps, and stone axes shaped by grinding. Over time, the groups became culturally diverse. In the far north, people of the Torres Strait – between Australia and New Guinea – became distinct from the Australian Aborigines. Aboriginal life became centred on relationships between people and the natural world, or “Country”, which included animals, plants, and rocks. These links, which have lasted into modern life, are formalized in the “Dreaming”: oral histories of creation combined with moral codes , some of which are reflected in art. THE COLONIZATION OF AUSTRALIA THE FIRST AUSTRALIANS More than 60,000 years ago, hardy, resourceful people arrived in Australia after crossing the seas from Asia. They became Aboriginal Australians and went on to establish a unique way of life with a distinct culture. The earliest known archaeological sites in Australia are 65,000 years old – a date that conforms with genetic evidence for the origins of indigenous Australians. Fossils of humans and their animal prey, as well as artefacts from the time, indicate that populations were centred around coastlines and the Murray–Darling river basins. Archaeological site pre-30,000 YA KEY △ Ancient art Discovered in western Australia in 1891, the ancient Bradshaw rock paintings show human figures engaged in display or hunting. 018-019_First_Australians.indd 18 05/06/18 11:32 AM 19T H E F I R S T A U S T R A L I A N S Part of the landscape The Jawoyn people of northern Australia have been producing spectacular rock art for more than 30,000 years. Their paintings often feature marsupials and are predominantly red and white. 018-019_First_Australians.indd 19 06/06/18 7:16 PM P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e20 R o c k y M o u n t a i n s L a u r e n t id e Ic e S h e e t C o r d i l l e r a n Ic e S h e e t S O U T H A M E R I C A N O R T H A M E R I C A B E R IN G IA S IB E R IA N en an a Sw an P oi nt U pw ar d Su n R iv er A nz ic k U sh ki c om pl ex Bl ue fis h C av e an d O ld C ro w R iv er G au lt Ix ta pa n T ai m a- T ai m a La go a Sa nt a Pi ed ra M us eo Fe ll’ s C av e Q ue br ad a Sa nt a Ju lia M on te V er de Pa ge - La ds on T op pe r M ea do w cr of t R oc ks he lte r C lo vi s La S en a an d Lo ve w el l T riq ue t I sla nd M an is m as to do n Pa is le y C av e A rl in gt on Sp ri ng s G RE EN LA N D A n d e s PA C IF IC O C E A N M ov em en t of p eo pl e M ov em en t of p eo pl e M ov em en t of p eo pl e A SI A N O R IG IN S B EF O R E 25 ,0 00 Y A Pr ob ab ly b ef or e 40 ,0 00 Y A , h un te r- ga th er er s w er e al re ad y liv in g in A si an A rc tic r eg io ns . T he se h ar dy pe op le , w ho h un te d m am m ot h at th e Ya na R H S si te in Si be ri a (2 7, 00 0 YA ), w er e us ed to h ar sh c on di tio ns an d w el l-p re pa re d to t ak e ad va nt ag e of th e lo w er s ea le ve ls th at e xp os ed th e B er in gi a la nd m as s jo in in g A si a an d A m er ic a be fo re 2 4, 00 0 YA . T he y w er e th e an ce st or s of th e fir st p eo pl e w ho c ro ss ed to A m er ic a. 1 PE N ET R A T IN G F U RT H ER S O U T H 14 ,0 00 –1 2, 00 0 YA A t l ea st o ne b lo od lin e di ve rg ed fr om th e re st o f t he N or th A m er ic an s an d m ig ra te d so ut hw ar ds . T he se pe op le to ok th ei r hu nt in g te ch no lo gy w ith th em a s th ey r ea ch ed o ut in to th e m or e tr op ic al r eg io ns o f C en tr al A m er ic a, th en d ow n to w ar ds th e eq ua to r an d So ut h A m er ic a. 4 C O LO N IZ IN G S O U T H A M ER IC A 14 ,0 00 –1 0, 00 0 YA M os t o f S ou th A m er ic a’ s ea rl ie st c ol on is ts s tu ck to th e Pa ci fic c oa st , w he re th ey s pr ea d in th e A nd ea n re gi on be fo re c on tin ui ng d ow n to w ar ds P at ag on ia . I t i s lik el y th at m an y cr os se d th e A nd es , w ith s om e pe op le li vi ng at a lti tu de s of o ve r 40 00 m (1 3, 12 0 ft ), to g o ea st w ar ds de ep in to th e A m az on b as in o r ac ro ss P at ag on ia . 5 O R IG IN S O F A R C T IC IN D IG EN O U S PE O PL ES 5, 00 0 YA W ith in th e la st 5 ,0 00 y ea rs , t he a nc es to rs o f t od ay ’s In ui t, In up ia t, a nd Y up ik p eo pl es e nt er ed A m er ic a. Li ke th e ea rl ie r co lo ni st s, th ey p ro ba bl y ar ri ve d fr om no rt he as te rn A si a, b ut s ta ye d in th e no rt h. T he co m pl ex s ki lls th at a llo w ed th em to li ve a nd h un t i n th e A rc tic a re s til l p ra ct is ed to da y. 6 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l s it e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l s it e FO U N D ER A M ER IC A N S 26 ,0 00 –1 3, 00 0 YA G en et ic e vi de nc e in di ca te s th at m os t e ar ly N or th A m er ic an s ar os e fr om o ne o f t w o br an ch es o f a po pu la tio n or ig in at in g in e as t A si a. T he se c om m on an ce st or s of A nc ie nt B er in gi an s an d to da y’ s N at iv e A m er ic an s’ a nc es to rs w er e bl oc ke d by ic e sh ee ts be fo re m ov in g pa st A la sk a. T he fi rs t A m er ic an s w en t fu rt he r so ut h an d in to C an ad a w he n re ce di ng ic e sh ee ts e xp os ed c oa st al a nd in te ri or r ou te s. 2 N O RT H A M ER IC A N C U LT U R ES 15 ,0 00 –1 0, 00 0 YA M ul tip le p op ul at io n di sp er sa ls p us he d on th ro ug h N or th A m er ic a, b ut a rc ha eo lo gi ca l e vi de nc e is do m in at ed b y st on e ar te fa ct s le ft b y pe op le s of th e so -c al le d C lo vi s cu ltu re , a ro un d 13 ,0 00 Y A . N am ed af te r an a rc ha eo lo gi ca l s ite in N ew M ex ic o, th e C lo vi s pe op le w er e m ob ile h un te r- ga th er er s w ho u se d to ol s to k ill a nd b ut ch er la rg e an im al s, s uc h as m am m ot hs . 3 16 ,0 00 Y A 6 50 ,0 00 a rt ef ac ts , m ai nl y bl ad es a nd fl ak es , c ou ld in di ca te pe rm an en t qu ar ry in g si te 13 ,0 00 Y A E vi de nc e of s to ne s pe ar he ad s an d bu tc he re d m as to do n 13 ,0 00 Y A H um an r em ai ns on o ffs ho re is la nd in di ca te po ss ib le u se o f w at er cr af t 14 ,0 00 –1 3, 60 0 YA D at es o f w oo de n to ol s m at ch lo ca l F ir st N at io n’ s (H ei lts uk N at io n’ s) o ra l hi st or y of it s co lo ni za tio n 11 ,2 90 Y A C lo vi s, fo r m an y ye ar s, t ho ug ht t o be t he o ld es t an th ro po lo gi ca l d ep os it in N or th A m er ic a 13 ,0 00 Y A B la de s an d fla ke t oo ls , b ut w ith ou t bu ri ns ( ch is el -li ke e dg es ), at U sh ki c om pl ex 16 –1 4, 00 0 YA O ne o f th e ol de st s ite s in cl ud in g no n- C lo vi s to ol s an d a ra ng e of p la nt s ga th er ed fo r fo od , i nc lu di ng s ee ds , fr ui ts , a nd c or n 14 ,6 00 Y A E vi de nc e of bu tc he ri ng o f m as to do ns 14 ,0 00 Y A H um an c op ro lit es (p re se rv ed fa ec es ) 14 ,0 00 Y A M ic ro bl ad es si m ila r to t ho se u se d in ce nt ra l S ib er ia 13 ,0 00 Y A T oo ls si m ila r to t ho se o f U sh ki c om pl ex 12 ,6 00 Y A C lo vi s- ty pe in fa nt (A nz ic k- 1) is fi rs t an ci en t N at iv e A m er ic an D N A s am pl e pr ov id in g a fu ll ge ne tic s eq ue nc e 24 ,0 00 Y A M am m ot h bo ne an d fla ke s in di ca te p os si bl e ea st er n re ac h of Y an a cu ltu re fr om S ib er ia 15 ,0 00 Y A O ld es t C lo vi s ar te fa ct s, p os si bl y us ed fo r w or ki ng w oo