Visual Guide to Grammar and PunctuationDK
A clear, precise, and comprehensive book that will give children the tools to build confidence in reading, writing, and comprehension through visual explanation.
From when to use a preposition or pronoun to how to use a comma or colon, Visual Guide to Grammar and Punctuation covers all the most important grammar topics in DK's signature style. Each example provided is supported by a picture, making it accessible and comprehensible, and clear and simple text and repetition help to solidify knowledge and understanding.
Visual Guide to Grammar and Punctuation will improve a child's confidence in using the building blocks of reading and writing, and is a book they will refer to again and again.
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Visual Guide to Grammar and Punctuation US_001_Half_Title.indd 1 13/01/17 4:19 pm Contents Written by Sheila Dignen Senior editor Marie Greenwood US Editor Rebecca Warren US Consultant Anne Flounders US Senior editor Shannon Beatty Art editors Shipra Jain, Seepiya Sahni Assistant editor Anwesha Dutta DTP designer Bimlesh Tiwary, Nityanand Kumar Jacket coordinator Francesca Young Jacket editor Ishani Nandi Jacket designers Amy Keast, Dheeraj Arora Managing editors Laura Gilbert, Alka Thakur Hazarika Managing art editors Diane Peyton Jones, Romi Chakraborty CTS manager Balwant Singh Production manager Pankaj Sharma Picture researcher Sakshi Saluja Pre-production producer Dragana Puvacic Producer Isabell Schart Art director Martin Wilson Publisher Sarah Larter Publishing director Sophie Mitchell First American Edition Published in the United States in 2017 by DK Publishing, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 Copyright © 2017 Dorling Kindersley Limited DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC 17 18 19 20 21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001–298818–Jun/2017 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-1-4654-6258-9 Printed and bound in China A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW www.dk.com Introduction 4 How to use this book 6 What is grammar? 8 What is punctuation? 9 Parts of speech 10 Nouns 12 Proper nouns 14 Abstract nouns 15 Singular and plural nouns 16 Compound nouns 18 Collective nouns 19 Verbs 20 Verbs and subjects 22 Subjects and objects 24 The verb be 26 Pronouns 28 I or me? 30 Possessive pronouns 31 Present and past tenses 32 Future tense 33 Progressive tenses 34 Perfect tenses 36 Auxiliary verbs 38 Infinitives 40 Adjectives 42 Where to put adjectives 44 Adverbs 46 Adjectives into adverbs 48 Adverbs of place 49 Adverbs of time 50 Adverbs before adjectives 51 Comparatives and superlatives 52 Prepositions 54 Prepositions of place 55 Prepositions of time 56 Other prepositions 57 Conjunctions 58 Coordinating conjunctions 60 Subordinating conjunctions 61 Interjections 62 Determiners 64 Parts of speech quiz 66 Sentences, phrases, and clauses 68 Sentences 70 Statements 72 Questions 73 Exclamations 74 Commands 75 Noun phrases 76 Prepositional phrases 77 Adverbials 78 Fronted adverbials 79 Clauses 80 Main clauses 82 Subordinate clauses 84 Relative clauses 85 Relative pronouns 86 Active and passive sentences 88 Direct speech 90 Reported speech 91 Direct to reported speech 92 Sentences quiz 94 US_002-003_Copyright_Content.indd 2 06/02/17 5:01 pm Sentences, phrases, and clauses 68 Sentences 70 Statements 72 Questions 73 Exclamations 74 Commands 75 Noun phrases 76 Prepositional phrases 77 Adverbials 78 Fronted adverbials 79 Clauses 80 Main clauses 82 Subordinate clauses 84 Relative clauses 85 Relative pronouns 86 Active and passive sentences 88 Direct speech 90 Reported speech 91 Direct to reported speech 92 Sentences quiz 94 Punctuation 96 Capital letters 98 Periods 99 Question marks 100 Exclamation points 101 Commas 102 Apostrophes 104 Possessive apostrophes 105 Its or it’s 106 Parentheses 108 Quotation marks 109 Dashes 110 Hyphens 111 Colons 112 Semicolons 113 Ellipses 114 Bullet points 115 Punctuation quiz 116 Writing tips 118 Common mistakes in grammar 120 Common mistakes in punctuation 122 Glossary 124 Index 126 Acknowledgments 128 Elephants are amazingly strong. The balloon was going higher and higher. a small white dog with a flowing cape US_002-003_Copyright_Content.indd 3 07/02/17 5:24 pm 4 Introduction When you learn about the grammar of your own language, the most important thing to remember is that you already know most of it. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you are using grammar without even realizing it! perfect te nse adjectives adverbs verbs pronouns hyphens commas capital letters future tense past tense ellipses colonsexclamations You talk about what you did yesterday and what you’re going to do tomorrow; you talk about one friend, two friends or your brother’s friends; you talk about exciting films, more exciting films and the most exciting film you’ve ever seen ... auxiliary verbapostrophes clauses past tense ellipses US_004-005_Introduction.indd 4 13/01/17 4:19 pm 5 When you talk about all these things, you are using grammar. This book will teach you how to understand the different kinds of words in English, how they fit together to create different meanings and how to use punctuation correctly when you write. Best of all, it will help you to have fun with language and become confident using it, so that you can choose the best words and the best kinds of sentences for what you want to say or write. So let’s get started! exclamation points periods subjects capital letters questio ns infinitives noun phrases parentheses direct speech objects auxiliary verb US_004-005_Introduction.indd 5 06/02/17 5:01 pm 6 How to use this book How the pages work Each page or pair of pages introduces a new grammar or punctuation topic. The heading tells you what the topic is. Introduction Each topic is explained in the introduction, for example, how to use nouns or adjectives, or how to use commas. The word or punctuation mark being covered is shown in bold. Remember! Read the rhymes—they will help you remember those tricky points of grammar or punctuation. Examples You will find lots of examples throughout. The relevant part of speech or punctuation is shown in bold or sometimes underlined. Top tips Handy tips are given to help you. There are different ways to read this book. You can either start at the beginning and work your way through, or you can dip into different topics. There are examples given for each topic, and each example is accompanied by a picture. We hope that you enjoy learning about the English language! Heading 46 47 Adverbs Top tip Using adverbs to describe how