d an d bo ne 20 –1 9, 00 0 YA B ut ch er in g m ar ks o n m am m ot h bo ne s ar e po ss ib le e vi de nc e fo r on e of e ar lie st s ou th w ar d m ov em en ts of h um an s fr om ic e- lo ck ed n or th 13 ,0 00 Y A E vi de nc e of t ra ns iti on fr om hu nt er -g at he re r to e ar ly fa rm in g se tt le m en ts M ov em en t of p eo pl e M ov em en t of p eo pl e M ov em en t of p eo pl e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l s it e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l s it e 11 ,5 00 Y A D ou bl e ch ild b ur ia l, on e of w hi ch , X ac h’ ite e’ aa ne nh T ’e ed e G aa y (S un ri se G ir l C hi ld ), pr ov id ed D N A ev id en ce o f A nc ie nt B er in gi an p eo pl e 13 ,8 00 Y A P re -C lo vi s st on e to ol e m be dd ed in b on e 020-021_Peopling_of_the_Americas.indd 20 06/06/18 4:04 PM P E O P L I N G T H E A M E R I C A S 21 R o c k y M o u n t a i n s L a u r e n t id e Ic e S h e e t C o r d i l l e r a n Ic e S h e e t S O U T H A M E R I C A N O R T H A M E R I C A B E R IN G IA S IB E R IA N en an a Sw an P oi nt U pw ar d Su n R iv er A nz ic k U sh ki c om pl ex Bl ue fis h C av e an d O ld C ro w R iv er G au lt Ix ta pa n T ai m a- T ai m a La go a Sa nt a Pi ed ra M us eo Fe ll’ s C av e Q ue br ad a Sa nt a Ju lia M on te V er de Pa ge - La ds on T op pe r M ea do w cr of t R oc ks he lte r C lo vi s La S en a an d Lo ve w el l T riq ue t I sla nd M an is m as to do n Pa is le y C av e A rl in gt on Sp ri ng s G RE EN LA N D A n d e s PA C IF IC O C E A N ◁ C lo vi s sp ea rh ea ds Bi fa cia lly w or ke d (c hi pp ed in to sh ap e on e ac h sid e) fl in t p oi nt s w er e ch ar ac te ris tic p ro du ct s of C lo vi s t ec hn ol og y ac ro ss N or th A m er ic a. So m e 24 ,0 00 y ea rs a go th e w or ld w as lo ck ed in a n ic e ag e, w he n an A rc tic ic e sh ee t c ov er ed m uc h of th e no rt he rn w or ld . W ith s o m uc h w at er fr oz en in g la ci er s, o ce an le ve ls w er e lo w e no ug h to e xp os e a co n ne ct io n of la nd , k no w n as B er in gi a, b et w ee n A si a an d N or th A m er ic a. T h is m ea nt th at p eo pl e co ul d w al k ac ro ss fr om o ne co nt in en t t o th e ot he r, un ti l t he ir w ay b ec am e bl oc ke d as ic e sh ee ts cl os ed in o n th em . T he re , A m er ic a’ s fo un di ng p eo pl es w er e is ol at ed fo r t ho us an ds o f y ea rs , u nt il w ar m er ti m es m el te d th e ic e an d op en ed u p co rr id or s to th e so ut h, p os si bl y as e ar ly a s 20 ,0 00 Y A . D N A e vi de nc e fr om a rc ha eo lo gi ca l s ite s an d th e D N A o f N at iv e A m er ic an s al iv e to da y sh ow s th at t w o di st in ct p op ul at io ns s pl it fr om th e fo un di ng g ro up th at h ad e nt er ed th e ne w la nd s ac ro ss B er in gi a. PE O PL IN G T H E A M ER IC A S By t he t im e C ol um bu s se t f oo t i n th e A m er ic as in 1 49 2, t he c on tin en ts h ad b ee n pe op le d fo r th ou sa nd s of y ea rs . T he r ea l d is co ve re rs o f t he se n ew w or ld s ha d co m e fr om S ib er ia . T he y co nq ue re d ic e an d sn ow a nd t re kk ed e no rm ou s di st an ce s to c ol on iz e a la nd m as s of p ra ir ie la nd , d es er t, r ai nf or es t, a nd m ou nt ai ns . C O LO N IZ IN G A N E W W O R L D G en et ic s tu di es a nd a rc ha eo lo gi ca l e vi de nc e fr om s ite s in S ib er ia , N or th A m er ic a, a nd S ou th A m er ic a sh ow th at h um an s m ov ed o ve r a la nd b ri dg e jo in in g A m er ic a to A si a at le as t 3 0– 20 ,0 00 y ea rs a go (Y A ). A s th e la nd e m er ge d fr om a n ic e ag e, th es e pe op le th en sp re ad th ro ug h th e en tir e co nt in en t, po ss ib ly r ea ch in g al on g th e co as ts o f s ou th er n So ut h A m er ic a by 1 8, 00 0 YA . Ex te nt o f i ce s he et 15 ,0 00 –1 2, 50 0 YA Ex te nt o f i ce s he et 24 ,0 00 Y A La nd e xp os ed b y lo w er s ea le ve l a t he ig ht o f I ce A ge K E Y 30 ,0 00 Y A 25 ,0 00 20 ,0 00 15 ,0 00 10 ,0 00 5, 00 0 2 3 4 5 61T IM EL IN E T he h un te r- ga th er er C lo vi s pe op le w er e on ce v ie w ed a s th e fir st A m er ic an s, b ut ar ch ae ol og ic al s ite s pr e- da tin g th e C lo vi s pe ri od s ho w th is is n ot th e ca se . H ow ev er , t he C lo vi s be ca m e a w id es pr ea d in flu en ce . T he y us ed b ifa ci al s to ne p oi nt s an d bl ad es to h un t m an y of N or th A m er ic a’ s la rg e m am m al s, s uc h as b is on , m am m ot hs , a nd s ab re -t oo th c at s. In ad di tio n to th e ch an gi ng c lim at e an d ha bi ta ts o f th es e sp ec ie s, h un te rs w er e po ss ib ly o ne o f th e m ai n fa ct or s th at le d to th ei r ex tin ct io n. O n ly o ne o f t he se w en t o n to s et tle th e A m er ic as – th e an ce st or s of N at iv e A m er ic an s. T he o th er p op ul at io n – kn ow n as th e A nc ie nt Be ri ng ia ns – m ay h av e be en is ol at ed o n or o ut si de B er in gi a un ti l a ft er th e gl ac ia l m el t, as e vi de nc e of th ei r D N A is d is ti nc t f ro m th at o f a ny pa st o r p re se nt N at iv e A m er ic an s. G en et ic s sh ow th at b et w ee n 17 ,5 00 an d 14 ,6 00 Y A , t he g ro up th at h ad e nt er ed A m er ic a br an ch ed a ga in in to t w o ne w li ne ag es , n or th er n an d so ut he rn . P eo pl e w ho c on ti nu ed fu rt he r f ol lo w ed r ou te s al on g th e Pa ci fic c oa st a nd fa r i nt o th e in te ri or . So m e be ca m e se pa ra te d ov er v as t d is ta nc es , b ut r em ai ne d ge ne tic al ly si m ila r, su gg es ti ng th at th ey m ov ed r ap id ly . W ith in a fe w th ou sa nd ye ar s, th ey h ad e st ab lis he d th em se lv es in C en tr al A m er ic a, a nd ju st ce nt ur ie s af te r t ha t h ad e nt er ed P at ag on ia . “T he y m ad e pr eh is to ry , t ho se la tte r- da y A si an s w ho , b y ju m pi ng c on tin en ts b ec am e th e fir st A m er ic an s. T he ir s w as a c ol on iz at io n th e lik es a nd s ca le o f w hi ch … w ou ld n ev er b e re pe at ed .” D A V ID J M E LT Z E R , FI R ST P E O P LE S IN A N E W W O R LD : C O LO N IZ IN G I C E A G E A M E R IC A , 2 0 0 9 11 ,5 00 Y A O ld es t hu m an s ke le to n, “L uz ia ”, fo un d in B ra zi l 11 ,0 00 Y A S pe ar he ad , hu m an fo ss il, a nd r em ai ns of h un te d an im al s 10 ,5 00 Y A S to ne s cr ap er s, ch op pe rs , a nd b ol as , po ss ib ly u se d to h un t bi rd s 13 ,1 00 Y A H um an h ab it at io n w ith li vi ng fl oo r, he ar th , an d ho rs es 18 ,5 00 –1 4, 50 0 YA O ld es t hu m an h ab it at io n in S ou th A m er ic a, p os si bl y a co as ta l cu ltu re ; u nu su al ly g oo d pr es er va tio n in cl ud in g he ar th s, h id e, a nd p la nt s Ex ti nc t sa br e- to ot he d ca t T H E C LO V IS ST O N E A G E H U N T ER S 020-021_Peopling_of_the_Americas.indd 21 05/06/18 4:44 PM P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e22 THE FIRST FARMERS Working the land to grow food was an entirely new way of life for prehistoric humans. It turned them from nomads into farmers – and created settlements with permanent buildings, larger societies, and the potential to develop more elaborate technology and culture. The earliest humans mostly lived in small nomadic bands and went wherever food was plentiful. They tracked the