people do things can make your writing more lively and interesting. Verbs tell you what things do. For example, tigers roar and birds sing. Adverbs tell you how they do it. Most adverbs end in -ly, and they usually come after verbs. Adverbs that tell you how someone does something are called adverbs of manner. Some adverbs don’t end in -ly, but they are still adverbs if they tell you how something is done. The lion roared fiercely. She tiptoed quietly down the stairs. I won easily. You have to balance them carefully. The sun was shining brightly. I can run fast. I always work hard. You need to hold on tight. We played well today. Some birds can sing beautifully. Remem ber! Withou t an ad verb, y ou can smile, Or ride a bike or slee p a whi le. With ad verbs, you sm ile glee fully, Ride sk illfully, sleep p eacefu lly. 71 Sentences We love math! Sasha is eating a banana.Sam is playing chess. I read books. Cheetahs run fast. Beetles scuttle along. Most sentences have a subject, which tells us who does the action of the verb. A sentence is a group of words that make sense on their own. A sentence might give information or ask a question. A sentence always begins with a capital letter, and it ends with a full stop, a question mark or an exclamation point. I soccer every day. Giraffes Look at these words, and see how they become a sentence. All sentences must have a verb. You can’t make a sentence without a verb because the verb tells us what happens. The person or thing that comes after the verb is called the object. The object receives the action of the verb. subject verb verbsubject subject subject objectverb object verb Giraffes have Giraffes have long Giraffes have long necks. I want to I want to travel to I want to travel to the moon I want to travel to the moon in a rocket. I play soccer every day. Snakes along the ground. Snakes slither along the ground. subject subjectverb verbobject object 70 US_006_007_How_to_use_this_book.indd 6 08/02/17 11:52 am 7 Three sections The book has three sections: Parts of speech (blue); Sentences and clauses (orange); Punctuation (green). The color tells you which section you are in. Quizzes Try the quizzes and see if you can answer the questions. There’s a quiz at the end of each section. Common mistakes It’s easy to make mistakes with grammar and punctuation. These pages point out the most common ones. Pictures The example pictures help make the text easier to understand. 106 107 Its or it’s It’s is a short form of it is or it has. The apostrophe replaces the missing letters. The dog is wagging its tail. Look! It’s a starfish! Where’s the rabbit? It’s in the hat! This is my new coat. It’s got wooden toggles. The baby snake is coming out of its shell. This bucket has lost its handle. The baby monkey stays close to its mother. It’s raining! Where is my scarf? It’s disappeared!The bird is sitting on its eggs in its nest. I can’t play this now because its strings are broken. R emem ber! It’s a m ouse, as yo u can see. (Pleas e noti ce the apost rophe .) Its eye s are b right, its tai l is lon g. (Apos troph es her e wou ld be w rong!) You use its, with no apostrophe, to show that something belongs to an animal or a thing. it is it is it has it has it is 71 Sentences We love math! Sasha is eating a banana.Sam is playing chess. I read books. Cheetahs run fast. Beetles scuttle along. Most sentences have a subject, which tells us who does the action of the verb. A sentence is a group of words that make sense on their own. A sentence might give information or ask a question. A sentence always begins with a capital letter, and it ends with a full stop, a question mark or an exclamation point. I soccer every day. Giraffes Look at these words, and see how they become a sentence. All sentences must have a verb. You can’t make a sentence without a verb because the verb tells us what happens. The person or thing that comes after the verb is called the object. The object receives the action of the verb. subject verb verbsubject subject subject objectverb object verb Giraffes have Giraffes have long Giraffes have long necks. I want to I want to travel to I want to travel to the moon I want to travel to the moon in a rocket. I play soccer every day. Snakes along the ground. Snakes slither along the ground. subject subjectverb verbobject object 70 122 123 Bill Common mistakes in punctuation Use a comma between adjectives, when they come before a noun. Use an apostrophe to show possession, and remember to put it in the correct place. Singular Plural It’s easy to make mistakes with punctuation! Here are a few things to watch out for. You can use parentheses for adding extra information. The period usually goes after parentheses, but it goes inside the parentheses if the information in the parentheses is a full sentence. Don’t use a capital letter after a colon or a semicolon (unless it’s a proper noun or the pronoun I). Always use a capital letter at the beginning of direct speech. Don’t forget to put a punctuation mark at the end, inside the quotation marks. Giraffes live in Africa. giraffes live in africa. a huge, terrifying dinosaur a huge terrifying dinosaur He showed me what was in his pencil case: pencils, pens, and an eraser. He showed me what was in his pencil case: Pencils, pens, and an eraser. “Let’s play on the swings,” Zara said. “Let’s play on the swings”, Zara said. my brother’s shoes my brothers’ shoes I love those shoes (the red ones). I love those shoes (the red ones.) my brothers’ shoes my brother’s shoes I’ve always wanted a hamster. (My mom has always refused to buy me one.) I’ve always wanted a hamster. (My mom has always refused to buy me one). Our dog is always muddy; she loves playing in the yard! Our dog is always muddy; She loves playing in the yard! “This is fun!” Charlie shouted. “This is fun”! Charlie shouted. This is a present I bought for Arjun. This is a present i bought for arjun. a beautiful, colorful bird a beautiful colorful bird Always use a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence, for names (proper nouns) and for the pronoun I. JohnJohn 117 capital letters As Suddenly 1. Why are capital letters used in these words? 2. Can you find four capital letters used in the character’s names? exclamation points That’s Grandma’s purse! Why is there an exclamation point here? apostrophes What’s the matter? 1. What does the apostrophe replace here? 2. Can you find two possessive apostrophes? hyphens and dashes expensive-looking 1. Why is there a hyphen here? 2. Can you find a dash - is it longer or shorter than a hyphen? 3. Why is it there? parentheses (a small house near the park) Why are there parentheses here? commas As we watched from a safe distance, we ... 