migrations of large animals as they hunted for meat, just as they followed the seasonal bounties of fruit and seeds. They built – and rebuilt – simple camps, carrying a few lightweight belongings with them. This hunter-gatherer existence supported humans through the last ice age, but, about 12,000 years ago, a rise in Earth’s temperature opened up a world of alternative possibilities. One species of human – Homo sapiens – successfully emerged into this warmer world. By this time, these modern humans had spread far beyond their African ancestral home into Asia, Australasia, and America. And independently, all over the world, they had begun creating permanent farming settlements. Settling down Permanent camps with stronger houses made sense in places where the land was especially fertile – such as on floodplains of rivers. Settlers could support more hungry mouths by hunting, fishing, and gathering plant food around a local foraging ground that was rich in resources. This was just a small step from farming as it was more convenient to nurture or transplant food plants closer to home, or plant their seeds and tubers (some recent evidence suggests people had started to do this as early as 23,000 years ago) – while the most amenable wild animals were confined to pens. These first farms produced more food to feed more people, so settlements could grow bigger and even produce a surplus to help with leaner times. Valuable food stores – defended from competing camps – became another reason to stay in one place. Domestication By about 10,000 bce, agriculture had emerged in Eurasia, New Guinea, and America, with farmers relying on local plants and animals as favoured sources of food. They learned that some species were more useful than others, and so these became staple parts of their diets. In the fertile floodplains of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), local wild wheat and barley became the cereals of choice, while goats and sheep provided meat. East Asia’s main cereal was rice, and in Central America, farmers cultivated maize. In all cases, the first farmers selected the most manageable and high- yielding plants and animals. Over time and generations, their choices would change the traits of wild species, as crops and livestock passed on their characteristics to form the domesticated varieties we use today. With ▷ Early farming villages This settlement at Mehrgarh in modern Pakistan dates from 7000 bce. It had mud-brick houses and granaries to store surplus cultivated cereal. △ Innovative tools Wooden tools called adzes had blades made from stone that were sufficiently strong to fell trees, open up land for pasture, or dig hard ground. 11,000 bce 9000 bce10,000 bce 8000 bce CROPS ANIMALS 10,000 bce Lentils, peas, and chickpeas in Middle East provide an additional source of protein – improving the dietary balance along the Fertile Crescent 10,000–5000 bce Maize domesticated in Central America becomes the staple cereal in the Americas, while squash plants are selectively bred to reduce bitterness of their taste 10,000 bce In southwest Asia, local animals – including sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle – are domesticated and will become globally important livestock SETTLED LIVING As modern humans dispersed around the world, they relied on local plants and animals for sustenance. Nomadic societies gave way to settled communities as people planted the first crops or corralled the first livestock. Domestication of wild species began from about 12,000 years ago. The first farmers used the most edible species that were easiest to harvest, growing their food in abundance, providing enough to support larger populations, and ultimately out-competing hunter-gatherers. 11,000–9000 bce Wheat and barley are grown in southwest Asia to produce non-shattering seed heads that are easier to harvest – the first domesticated cereals 022-023_The_first_farmers.indd 22 06/06/18 6:07 PM T H E F I R S T FA R M E R S 23 domestication, settlements became increasingly reliant on the limited kinds of plants and animals that provided the bulk of their food. As a result, although food was plentiful it sometimes lacked dietary balance. More time was needed to work the land, and livestock could be lost during droughts. People’s health was often poor, as crowded settlements encouraged the spread of infectious disease among humans as well as their livestock. Ultimately, agriculture’s success, or otherwise, was a trade-off between these risks and benefits. In some parts of the world – such as the Australian interior – conditions favoured more traditional nomadic lifestyles, and here humans largely remained hunter-gatherers. As farmers gained a better understanding of the needs of their crops and livestock, they developed ways of overcoming risks and increasing productivity. They learned how to use animal dung as fertilizer or to irrigate the land by diverting rivers – curtailing effects of seasonal drought. In Egypt, for example, the waters of the Nile were used for large-scale irrigation of farmland, helping to lengthen growing seasons. Over time, food productivity became material wealth: more food not only fed more people but facilitated trade, too. At the same time, larger settlements could support people with different skills, such as craftsmen and merchants. It meant that the agricultural revolution would have far- reaching consequences for the history of humankind – including the emergence of industrial towns and cities. ◁ Working the land A wooden model, from 2000 bce, of a man ploughing the land with oxen, depicts the earliest kind of scratch plough, which cut a furrow through hard ground ready for sowing seeds. △ Feral ancestor The Armenian mouflon from south- western Asia is the possible ancestor of the domesticated sheep, which was one of the earliest animal species to be tamed, at around 10,000 bce. 5000 bce6000 bce 3000 bce4000 bce 2000 bce 7000 bce Rice plants grown in the fertile Yangtze River valley in China are bred to provide larger, more nutritious grains 5000 bce Potato plants are grown in Peru and northern Argentina – the ancestors of potatoes used as a staple today 4000 bce Pearl millet is grown in the Sahel regions and – along with sorghum – becomes one of the staple cereals of Africa 7000 bce Cattle domesticated in northern Africa, pre-dating the emergence of most crops on the African continent 5500 bce Horses are domesticated in central Asia 5000 bce Llama, alpaca, and guinea pig are domesticated in South America; llamas are used for meat, wool, and as beasts of burden 3000 bce Dromedary camels are domesticated in Africa and Arabia – and used for transport or for their meat and milk 2000 bce Turkeys are domesticated in Mexico and used for meat and their feathers, and later have ceremonial significance “Farming was the precondition for the development of … civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, China, the Americas, and Africa.” G R A E M E B A R K E R , B R I T I S H A RC H A E O LO G I S T, F RO M A G R I C U LT U R A L R E V O L U T I O N I N P R E H I S T O RY , 2 0 0 6 4000 bce Chickens are used as food and for cock-fighting in southern Asia, although genetic evidence suggests a much earlier origin as a domesticated bird, possibly before 10000 bce 022-023_The_first_farmers.indd 23 06/06/18 6:07 PM P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e24 Evidence for agriculture’s origins comes from archaeology and from DNA of crops or livestock, and their wild counterparts. No-one knows exactly why people started to work the land. Perhaps they transplanted wild crops closer to home for convenience, or saw the potential of germinating seeds. Whatever happened, as climates warmed in the wake of the Ice Age and populations swelled, people around the world – entirely independently – became tied to farming. It brought a stable source of nourishment and sometimes, when yields were good, a surplus to sustain people through leaner times. Tending crops or corralling livestock demanded that communities stayed in one place long enough to reap the harvest. Other reasons for staying in one location would have been that the new farming tools were too heavy to carry from place to place and any food surplus had to be stored. While agrarian settlements grew to become the seeds of civilization, their communities spread, taking their skills, plants, and livestock with them. ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE When hunter-gatherers abandoned their nomadic life and became the first farmers, they were doing more than feeding their families. They were kick-starting an agricultural revolution that would have enormous implications for the future of humanity. DIFFERENT KINDS OF CROPS AND LIVESTOCK: AMERICA 10,000–2000 bce Across the Old World, similar kinds of crops and livestock were being used in separate centres of agriculture. But the early colonizers of the Americas found entirely new plants, such as squashes and maize. The variety of these plants increased as people from different regions exchanged their produce. The only large animals suitable for domestication in the Americas, llamas and alpacas, were both found in the Andes. 5 Archaeological site Maize and millet Peanut Squash and sunflower Squash and avocado Potato Turkey Llama and alpaca DOMESTICATION REVOLUTION WILD SPECIES TO CROPS AND LIVESTOCK Produce of artificial selection Bigger cobs of domesticated maize (left) are descended from wild maize (right). The crops and livestock that humankind uses today descended from wild species that had rather different characteristics. Farmers chose to breed from individuals that served them best, such as by selecting ones that provided better yields or were more easily managed. This so-called artificial selection, applied over many generations and sometimes across centuries, gave rise to domesticated forms of plants and animals. “… Almost all of us are farmers or else are fed by farmers” J A R E D D I A M O N D , F R O M G U N S , G E R M S , A N D S T E E L , 19 9 7 ADVENT OF AGRICULTURE Agriculture arose independently in different parts of the world, before diffusing into adjacent regions. Each area developed its own specific crops, dependent on the region’s climate, and some produce went on to become globally important as communities expanded across the world. Main independent centres of domestication Secondary centres Cereals Pulses Fruits and vegetables KEY 12,000 bce 10,000 8000 6000 4000 2000 1 2 3 4 5 TIMELINE 9000 bce Rapid domestication of maize 5000 bce Evidence of squash domestication 6000 bce Earliest domestication of llamas by Incas 2000 bce Earliest domestication of turkeys by Mayans △ Hungarian statuette Agriculture’s significance to community life was frequently expressed in art, such as this 5th-millennium sickle- clasping idol, from central Europe. Modern maize cob Teosinte (original wild plant) 2000 bce Maize cultivation spreads from Mesoamerica to North America Globally important produce Mainly regional produce Livestock Tubers and roots SIZE KEY S O U T H A M E R I C A E U R O P E A F R I C A N O R T H A M E R I C A A S I A A U S T R A L I A Mississippi Valley Mesoamerica West African Sahel Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys New Guinea Highlands Sahel and Upper Nile Valley Fe rti le Crescent Ganges River Valley A n d e s Lake Balkhash 024-025_Origins_of_agriculture.indd 24 06/06/2018 17:14 O R I G I N S O F AG R I C U LT U R E 25 EARLIEST EVIDENCE OF AGRICULTURE: MESOPOTAMIA 12,000–4000 bce It is no coincidence that some of the earliest crops were grown on the nutrient-rich floodplain between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers of modern-day Iraq. Here in ancient Mesopotamia (meaning “between rivers”), wheat was domesticated around 11,000 bce. This region was part of a so-called “Fertile Crescent” that stretched westwards as far as the Levant and became key to the global agricultural revolution. 3 Archaeological site Wheat and barley Lentil, pea, and chickpea Olive Sheep, goat, pig, and cattle Archaeological site Sorghum and millet Oil palm and date palm Cattle, donkey, and camel LIVESTOCK BEFORE CROPS: AFRICA 9000–2000 bce In some parts of the world, animals were domesticated before crops. In Africa, cattle were being used as early as 9000 bce, but local cereals, such as millet and sorghum, were not domesticated until thousands of years after that. Agriculture began in the Sahara; due to increased rainfall after the Ice Age, the area was then covered by grasslands, lakes, and marshes. As the region dried, agriculture spread southwards. 4 Archaeological site Millet and rice Rice Soybean Mungbean Melon Pig, horse, chicken, duck Cattle DOMESTICATION OF CROPS IN ASIA: CHINA 11,000–3000 bce Rice became the staple cereal crop in river valleys in China. Farmers chose the best glutinous rice grains to grow more plants, so rice grains got bigger. This human-driven change had already transformed wild wheat in Mesopotamia, where harvesting by sickles had, by chance, favoured non-shattering seed heads. But selection of rice grains in Asia probably happened through more conscious effort. 1 Archaeological site Banana Taro and yam AGRICULTURE IN THE WET TROPICS: NEW GUINEA 10,000–4000 bce Covered with rainforest, the tropical island of New Guinea offered a completely different mix of food plants. Instead of cereals, people grew fruit and root crops – notably banana and taro, the latter of which has both edible roots and leaves and is still a local food staple. But farming here was only part of the local economy; the region remains today the only primary centre of agriculture that has not contributed domesticated species to the rest of the world. 