1. What does this comma separate? 2. Can you find a comma in a list, and a comma between two adjectives? colons they started taking things out of their bag: money, jewelry, and expensive-looking watches What does the colon introduce? Answers Here is a passage from a story for you to read. Then, see if you can answer the questions. Punctuation quiz capital letters 1. because they are at the beginning of a sentence 2. Ben, Grandma, Detective Brown quotation marks direct speech—it is exactly what someone said question marks inside exclamation points to show that something exciting is happening periods 1. four 2. ellipses ... It suggests that there is more to say commas 1. two clauses 2. money, jewelry, and expensive-looking watches; their large, black bag colons a list of things parentheses because it’s extra information apostrophes 1. the letter “i” (what is) 2. Grandma’s purse, Grandma’s face hyphens and dashes 1. to join the two words together. 2. watches—all the things they had stolen earlier; longer 3. to introduce extra information periods ... I asked. 1. How many more periods can you find? 2. What is there at the end of the story, instead of a period? What does it suggest? . ! A : ’ , (b) - question marks What’s the matter? Is the question mark inside or outside the quotation marks? ? quotation marks “What’s the matter?” What do the quotation marks show? “b” 116 Ben and I cal led Detective Bro wn and then stayed close behind as he and his partner follow ed the robbe rs back to their house ( a small house near the par k). As we watched from a distan ce, we saw th at the robbers were inside, and w ere taking th ings out of their large , black bag: m oney, jewelry , and expensive-lo oking watche s—all the thin gs they had stolen ea rlier. Sudden ly, Ben gaspe d. “What’s the matter?” I asked. “Loo k,” he whispe red. “There! That ’s Grandma’s purse!” We l ooked at each other and smiled; we couldn’t w ait to see Grand ma’s face wh en we told her we’d foun d her purse .. . US_006_007_How_to_use_this_book.indd 7 07/03/17 1:05 pm 8 What is grammar? Words scattered around on their own don’t mean very much. Words are like pieces of a jigsaw. We need to fit them together properly to make meaning. traveled planet planet distant distant zoomed zoomed alien alien spac e spac e rocket rocket into into huge huge The The An An to to up up a a We use words when we talk to and write to each other. There are thousands of different words in any language, and they all have their own meanings. Grammar is the way we put these words together so that they make sense. traveled US_008_009_What_is_grammar.indd 8 13/01/17 4:19 pm 9 What is punctuation? With no punctuation, a sentence is hard to understand. We need to add punctuation to make the meaning clear. Sometimes punctuation can change the meaning of a sentence. the toy store was amazing there were shelves packed with all kinds of exciting things wooden trains action figures brightly colored kites and lots more We found gold coins and jewels. We found gold, coins, and jewels. When speaking, you might pause when you’ve finished saying something, or you might shout if you are angry. When you write, you use punctuation to make your meaning clear. Punctuation shows the reader when to pause, when something is a question, or when something is shouted. The toy store was amazing! There were shelves packed with all kinds of exciting things: wooden trains, action figures, brightly colored kites and lots more. US_008_009_What_is_grammar.indd 9 13/01/17 4:19 pm 10 Nouns Verbs Conjunctions Adjectives Prepositions The astronaut flew to the Moon in a rocket. He’s a wizard. a green and yellow parrot hunt roar Most animals look cute when they are young. US_010-011_Opener_Parts_of_Speech.indd 10 13/01/17 4:19 pm Pronouns Tenses Interjections Determiners Adverb Parts of speech Look at the penguins! Wasps can sting you. Ouch! I can run fast. My sister wants to be a vet. Mom bought her a kitten. It snowed last night. 11 US_010-011_Opener_Parts_of_Speech.indd 11 13/01/17 4:19 pm 12 Nouns The things, animals, and people in the world around us all have names. These names are called nouns. tree castle tractor cab wheel tower dinosaur tail claw window tiger stripes fur leaf branch Rememb er! Every thin g has a na me, And every name is a noun. From a m ouse to a mountai n, From a ca stle to a c lown. US_012-013_Nouns.indd 12 13/01/17 4:19 pm 13 The nouns on these two pages are called common nouns because they don’t talk about one specific thing or person. You can use the noun tree about any tree, and the noun brother about anyone’s brother. This is my brother. He’s a singer. He’s a wizard. I’m the champion. Here’s a dragon. She’s a teacher. There are also nouns for things that aren’t real, but only exist in our imagination. US_012-013_Nouns.indd 13 13/01/17 4:19 pm 14 Proper nouns Some proper nouns are the names of people: Some proper nouns are the names of countries, cities, or towns: The names of months and days of the week are also proper nouns: Emily France New York City Cindy Adams Jack A proper noun is the name of an actual person or place. A proper noun always begins with a capital letter. We go on vacation in August. We start school on Monday. S M T W T F S US_014-015_Proper_nouns.indd 14 13/01/17 4:19 pm 15 Abstract nouns Some abstract nouns are feelings: Some abstract nouns are ideas: happiness health speed fame disappointment hunger Abstract nouns are names for things you can’t see, hear, or touch. US_014-015_Proper_nouns.indd 15 13/01/17 4:19 pm 16 Singular and plural nouns A singular noun talks about just one thing. A plural noun is used for more than one thing. With most nouns, we add -s to the end of the word to make the plural. a truck a dog a balloon a bird three dogs lots of balloons many birds two trucks US_016-017_Singular_and_plural_nouns.indd 16 13/01/17 4:19 pm 17 one pencil, two pencils, three pencils some furniture lots of money some loud music some milk One cherry for you, and two cherries for me! Nouns that have a singular and plural are called countable nouns. This means we can count them. Some nouns don’t have a plural. These are called uncountable nouns. These are uncountable nouns, because you cannot count them: Top tip Uncountable nouns don’t have a plural. We can’t say “two furnitures” or “lots of moneys.” US_016-017_Singular_and_plural_nouns.indd 17 13/01/17 4:19 pm 18 Compound nouns We sometimes put words together to make new nouns. These nouns are called compound nouns. rain + coat = raincoat cup + cake = cupcake star + fish = starfish sun + rise = sunrise