2 10,500 bce Modern cattle domesticated from a small founding herd containing possibly as few as 80 animals 3500–3000 bce Archaeological evidence of sorghum domestication 7000 bce Possible early cultivation of rice in southern Asia Before 10,000 bce Wild junglefowl, ancestor of modern-day chickens, are domesticated 8000 bce Origin of all domesticated Asian rice 10,000 bce Archaeological evidence of millet, the earliest known dry farming crop in Asia 5500 bce Earliest evidence of horse domestication, including use of harnesses 7000 bce Archaeological evidence of banana and taro cultivation 3100 bce First major irrigation project under Egypt’s First Dynasty diverts floodwater of the Nile 7000 bce Arrival of agriculture in Europe, with food-producing economy adopted in Greece 10,200 bce Earliest evidence of pig domestication 10,000 bce Earliest evidence of sheep and goat domestication 11,000 bce Earliest evidence of plant domestication in the form of emmer and einkorn wheats 1 MYA Evidence of first controlled use of fire by humans, at Wonderwerk Cave; possibly earliest barbeque 5000 bce Likely origin of domesticated oil palm 4500 bce Evidence of pearl millet domestication; the earliest known cultivated crop in Africa 5000 bce Earliest known domestication of cattle in Africa S O U T H A M E R I C A E U R O P E A F R I C A N O R T H A M E R I C A A S I A A U S T R A L I A Mississippi Valley Mesoamerica West African Sahel Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys New Guinea Highlands Sahel and Upper Nile Valley Fe rti le Crescent Ganges River Valley A n d e s Lake Balkhash 024-025_Origins_of_agriculture.indd 25 06/06/2018 17:14 P R E H I S TO RY 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e26 B l a c k S e a C a s p i a n S e a P e r s i a n G u l f Jo rd an E uphra t e s N ile T ig r is Lak e V an Lake U rm ia Nile Delta M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a T a u r u s M o u n t a i n s Z a g r o s M o u n t a i n s I r a n i a n P l a t e a u A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a L e v a n t CYPRUS S i n a i M e s o p o t a m i a A n a t o l i a SYR I A S y r i a n D e s e r t EG Y P T Eridu Jarmo Beidha Khirokitia Byblos Çatal Höyük Jericho Ain Ghazal Nippur Hacilar Canhasan Ugarit Mureybat Tell es Sawwan Baghouz Tepe Gawra Tell Halaf Tell el ’Ubaid Tepe Sabz Choga Mami Tepe Guran Ali Kosh Tepe Giyan Uruk Gobekli Tepe Tell Arpachiyah Tell Abu Hureyra Tell Zeidan Tell Hassuna Tell Brak Just as agriculture turned humans into a more sedentary species, so the settlements they made drove the attributes of modern human society: material accumulation, industry, and trade. This happened in places around the world, but nowhere is the evidence for it clearer than in southwest Asia. Here the first farmers produced enough food on fertile soils to support denser populations. Although life was labour-intensive, and there was a greater risk of disease from overcrowding and malnutrition, there were benefits of living together in one place over a long period. People could concentrate on producing a surplus and perfect skills to make their lives easier. Clay was baked into bricks for making stronger houses or fashioned into large storage vessels. As towns grew they were sometimes fortified with surrounding walls. Shells from the Mediterranean showed wide trade links developing, while copper gradually supplanted flint for better tools. As society itself divided into craftspeople, merchants, and their leaders, these first local industries brought material wealth that formed the basis of the first exchange economies. VILLAGES TO TOWNS As nomadic hunter-gatherers began farming, for the first time in history human populations became anchored to fixed points on a map of civilization. Settlements grew in size and complexity; the first villages became the first towns. POTTERY IN THE STONE AGE HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL OF CLAY Halaf vase Mesopotamian pottery was decorated with geometric designs as early as 6000 bce. Fired clay had been used to make figurines and pots before 20,000 YA. It later became important in constructing dwellings. Wet clay was used to reinforce brushwood walls. Solid bricks gave protection from the elements and enemies, while creative clay technology was used to fashion more decorative pots. “… it made sense for men to band together… for… management of the environment.” J M R O B E R T S , F R O M H I S T O RY O F T H E W O R L D , 19 9 0 From 10,000 bce Camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherers grows into one of the world’s oldest cities 7400–5200 bce Early proto-urban settlement develops new burial traditions beneath houses 10,300–9550 bce Settlement consisting of farms supporting thousands of people produces lime-plaster statues representing the human form 7200 –6500 bce People cultivate cereals, and herd goats, while hunting animals and gathering nuts 15,000 bce 10,000 bce 5000 bce 1 ce EMERGENCE OF SETTLEMENTS The chronology of settlement in southwest Asia followed an arc from the earliest camps in the west to the foundations of would-be cities in the east. Within 8,000 years – right across the region – agrarian villages were becoming industrial towns. 2 3 4 1 TIMELINE 4900 bce Sophisticated use of copper, including mace-heads and jewellery 6000 bce After a period of abandonment, village is reoccupied by a culture with advanced pottery 9000 bce A town with two-storey, round, stone houses From 8000 bce One of the oldest continuously inhabited towns in the world 6000 bce Small fortified town with a surrounding wall 026-027_Villages_to_towns.indd 26 06/06/18 4:04 PM V I L L AG E S TO TOW N S 27 B l a c k S e a C a s p i a n S e a P e r s i a n G u l f Jo rd an E uphra t e s N ile T ig r is Lak e V an Lake U rm ia Nile Delta M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a T a u r u s M o u n t a i n s Z a g r o s M o u n t a i n s I r a n i a n P l a t e a u A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a L e v a n t CYPRUS S i n a i M e s o p o t a m i a A n a t o l i a SYR I A S y r i a n D e s e r t EG Y P T Eridu Jarmo Beidha Khirokitia Byblos Çatal Höyük Jericho Ain Ghazal Nippur Hacilar Canhasan Ugarit Mureybat Tell es Sawwan Baghouz Tepe Gawra Tell Halaf Tell el ’Ubaid Tepe Sabz Choga Mami Tepe Guran Ali Kosh Tepe Giyan Uruk Gobekli Tepe Tell Arpachiyah Tell Abu Hureyra Tell Zeidan Tell Hassuna Tell Brak ◁ Ain Ghazal statue Bigger settlements nurtured more complex belief systems. Lime- plaster human figures, buried beneath floors, are possible evidence of early ancestor worship. From 10,200 bce Small village of Natufian culture hunter-gatherers TRANSITION FROM NOMADS TO SETTLEMENTS 12,500–9000 bce The Natufian people, descended from nomads of the Levant and Sinai, made the earliest settlements in southwest Asia, from about 12,500 bce. At first these were probably nothing more than seasonal hunting camps, although evidence for these is scant because nomads had few material possessions. Their descendants stockpiled food that demanded permanent storage. 1 Spread of settlements Archaeological site FIRST AGRARIAN SETTLEMENTS 11,000–6000 bce Farmers emerged from early settlers who exploited wild cereals, such as rye, which was cultivated as early as 11,050 bce. At first, settlers rallied together to protect wild food plants from grazing animals, but, over time, plants were moved or seeds sown closer to home. Houses became more permanent, as mud brick replaced perishable brushwood as building material. 2 Spread of settlements Archaeological site SPREAD OF MATERIAL CULTURE 7000–4000 bce More food supported bigger settlements, as villages proliferated over a wider region, from Anatolia in the west to the Zagros Mountains in the east. Çatal HÖyÜk, a rich archaeological site, might have supported up to 10,000 people. Although it lacked social hierarchy, it had a thriving industry in pottery and obsidian tools, and may have traded for seashells and flints from Syria. 3 Spread of settlements Archaeological site GROWTH OF URBAN LIFE 6000–3000 bce The Ubaid people were the first to colonize southeastern Mesopotamia as the Stone Age gave way to the Copper Age. They used copper to make tools, were led by hereditary chieftains, and may even have had a primitive democracy. Ubaid settlements merged to form bigger communities – notably Uruk, which would become one of the first true cities and a hub of major trade networks. 4 Spread of settlements Archaeological site From 9500 bce Settlement is reoccupied after a period of abandonment and thrives as a village that domesticates cereals and sheep 9130–7370 bce Oldest known temple, built by people who probably guarded plant resources but had not started farming 6100–5400 bce Town that gives its name to the Halaf Culture, known for pottery with geometric or animal designs 6500–2600 bce Becomes gateway to Tigris Valley and develops into one of the first cities 6000 bce Appears as specialized artisan village, producing fine pottery 6000 bce Trade hub, which also improves its own agriculture through irrigation 7090–4950 bce Settlement engages in organized trade of obsidian and shells with distant places From 5400 bce Develops into one of the biggest settlements of the Ubaid culture; possibly the world’s first city 2900 bce City becomes the largest in the world at the time From 11,500 bce Founded by people of Natufian culture 5500–4000 bce Becomes western outpost of Ubaid culture 5200–3500 bce Settlement that gives its name to the Ubaid culture develops use of copper-based technology 5000–1500 bce Town includes one of the earliest known temples featuring pilasters and recesses 6000 bce Town occupied by Samarra culture, known for finely-made pottery 5000 bce Settlement uses stone and flint tools and irrigation from the Tigris 5000 bce An important religious centre 6000 bce Village with agriculture 6000 bce First known use of canal irrigation 7500 bce Settlement with domestication of animals, such as goats 6400–6200 bce Small village based on dry-farming, herding, and hunting 6000–1500 bce Settlement produces monochromatic pottery 026-027_Villages_to_towns.indd 27 05/06/18 5:12 PM 028-029_Chapter2_Opener.indd 28 06/06/2018 15:03 THE ANCIENT WORLD ANCIENT HISTORY STRETCHES FROM WHEN THE FIRST CITIES DEVELOPED AROUND 3000 BCE TO THE FALL OF POWERS SUCH AS THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND HAN CHINA IN THE FIRST CENTURIES CE. 028-029_Chapter2_Opener.indd 29 06/06/2018 15:03 30 T H E A N C I E N T WO R L D 3 0 0 0 b c e – 5 0 0 c e 3500 bce The wheel is invented c. 3000 bce First signs of urbanization appear c. 2600 bce The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa are founded 3500 bce 3250 bce 3000 bce 2750 bce INDUS VALLEY CHINA MINOANS EGYPT MESOPOTAMIA THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS Fertile soil, warm climate, and an ample supply of water, along with agriculture and a stone- working technology, allowed the first urban civilizations to develop. The earliest is thought to have flourished in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) around 3500 bce. △ Ram in the thicket A fine example of Sumerian craftsmanship, this elaborately worked statuette of a wild goat searching for food comes from the city-state of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. △ Architectural wonder Giza’s pyramids were the tombs of three Old Kingdom pharaohs. From left to right, the three large pyramids seen here are the tombs of Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu. 3500–3000 bce City-states such as Uruk and Ur develop 3100 bce The earliest form of cuneiform script is used 3100 bce King Narmer unites Upper and Lower Egypt; the hieroglyphic script develops Of all the factors that helped civilizations grow, water was perhaps the most important. The earliest known civilization was born in Sumer, in southern Mesopotamia, in the fertile region between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The Sumerians were drawn to the area they settled in because of the abundance of fresh water the rivers provided. A thriving trading centre of the Sumerian civilization, Uruk is generally considered to be the world’s first city. It boasted 6 miles of defensive walls and a population that numbered between 40,000 and 80,000 at the height of its glory in 2800 bce. Other Sumerian city-states that contributed significantly to the civilization included Eridu, Ur, Nippur, Lagash, and Kish. Probably the most important Sumerian invention was the wheel, followed by the development of cuneiform writing. The first pyramids Just as the Sumerians depended on the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, the Egyptian civilization could not have come into existence without the Nile. The water from the Nile flooded the plains for 6 months annually, leaving behind a nutrient-rich layer of thick, black silt. This meant that the early Egyptians could cultivate crops, including grains, and fruit and vegetables. In around 3400 bce, two Egyptian kingdoms flourished – Upper Egypt in the Nile valley and Lower Egypt to the north. Some 300 years later, King Narmer unified the two kingdoms, establishing Memphis as the capital of united Egypt. It was near Memphis, at Saqqara, that the Egyptians built their first pyramid in around 2611 bce. The step pyramid was designed by Imhotep – one of King Djoser’s most trusted advisors – as a tomb to house the corpse of his royal master. More than 130 pyramids followed. The most significant of these was the Great Pyramid, constructed at Giza for Khufu, who reigned from 2589 to 2566 bce. Two more pyramids were erected on the same site for the pharaohs Khafre and Menkaure, Khufu’s successors. Although completely unrelated, pyramid-shaped “This is the wall of Uruk, which no city on Earth can equal.” E P I C O F G I L G A M E S H , C . 2 0 0 0 bce ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS City-based civilization is thought to have originated in Mesopotamia (the area between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris), followed by Egypt’s Nile Valley. Civilizations grew independently in the fertile basins of the Yellow River in China and the Indus Valley in today’s Pakistan and India. In each case, a great river created the conditions for intensive, efficient agriculture. Early cities also grew in Peru, for reasons not yet fully understood. In Europe, the Minoans built highly developed urban settlements centered on grand palaces. 030-031_The_first_civilizations.indd 30 06/06/18 5:52 PM 31T H E F I R S T C I V I L I Z AT I O N S c. 2500 bce Earliest use of the Indus script is seen 1500 bce The Aryans infiltrate the Indus Valley from the north 1200 bce Chinese writing is used for the first time 1900 bce Construction of the temple of Karnak, at Thebes in Egypt, begins 2500 bce 2250 bce 2000 bce 1750 bce 1500 bce 1250 bce ▷ Ritual vessel This Chinese bronze food bowl, or gui, was probably made between 1300 and 1050 bce. It was used in Shang religious rituals. 