hand + bag = handbag tooth + paste = toothpaste tooth + brush = toothbrush US_018-019_Compound_nouns.indd 18 13/01/17 4:19 pm 19 Collective nouns Some nouns refer to a group of animals, people, or things. They are called collective nouns. a flock of geese a herd of elephants a team of field hockey players a range of mountains a fleet of fishing boats a school of fish US_018-019_Compound_nouns.indd 19 13/01/17 4:19 pm 20 Verbs Verbs tell you what things, or nouns, do. They are sometimes called “doing words.” Look at what these people, animals, and things can do. walk fly bang pop whiz zoom take off play climb balance swing lose win dance roar hunt turn spin US_020-021_Verbs.indd 20 06/02/17 5:01 pm 21 Here are some nouns with verbs added to show what each noun is doing. Crocodiles hunt. Owls fly. The gymnast balances. An ice-skater spins around and around. A scooter whizzes by. Remem ber! A noun on its o wn Is just a thing. A verb makes it run, And da nce, an d sing! US_020-021_Verbs.indd 21 06/02/17 5:01 pm 22 Verbs describe actions, such as run, jump, and play. The person or thing that does the action of the verb is the subject. The subject always comes before the verb. The athlete jumps. The clown juggles. The butterfly lands. The rain falls. The boat sails. The star twinkles. Verbs and subjects US_022-023_Verbs_and_subjects.indd 22 13/01/17 4:19 pm 23 Sometimes the verb has to change a little to match the subject. We add -s or -es to the end of the verb if the subject is a single thing that you can call he, she, or it. All dogs bark. This car is red. Trains go fast. These cars are red. This train goes slowly. It goes slowly. This dog barks a lot. He barks a lot. Some verbs change in different ways to match the subject. US_022-023_Verbs_and_subjects.indd 23 13/01/17 4:19 pm 24 The subject of a verb comes before the verb. It tells you who or what does the action of the verb. Some verbs need something else after them, otherwise the sentence doesn’t make sense. The person or thing that comes after the verb is called the object. The object tells you who or what receives the action of the verb. The tiger roars. The dog chased... The dog chased a ball. Ella saw... Ella saw her mom. Flowers grow. Some verbs don’t need an object and make sense on their own. ? ? subject subject subject object object subject Subjects and objects subject subject US_024-025_Subject_and_object.indd 24 13/01/17 4:19 pm 25 With some verbs, there is a choice. Sometimes they have an object, and sometimes they don’t. But the subject always comes before the verb. All kittens play. All animals eat. The cat chases the mouse! Some kittens play catch. Orangutans eat apples. Remember, the subject comes first … … otherwise you get the wrong meaning! subject subject subject subject object object Remem ber! If cats chase mice, I do dec lare, Then c ats are subjec ts, fair and sq uare. The mi ce are o bjects, by the way, And if t hey’re fast, th ey’ll ge t away! US_024-025_Subject_and_object.indd 25 06/02/17 5:01 pm 26 The verb be isn’t like other verbs. It is irregular, which means it has its own rules. It takes lots of different forms, such as am, are, and is. I am hungry! That elephant is huge! Please be quiet! You are my friend! These snakes are scary! He’s being helpful. The verb be US_026-027_The_verb_be.indd 26 06/02/17 5:01 pm 27 After the verb be, we can use a noun, to say what something is, or we can use an adjective, to say what it is like. We can also use the verb be to talk about the past. We use the forms was and were. This is a tiger. It is fierce. We are the champions. We are proud! Yesterday I was seven. Today I am eight. He is a clown. He is funny. These are rhinos. They are strong. Last week we were on vacation. Now we are back home! US_026-027_The_verb_be.indd 27 13/01/17 4:19 pm 28 Sometimes we don’t want to keep repeating the same noun over and over again. Instead, we can use a pronoun to replace the noun. Freddie is a fast runner. Freddie He always wins. One day I want to beat Freddie him. My sister wants to be a vet. She loves animals. Mom bought her a kitten. Owls hunt when they are hungry. Small animals try to get away from them. My little brother’s bike is broken. He is going to fix it. Pronouns US_028-029_Pronouns.indd 28 13/01/17 4:20 pm 29 I, me, and you are also pronouns. We use them instead of using our own name or someone else’s name. May I please have another cookie? There’s nothing in my case. Nobody answered the door. Somebody has eaten the pizza. I want to invite everybody to my party. Can you teach me how to skateboard? Words like nothing, everything, nobody, and somebody are also pronouns. Dear Aiden, Please come to my party. Top tip When I is used as a pronoun, always write it as a capital letter. US_028-029_Pronouns.indd 29 13/01/17 4:20 pm 30 I or me? Always use I, not me, before a verb. This rule is the same whether you are talking about just yourself, or you and someone else. I watched a film. Adam and I watched a film. The bull chased me. The bull chased Ali and me. Are those apples for me? Are those apples for Rosa and me? I found some buried treasure. Elsie and I found some buried treasure. People sometimes say “Me and Adam watched a film.” However, this isn’t correct—you would never say “Me watched a film.” Use me in other parts of a sentence: Remember! Lily and I sailed out to sea. What an adventure for Lily and me! Top tip It’s polite to put the other person first. Say Tom and I or Tom and me. US_030-031_I_or_me.indd 30 13/01/17 4:20 pm 31 Possessive pronouns You can use possessive pronouns to say who something belongs to. Possessive pronouns replace the noun. This ball is my ball mine. Tom says those gloves are his. These bananas are ours. We’ll clean up our mess, and they can clean up theirs. I gave my old cleats to my sister, so they’re hers now. Is that bike yours? Top tip Here are six possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs. US_030-031_I_or_me.indd 31 07/02/17 5:25 pm 32 Present and past tenses Some things happen right now, in the present. Some things happened in the past. Different forms of a verb show when something happens. These are called tenses. It snows in winter. It snowed last night. We plant flowers each year. We planted some flowers last year. We use the present tense for things that happen now, every day, or every time. We use the past tense for things that happened in the past. These are in the present: These are in the past: With a lot of verbs, we add -ed at the end to make the past tense, but some verbs change completely. I always win. I won the race. This is in the present: This is in the past: US_032_033_Present_and_past_tenses.indd 32 13/01/17 4:20 pm 33 Future tense No one really knows what will happen in the future, but we like talking about it. We can use will and won’t (will not) if we feel sure about something in the future. The cat might catch the bird. I may share my toys. I definitely won’t go to Mars. Of course I will win the race. I’m going to paint a room. We can also say that we are going to do something in the future, if that’s what we are planning to do. We can use might or may if we’re not so sure that something will happen. I’m going to ride a bike. US_032_033_Present_and_past_tenses.indd 33 13/01/17 4:20 pm 34 We use different tenses to say whether something happens in the present, past, or future. Sometimes we want to say that something isn’t finished or it goes on for a long time. For this, we use the progressive tense. We use the present progressive to say that something is happening right now. We use the normal present tense for things that happen every day or every week. However, we use the present progressive for something that is happening right now. He is making a sandcastle. We are skating on the ice. The dog is burying a bone. The animals are drinking. I make something different every week. Today, I am making a robot. present present progressive Progressive tenses US_034-035_Progressive_tenses.indd 34 13/01/17 4:20 pm 35 We use the past progressive for things that kept happening for a while. We often use the past progressive to show that something else was happening at the same time. We use the past tense for things that happened and finished in the past. We use the past progressive for things that kept happening for a while. The balloon was going higher and higher. I was starting to feel a little sick! I was riding my bike in the park, when a puppy ran out in front of me. The fireworks were making a lot of noise. The cat climbed to the top of the tree. The cat was climbing up the tree. past past progressive Top tip The progressive form of a verb always ends in -ing. US_034-035_Progressive_tenses.indd 35 06/02/17 5:02 pm 36 Perfect tenses The perfect tenses are two more tenses that we can use to talk about the past. We use the present perfect when we are talking about something that happened in the past, but we are thinking about what it means now. Look at the difference between the present perfect and the past tense: I have finished my homework! The squirrel has found some nuts. I have lost my phone. The dog has gone into the yard. I lost my phone, but my dad bought me a new one. The dog went into the yard and got very muddy! present perfect present perfect past past US_036-037_Perfect_tenses.indd 36 13/01/17 4:20 pm 37 In stories, we usually say what happened first, what happened next, and what happened at the end. If we talk about something that happened earlier, we use the past perfect. This means my uncle warned me earlier, before we set out. This means the dinosaurs escaped earlier, before the professor got to the laboratory. We walked all day, and in the evening, we arrived at the gates of an old house. It was all quiet, and my companions wanted to go in. But my uncle had warned me that it was dangerous. The professor opened the door to the laboratory and went in. He looked around, and listened carefully—nothing. With a feeling of horror, he realized that it was true. The dinosaurs had escaped! past perfect past perfect US_036-037_Perfect_tenses.indd 37 06/02/17 5:02 pm 38 Look at the sentences below. See how the auxiliary verbs have and be slightly change the meaning of the sentences and form new tenses. We use the verb be as an auxiliary verb in progressive tenses. The dog ate my sandwiches! The dog has eaten my sandwiches! He is learning to juggle. Horses eat grass. The horses are eating grass. Are you winning? We use different tenses, such as the past tense and the present tense. We use verbs called auxiliary verbs, or “helping verbs”, to help us make all the other different tenses. past tense present tense present progressivepresent perfect Auxiliary verbs US_038-039_Auxiliary_verbs.indd 38 13/01/17 4:20 pm 39 We use the verb do as an auxiliary verb in the present tense. It helps us to make questions, or to make sentences negative. Did is the past tense of do. We use this as an auxiliary verb in the past tenses. We use have as an auxiliary verb in the present perfect. I like milkshakes. Do you like milkshakes too? I enjoyed our day at the safari park. Did you enjoy it? We have made some lemonade. The plane hasn’t taken off yet. We found a few old tools, but we didn’t find any toys. We play tennis in the summer. We don’t play football. We use different tenses, such as the past tense and the present tense. We use verbs called auxiliary verbs, or “helping verbs”, to help us make all the other different tenses. US_038-039_Auxiliary_verbs.indd 39 13/01/17 4:20 pm 40 Inf initives The infinitive of a verb is the name of the verb, such as eat, play, or sleep. It hasn’t been changed to make different tenses. When you look up a verb in a dictionary, you look up the infinitive. You can use the infinitive after to: The witch decided to make a magic potion. I don’t want to go home! Would you like to stay for lunch? The bird is trying to balance. We set off to explore the forest. The monkey needs to hold on tight. US_040-041_Infinitives.indd 40 13/01/17 4:20 pm 41 We also use the infinitive after verbs such as can, will, might, and must. These verbs are called modal verbs. I can walk on my hands. You must pass the ball. The spider hopes a fly will come along soon! Don’t worry, it won’t hurt. You should eat plenty of fruit. I might have fish for dinner. US_040-041_Infinitives.indd 41 13/01/17 4:20 pm 42 Adjectives Adjectives tell us what people, animals, and things are like. They describe nouns and tell you more about them. They might tell you what things look, sound, or feel like. fierce magical mysterious haunted strong stripy friendly fast expensive comfortable noisy delicate colorful beautiful obedient Remem ber! Adjecti ves ma ke lion s stron g, And ro ckets fa st and rivers l ong. US_042-043_Adjectives.indd 42 13/01/17 4:20 pm 43 a blue and yellow hat with red pom-poms a small beetle with big jaws She’s content and relaxed. a triangular piece of pizza on a round plate He’s happy and excited. a green and yellow parrot Some adjectives describe the color of something: Some adjectives describe size or shape: Some adjectives describe feelings: US_042-043_Adjectives.indd 43 06/02/17 5:02 pm 44 Where to put adjectives We often put an adjective before the noun that it is describing. a colorful ball The sun is hot. The water looks