2350 bce King Sargon of Akkad unites Sumerian cities to create the world’s first empire 1700 bce The Hyksos take control of the Nile delta, ending Egypt’s Middle Kingdom 1800 bce Climate change begins to affect the Indus Valley civilization 1600 bce The Battle of Mingtiao takes place, and the Shang dynasty is established c. 1646 bce A massive volcanic explosion occurs at Thera ▽ Artistic expression This colourful fresco, depicting a Minoan funeral ritual honouring a dead nobleman, decorates a sarcophagus dating from the 14th century bce. structures were also constructed in what is now Peru by the Norte Chico civilization, builders of the first cities in Americas, at some time before 3000 bce. Civilizations of the east Rivers played an equally important part in the development of civilizations in the Indus Valley (in the northwestern part of south Asia) and northern China. The Indus Valley people are known today as Harappans after Harappa – one of their greatest cities, along with Mohenjo Daro. The Harappans prospered from 3300 to 1900 bce. Until recently, the Harappans were thought to have been overrun by Aryan invaders from the north, but a more modern theory suggests that tectonic shifts that affected the rivers on which they relied were the cause of the Indus Valley collapse. Yet another theory suggests that the drying up of local rivers led to the culture’s decline. A Chinese civilization flourished along the Huang He, or Yellow River, in the north. As with the Egyptian and Harappan civilizations, here, too, seasonal floods enriched the soil. This encouraged the development of farming, while the river itself provided a useful trade route. By 2000 bce, bronze-working, silk- weaving, and pottery were being practised. The mysterious Minoans Around the same time that the Chinese civilization was developing, another influential civilization was emerging on the Mediterranean island of Crete. Its people are known as the Minoans, so named by the British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans to honour Minos, a legendary ruler who may or may not have existed. The Minoans were a great maritime trading power, exporting timber, pottery, and textiles. Trade brought wealth, and they built many palaces – Knossos being the most impressive. The Minoan civilization declined in the late 15th century bce. Some historians attribute this to a volcanic explosion on the island of Thera (modern-day Santorini), while others argue that it was the result of an invasion by the Mycenaeans from mainland Greece. 2000–1450 bce The Minoan civilization spreads from Crete through the Aegean 2000 bce Bronze casting is practised by the Erlitou culture on the Yellow River 030-031_The_first_civilizations.indd 31 06/06/18 5:52 PM T H E A N C I E N T WO R L D 3 0 0 0 b c e – 5 0 0 c e32 H i m a l a y a s C a u c a s u s S a h a r a A n a t o l i a S y r i a n D e s e r t I r a n i a n P l a t e a u Z a g r o s M o u n t a i n s H i n d u K u s h R a n g e S i n a i T h a r D e s e r t I n d u s V a l l e y A r a w a l l i H i l l s R a n n o f K u t c h B l a c k S e a R e d S e a P e r s i a n G u l f C a s p i a n S e a M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a A r a b i a n S e a A S I A A F R I C A A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a Lake Urmia Lake Van N ile Euphrate s Araks Amu Darya Das ht In du s Ki zil Irm ak Tigris C r e t e Cyprus N U B I A GREECE E G Y P T L E V A N T MESOPOTAMIA I N D I A Ebla Hafit Ajman Tall-i Qaleh Memphis Saqqara Heliopolis Abydos Hierakonpolis Edfu Elephantine Tarsus Kültepe Habuba Kabira Tell Brak Hasanlu Marlik Umma Failaka Lagash Mohenjo-Daro Tarut Rojadi Dilmun Eshnunna Khafajah Kish Shuruppak Sippar Uruk Tepe Hissar Kermanshah Tepe Yahya Naqada El Kab Byblos Nineveh Ashur Nuzi Mari Godin Tepe Hamadan Ur Eridu Tell Ajrab Nippur Adab Girsu Susa Kalleh Nisar Tepe Giyan Sialk Anshan Shahdad Bampur Shahr-i Sokhta Shah Tepe Tell as-Suleimeh (Awal) Lothal Hili Chanhu-Daro Kalibangan Harappa Dholavira Ganweriwala Mundigak Shortughai Umm an Nar Old royal tombs PRE-DYNASTIC EGYPT 4000 bce–3050 bce From 4000 bce, Egyptian cities such as Heliopolis, Memphis, and Abydos grew into key trading centres, importing metals and building stones from Nubia. They also traded with Mesopotamian cities, acquiring valuable materials such as lapis lazuli, which has its origin in the Indus Valley. By 3500 bce, Nekhen (later named Hierakonpolis) was already a large city with Egypt’s oldest known temples, housing royal tombs. 1 TRADE AND THE FIRST CITIES The first cities emerged from 4000 bce along river valleys where high agricultural productivity was possible. Archaeological findings reveal the extent to which these cities traded with one another. Egypt Mesopotamia Indus Valley Trading area KEY 4000 bce 3000 2000 1000 1 2 3 4 5 TIMELINE Trading city Trade route Archaeological site of traded goods c. 3000 bce Eshnunna holds a strategic position, controlling trade between Mesopotamia and the northeastern region c. 2700 bce Uruk’s population reaches about 50,000 c. 2040 bce Ziggurat of Ur is built by King Ur-Nammu (r. 2047–2030 bce) c. 2000 bce Egyptian cities trade with Nubia, importing luxury goods such as gold, copper, ebony, and incense c. 3100 bce Hierakonpolis is the most likely capital after Lower and Upper Egypt are unified under King Narmer c. 3000 bce Trade routes are established across the Iranian Plateau linking Mesopotamia with the Indus Valley TRADE IN MESOPOTAMIA 4000–2500 bce By 4000 bce, many city-states had emerged in Mesopotamia. Cities such as Kish, Uruk, and Ur traded local goods to the Mediterranean and also formed trade links with the Indus region – a source of luxury goods such as carnelian beads and lapis lazuli. Religion played a key societal role. Temples redistributed surplus food and craft products – offered in the name of gods – as rations, or traded them for raw materials. 2 Major temples △ King Sargon Unearthed from the ancient ruins of Nineveh, this bronze head sculpture is thought to be of King Sargon of Akkad. 032-033_The_first_cities.indd 32 06/06/2018 16:23 T H E F I R S T C I T I E S 33 H i m a l a y a s C a u c a s u s S a h a r a A n a t o l i a S y r i a n D e s e r t I r a n i a n P l a t e a u Z a g r o s M o u n t a i n s H i n d u K u s h R a n g e S i n a i T h a r D e s e r t I n d u s V a l l e y A r a w a l l i H i l l s R a n n o f K u t c h B l a c k S e a R e d S e a P e r s i a n G u l f C a s p i a n S e a M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a A r a b i a n S e a A S I A A F R I C A A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a Lake Urmia Lake Van N ile Euphrate s Araks Amu Darya Das ht In du s Ki zil Irm ak Tigris C r e t e Cyprus N U B I A GREECE E G Y P T L E V A N T MESOPOTAMIA I N D I A Ebla Hafit Ajman Tall-i Qaleh Memphis Saqqara Heliopolis Abydos Hierakonpolis Edfu Elephantine Tarsus Kültepe Habuba Kabira Tell Brak Hasanlu Marlik Umma Failaka Lagash Mohenjo-Daro Tarut Rojadi Dilmun Eshnunna Khafajah Kish Shuruppak Sippar Uruk Tepe Hissar Kermanshah Tepe Yahya Naqada El Kab Byblos Nineveh Ashur Nuzi Mari Godin Tepe Hamadan Ur Eridu Tell Ajrab Nippur Adab Girsu Susa Kalleh Nisar Tepe Giyan Sialk Anshan Shahdad Bampur Shahr-i Sokhta Shah Tepe Tell as-Suleimeh (Awal) Lothal Hili Chanhu-Daro Kalibangan Harappa Dholavira Ganweriwala Mundigak Shortughai Umm an Nar Archaeological site of carnelian beads CARNELIAN TRADE 2350–1800 bce A precious stone known as carnelian was valued second to lapis lazuli both in Mesopotamian and in Harappan society. Carnelian was sourced in and around the Indus Valley and was mostly crafted into beads and amulets. From around 2350 bce, Indus Valley merchants who traded in carnelian jewellery established links with Mesopotamian cities. 