inviting. This is a delicious salad. This salad is delicious. We saw some amazing fireworks. The fireworks were amazing. Our cat is lovely. His fur feels soft. a huge spider You can also put adjectives after the noun, such as after verbs like be, look, or feel. It’s up to you to choose where you put the adjectives in your sentence. US_044-045_Where_to_put_Adjective.indd 44 13/01/17 4:20 pm 45 some beautiful, delicate flowers A rabbit’s ears are long and pointed. The roller coaster was fast and scary. a large, ferocious crocodile You can use more than one adjective to describe something. When you put two adjectives before a noun, you usually need to use a comma. When you use two adjectives after a noun, you join them with and. If you’re using more than one adjective, think about the best order for them. Sometimes they don’t sound quite right if you put them in the wrong order. Here, the sentence sounds better if the size comes first, then the color. Here, it sounds better if your opinion comes first (in this case that the sweater is cute). It’s got small black spots. It’s got black small spots. She’s wearing a cute woolly sweater. She’s wearing a woolly cute sweater. US_044-045_Where_to_put_Adjective.indd 45 08/02/17 4:27 pm 46 Adverbs Top tip Using adverbs to describe how people do things can make your writing more lively and interesting. Verbs tell you what things do. For example, tigers roar and birds sing. Adverbs tell you how they do it. Most adverbs end in -ly, and they usually come after verbs. Adverbs that tell you how someone does something are called adverbs of manner. The lion roared fiercely. She tiptoed quietly down the stairs. I won easily. You have to balance them carefully. The sun was shining brightly. Some birds can sing beautifully. US_046_047_Adverbs.indd 46 13/01/17 4:20 pm 47 Some adverbs don’t end in -ly, but they are still adverbs if they tell you how something is done. I can run fast. I always work hard. You need to hold on tight. We played well today. Remem ber! Withou t an ad verb, y ou can smile, Or ride a bike or slee p a whi le. With ad verbs, you sm ile glee fully, Ride sk illfully, sleep p eacefu lly. US_046_047_Adverbs.indd 47 13/01/17 4:20 pm 48 Adjectives into adverbs We can change most adjectives into adverbs by adding -ly to the end of the adjective. Snails are slow movers. They move slowly. Sam gave me a cheerful smile. He smiled cheerfully. The crocodile looked hungry. He looked at me hungrily. The puppy gave a playful bark. He barked playfully. If an adjective already ends in -l, we still add another one, so the adverb has a double l. If an adjective ends in -y, we change the ending to -ily. We had a happy day on the beach. We played happily all day. Anika is an elegant dancer. She dances elegantly. US_048_049_Adjs_into_adverbs.indd 48 13/01/17 4:20 pm 49 Adverbs of place Some adverbs tell us where something happens. These are called adverbs of place, and they don’t usually end in -ly. Pickles, come here! I’ve looked everywhere, but I can’t find my gloves. We can sit there. Can you skateboard backward? The dog ran upstairs. It’s raining. Let’s go indoors. US_048_049_Adjs_into_adverbs.indd 49 13/01/17 4:20 pm 50 Adverbs of time Some adverbs tell us when something happens. These are called adverbs of time. We’re going on vacation tomorrow. Badgers usually sleep during the day. She’s always trying to catch the fish, but she never manages to! I don’t want to do my homework now. I’ll do it later! It’s my birthday today. I got some new roller skates yesterday. US_050_051_Adverbs_time.indd 50 13/01/17 4:20 pm 51 Adverbs before adjectives We can use some adverbs before adjectives, to change the meaning of the adjective slightly. See how these adverbs change the meaning of the adjective strong. Elephants are amazingly strong. This book is unbelievably exciting! The apple was deliciously sweet. Luckily, I found my mobile phone under my bed. Unfortunately, we couldn’t feed the monkeys. DO NOT FEED THE MONKEYS! Thank you Dogs are fairly strong. Grizzly bears are very strong. Gorillas are extremely strong. Sometimes, adverbs make a comment on the sentence. You can use adverbs to give your opinion. We often use them at the beginning of a sentence. We often use these kinds of adverbs to emphasize or exaggerate something. US_050_051_Adverbs_time.indd 51 13/01/17 4:20 pm 52 Comparatives and superlatives Sometimes we might want to compare people or things to say how they are different. We use comparatives and superlatives to do this. heavy A train is faster than a bike. A plane is the fastest. A tiger is the most dangerous. A lion is more dangerous than a mouse. heavier heaviest expensive more expensive most expensive We use comparatives to compare two people or things. We use superlatives to compare three or more people or things. US_052_053_Comps_supers.indd 52 13/01/17 4:20 pm 53 Comparatives and superlatives With short adjectives, we add -er to make comparatives and -est to make superlatives. A camel is slower than a gazelle. Ice-skating is more difficult than riding a scooter. Walking on a tightrope is the most difficult. A tortoise is the slowest. With longer adjectives, we use more to make comparatives and most to make superlatives. The adjectives good and bad have irregular comparatives and superlatives. This means they take different forms. a good grade My sister’s socks smell really bad. My dad’s socks smell even worse. My brother’s socks smell the worst of all! a better grade the best grade you can get US_052_053_Comps_supers.indd 53 13/01/17 4:20 pm 54 Prepositions Remem ber! Up the ladder and ov er the w all, Throug h the d oor and along the hal l, On you r skate s or wit h a ball , Prepos itions l ink the m all. We use prepositions to show how different nouns relate to each other in a sentence. Prepositions are small words, such as on, in, to, and with. The dog is playing with a ball in the yard. See how the prepositions link the nouns and pronouns in these sentences: balldog yard I castle secret passage I got into the castle through a secret passage. Mom made a cake for me on my birthday. The astronaut flew to the moon in a rocket. astronaut rocket Mom cake memoon birthday US_054_055_Prepositions.indd 54 06/02/17 5:02 pm 55 Prepositions of place The rabbit is in the basket. He’s diving under the water. Can you find your way through the maze? The books are on the table. Some prepositions tell us where something is or which direction it goes in. The horse jumped over the fence. The squirrel is running along the branch. US_054_055_Prepositions.indd 55 13/01/17 4:20 pm 56 Prepositions of time Some prepositions tell us when something happens. We sometimes go camping in the summer. My cleats are always clean before the game. Bats sleep during the day and come out at night. We’re going swimming after lunch. We play music on Thursdays. We don’t go to school over the weekend. US_056_057_Preps_of_time.indd 56 13/01/17 4:20 pm 57 Other prepositions Some prepositions link nouns in other ways. I tied my hair up with ribbons. I love traveling by train. We gave some carrots to our rabbit. I’m making a card for my grandma. I love books about teddy bears. You can’t go outside without your shoes. US_056_057_Preps_of_time.indd 57 13/01/17 4:20 pm 58 Conjunctions Remem ber! And, bu t, beca use, or so, Conjun ctions l ink clau ses, so now yo u know ! Some sentences are quite simple and only give one idea. If you want to join more than one idea together in the same sentence, you can use a conjunction to link the ideas. Lions live in Africa and they hunt for food. Lions live in Africa. They hunt for food. Let’s go outside. It’s warm and sunny! Let’s go outside because it’s warm and sunny! Each idea that you link together with a conjunction is called a clause. We could play tennis or we could ride our bikes. Most animals look cute when they are young. US_058_059_Conjunctions.indd 58 13/01/17 4:20 pm 59 I was shivering with cold. You can’t play on your tablet during class. You can use prepositions to link nouns or pronouns into a sentence. Prepositions are followed by nouns. Conjunctions are different, because they can link whole clauses. I was shivering because it was cold. You can’t play on your tablet when you’re in class. Sometimes the same word can be both a preposition and a conjunction. We’ll go to the beach after lunch. We’ll go to the beach after we’ve had lunch. preposition prepositionnoun noun conjunction clause conjunction clause conjunction clause preposition noun US_058_059_Conjunctions.indd 59 06/02/17 5:36 pm 60 The conjunctions and, but, and or are called coordinating conjunctions because they link words, phrases, and clauses that are equally important. I got 10 out of 10 in a test and I got a star! I like tennis, but my brother prefers soccer. Shall we play a video game or go to the park? I wanted a kitten, but my mom said no! Would you like an apple or a banana? Whales live in the oceans and they mainly eat fish. Coordinating conjunctions US_060_061_Conjs_Adverbs.indd 60 06/02/17 5:02 pm 61 Conjunctions that aren’t coordinating conjunctions are called subordinating conjunctions. They link a subordinate (less important) clause to a main clause. The subordinate clause often gives a reason for something, says when something happens, or gives extra information. We’ve been friends since we were three. I love Barney, although he is very grumpy- looking! I felt excited as I opened the door. You can have some pizza if you’re hungry. You can’t go on that ride because you’re too small. Tigers only hunt when they are hungry. Subordinating conjunctions US_060_061_Conjs_Adverbs.indd 61 13/01/17 4:20 pm 62 Interjections An interjection is a single word that expresses a thought or feeling. You often shout or say interjections loudly, and so they are often followed by an exclamation point. Hello! We’re over here. Thanks! Can I open it now? Shh! Don’t make any noise. Congratulations! You won! Wow! What a strange-looking animal. What is it? (It’s a Malayan tapir!) Bye! See you later! US_062_063_Interjections.indd 62 13/01/17 4:20 pm 63 We often use interjections to show how we are feeling. Ugh! A spider! Oops! It broke. Wasps can sting you. Ouch! Hey! That’s my ball! Give it back! Brrr! I’m cold. Hooray! It’s sports day. Remem ber! Hi! Hel lo! If you w ant my attenti on ... Wow! H ooray! Use an interje ction! US_062_063_Interjections.indd 63 13/01/17 4:20 pm 64 Determiners Nouns are words for things, animals, and people. Determiners are words that go before nouns. They tell you which thing or person you are talking about. It’s a horse. I’ve got six pencils. This ice pop is delicious! Look at those fish! Look at the penguins! The words a, an, and the are determiners. They are also sometimes called articles. The words this, that, these, and those are also determiners. Numbers are determiners, too: There are five puppies. US_064_065_Determiners.indd 64 13/01/17 4:20 pm 65 My hair is getting quite long. Do you like my new shoes?Look at that little pony! Their sandcastle is amazing! There are some tadpoles in the pond. There aren’t many clouds in the sky. Words like some, any, and many are determiners. We use them to talk about amounts of things, but without saying exactly how many there are. Some determiners tell us who something belongs to. These are called possessive determiners. The possessive determiners are: my, your, his, her, its, our, their. Adjectives can come before nouns, to describe them. Determiners always come before adjectives. determiner determineradjective adjective US_064_065_Determiners.indd 65 13/01/17 4:20 pm 66 Parts of speech quiz It was getting dark, and the animals in the jungle were slowly beginning to stir. The tiger opened one eye, then stretched and yawned lazily. He was feeling hungry, because he hadn’t eaten for two days. He looked up at the moonlit sky. The Moon was small and pale, so there wasn’t much light. Yes! It would be a perfect night for hunting! tiger Moon How many more nouns can you find? stretched would be Can you find 11 more verbs in the story? (Don’t forget to include different forms of the verb “be”.) it Can you find the pronoun that replaces the word tiger? dark hungry Can you find four more adjectives in the story? nouns verbs pronouns adjectives Here is a passage from a story for you to read. Then, see if you can answer the questions below. You’ll find the answers on the next page. US_066_067_Parts_of_speech.indd 66 06/02/17 5:02 pm 67 and 1. Is and a coordinating conjunction or a subordinating conjunction? 2. Can you find two subordinating conjunctions? a the much Can you find two numbers that are determiners? in Can you find two more prepositions? Can you find one interjection? slowly only 1. Can you find one more adverb of manner? 2. Can you find one adverb of place, and one adverb of time? was getting opened 1. What tense is was getting and were beginning? 