5 c. 2600 bce Construction of the city of Mohenjo- Daro reflects sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning c. 3000 bce Lothal bead-makers develop advanced methods to work with carnelian c. 2000 bce With its lapis lazuli mines, Shortughai becomes a key trading colony of the Indus civilization “The Mesopotamians viewed their city-states as earthly copies of a divine model and order.” J . S P I E LV O G E L , F R O M W E S T E R N C I V I L I Z AT I O N V O L . 1 , 2 014 AKKADIAN EMPIRE 2300–2200 bce As the Mesopotamian cities continued to flourish, powerful leaders sought control over the region. The first was Sargon (c. 2296–2240 bce). As a young man, Sargon served the king of Kish, but later rebelled and overthrew the Sumerian ruler. He renamed the city-state Akkad and built it into a military power, before conquering the cities of southern Mesopotamia and lands to the northwest as far as Byblos. 3 Sumer Akkadian Empire CITIES OF THE INDUS 2600–1500 bce Ruins of cities such as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro show planned street layouts and sophisticated water supply and draining systems. These cities produced fine metalwork and developed new techniques in handicraft. From around 2500 bce, they traded widely, despatching their goods with seals carved with inscriptions. These branding objects have been found throughout Mesopotamia, revealing how widely the Indus people traded. 4 Indus inscriptions Chlorite vessels By 3000 bce, agricultural advances led to food surpluses in some parts of the world, namely the river valleys of the Nile in Egypt, the Indus, and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, allowing the communities living in these regions to branch out into a range of craftwork – from metalworking to masonry. This gave rise to the first markets, which channelled wealth into these sites, and in doing so formed the nucleus of the world’s first cities. These urban centres mostly grew on the riverbanks, in close proximity to fertile farmland and sources of clay for brick-making. The rivers served as vital routes for transporting raw material such as timber, precious stones, and metals into the cities. Trade goods also moved over land, in particular across the Levant and the Iranian Plateau, linking the cities of all three regions. Most notably, carnelian beads and seals (branding marks on documents accompanying goods) from the Indus valley have been found widely in Mesopotamia. Many Mesopotamian cities grew into powerful city-states, some of which eventually became the capitals of some of the earliest known empires. THE FIRST CITIES The first known cities developed along fertile river plains in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), Egypt, and the Indus Valley. They became thriving trading centres with an organized social structure, and flourished in the fields of art, craft, and architecture. STANDARD OF UR MESOPOTAMIAN ARTEFACT, 2600–2400 bce Excavated from the royal tombs of Ur in the 1920s, the Standard of Ur is a tapered box decorated with scenes. The original purpose of the artefact remains a mystery, but the images on the two side panels, dubbed the “War Side” and the “Peace Side”, form a narrative that offers a vivid insight into the different aspects of life in the ancient city. The scenes also include the earliest known image of wheels used for transport. 032-033_The_first_cities.indd 33 05/06/18 4:44 PM T H E A N C I E N T WO R L D 3 0 0 0 b c e – 5 0 0 c e34 to Punt G u l f o f S u e z R e d S e a Wadi el -’Allaqi N ile Nile W adi el-Natrun Jordan Dead Sea First Cataract Second Cataract Third Cataract Fif th Cataract Four th Cataract Nile Delta A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a S i n a i N u b i a n D e s e r t S a h a r a E a s t e r n D e s e r t W e s t e r n D e s e r t C y p r u s WAWAT MEDJA N UB IA L O W E R E G Y P T U P P E R E G Y P T Giza Faiyum Hawara Beni Hasan Meir Shechem Jerusalem Heracleopolis Abydos Armant Etna Shaat Buhen Hieraconpolis Bubastis Mendes El-Lisht El-Lahun Qaw Asyut Deir el-Bersha Ipet-isut (Karnak) Thebes Madu MersaGebtu (Qift) Naqada Deir el-Bahari Quseir Elephantine Baki (Quban) Miam (Aniba) Kerma Keben (Byblos) Megiddo Tell el-Ajjul QatnaUgarit Memphis Dahshur Heliopolis M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a Kurkur Dunqul Ikkur Selima Bahariya Dakhla Kharga From c. 2700 to 1085 bce, Egypt’s kings, or pharaohs, ruled the Nile Valley for three long, separate periods, named by historians the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Egypt’s ancient civilization grew along the banks of the River Nile, which was the main artery for travel and trade. The river was also rich in fish and flooded annually, covering the banks with fertile mud, making for a highly productive agricultural region. While Egypt’s pharaohs ruled over this riverside zone, their influence spread much further afield, mainly through land and sea trading expeditions, which became more widespread in the Middle and New Kingdom eras. The Egyptians developed their own system of writing, and the pharaohs bolstered their wealth by employing scribes to record goods traded and to ensure tax was collected. The Egyptian people worshipped multiple gods and also regarded the pharaohs as deities, which lent spiritual weight to the ruling power. The strength of the pharaohs’ authority is evident in the impressive burial sites built during the ancient era, including the pyramids of the Old Kingdom and the colossal temples and tombs of the later kingdoms. EGYPT OF THE PHARAOHS Egypt was among the most enduring civilizations in the ancient world. With its succession of powerful rulers, unique religion and art, and trading networks, the culture exerted its influence in the Nile Valley and beyond for more than 3,000 years. “The All-Lord himself made me great. He gave to me the land while I was in the egg.” R A M E S E S I I , P H A R A O H O F T H E N E W K I N G D O M , 12 7 9 – 1213 bce REGION UNDER EGYPTIAN CONTROL The maps show the boundaries of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt, and include the trade routes that linked the sites of oases, cities, the great temples, forts, and pyramids. Oasis KEY 3000 bce 900120015001800210024002700 2 3 4 5 1 TIMELINE 1640 bce Hyksos people conquer Lower Egypt with horsedrawn chariots 2100 bce Large forts are built to assert power over Nubia after the region is conquered 2550 bce Pharaonic power makes first contact with oasis settlements such as Bahariya MIDDLE KINGDOM 2040–1786 bce By 2040 bce the rulers of Thebes had grown increasingly powerful and become rulers of all of Egypt. Their domain was slightly larger than that of the Old Kingdom, and their merchants travelled further to estab