2. Can you find four verbs in the past tense, and one verb in the past perfect? conjunctions determiners prepositions interjections adverbstenses nouns seven: animals, jungle, eye, days, sky, night, light verbs get, begin, stir, open, yawn, feel, eat, look, was, were, wasn’t pronouns he adjectives moonlit, small, pale, perfect tenses 1. past progressive 2. opened, stretched, yawned, looked; hadn’t eaten adverbs 1. lazily 2. there; then conjunctions 1. coordinating 2. because, so prepositions for, at determiners one, two interjections Yes! Answers US_066_067_Parts_of_speech.indd 67 06/02/17 5:02 pm 68 Giraffes have long necks. Sentences Pumpkins are tasty, and you can also use them to make lanterns. Statements Questions Exclamations Direct speech and Reported speech How scary! Commands Mix the flour and the butter. Do you like oranges? “What’s in your bag?” Molly asked me what was in my bag. US_068-069_Opener_Sentences_and_phrases.indd 68 13/01/17 4:20 pm 69 Sentences, phrases, and clauses Noun phrases a small white dog with a little orange collar Adverbials Clauses Active and passive sentences He fought bravely. He fought with great courage. Noah caught the ball. The ball was caught by Noah. “What’s in your bag?” Molly asked me what was in my bag. We’re happy. US_068-069_Opener_Sentences_and_phrases.indd 69 13/01/17 4:20 pm Sentences A sentence is a group of words that make sense on their own. A sentence might give information or ask a question. A sentence always begins with a capital letter, and it ends with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point. I soccer every day. Giraffes Look at these words, and see how they become a sentence. All sentences must have a verb. You can’t make a sentence without a verb because the verb tells us what happens. Giraffes have Giraffes have long Giraffes have long necks. I want to I want to travel to I want to travel to the moon I want to travel to the moon in a rocket. I play soccer every day. Snakes along the ground. Snakes slither along the ground. 70 US_070_071_Sentences.indd 70 06/02/17 5:02 pm 71 We love math! Sasha is eating a banana.Sam is playing chess. I read books. Cheetahs run fast. Beetles scuttle along. Most sentences have a subject, which tells us who does the action of the verb. The person or thing that comes after the verb is called the object. The object receives the action of the verb. subject verb verbsubject subject subject objectverb object verb subject subjectverb verbobject object US_070_071_Sentences.indd 71 13/01/17 4:20 pm 72 Statements A statement is a sentence that gives us information or tells part of a story. It starts with a capital letter and ends with a period. These statements give us information. Giant pandas eat bamboo. The king invited us into the castle for a feast. I scored three goals today! Dan looked at the treasure map excitedly. We ran back to the helicopter, but the engine wouldn’t start! Pumpkins are tasty, and you can also use them to make lanterns. These statements tell part of a story. You can also end a statement with an exclamation point (!), to make it sound more exciting. US_072-073_Statements.indd 72 13/01/17 4:20 pm 73 Questions What have you got in your lunch box? Where do polar bears live? Why are your shoes so dirty? Who wants to play basketball with me? Is that your guinea pig? Do you like oranges? A question is a sentence that asks something. It starts with a capital letter and ends with a question mark (?). We often use words like who, what, which, where, why, how, when, and whose in questions. Top tip You can use questions when you are writing a story, to create a feeling of mystery. For example, I picked up the old box. What was inside it? US_072-073_Statements.indd 73 13/01/17 4:20 pm 74 Exclamations An exclamation is a sentence that begins with What or How. It expresses a strong feeling of happiness, surprise, anger, or fear. It starts with a capital letter and ends with an exclamation point. What beautiful flowers! What an amazing cave! How cute they are! How delicious that meal looks! How scary! What big claws it’s got! Top tip You can also use an exclamation point at the end of a statement to make it sound more exciting. For example, We drove really fast! This is still a statement, not an exclamation, because exclamations always begin with What or How. US_074_075_Exclamations.indd 74 13/01/17 4:20 pm 75 Commands Mix the flour and the butter. Sit!Be careful! Glue the patterned paper onto your picture. A command is a sentence that tells someone to do something. It starts with a capital letter and can end with a period or an exclamation point. Some commands are instructions. Don’t eat all our nuts! Slow down! We use an exclamation point when someone says a command loudly or gives an order. US_074_075_Exclamations.indd 75 13/01/17 4:20 pm 76 Noun phrases Nouns are the names of things, animals, and people, such as tree, tiger, and brother. A noun phrase is a group of words that all belong with the noun and tell us more about it. A noun phrase is not a sentence. It doesn’t begin with a capital letter and end with a period. It just gives more information about a noun. In a sentence, we can use a noun phrase like a noun. a small dog Look at how we can add words to the noun dog to make a noun phrase that describes what the dog is like. a small white dog with a little orange collar a small white dog with a little orange collar and a flowing cape Top tip Using longer noun phrases can make your writing more interesting. We saw an old sailing ship with three tall masts. We saw a ship. US_076_077_Noun_phrases.indd 76 13/01/17 4:21 pm 77 Prepositional phrases Prepositions are words such as on, in, to, and with. Prepositions are always followed by a noun or pronoun. A prepositional phrase is the preposition and the following noun or pronoun together. There are some fish in the water. The cat jumped onto my lap. She slid down the slide. I went to bed at eleven o’clock! I got a new toy for my birthday. I like pizza with cheese and tomato. US_076_077_Noun_phrases.indd 77 06/02/17 5:02 pm 78 Adverbials Adverbials do the same job as adverbs. They describe how, why, when, or where something happens. While adverbs are always one word, adverbials can be one word or several words. These adverbials tell us how something happens: These adverbials tell us where or when something happens: The rabbit appeared magically. It appeared as if by magic. Kitty’s hiding over there. She’s hiding behind the bag. He fought bravely. He fought with great courage. It’s my birthday tomorrow. It’s my birthday on the tenth of July. Top tip Adverbials answer these questions: How? When? Why? Where? US_078-079_Adverbials.indd 78 06/02/17 5:02 pm 79 Fronted adverbials Once upon a time, there was a lion cub named Larry. Slowly and cautiously, Tabitha opened the door and went inside. Finally, it was time to open my presents! Every weekday, we go to school on the bus. As quickly as I could, I put on my spacesuit and got ready for my spacewalk. Actually, it’s a koala, not a bear! Adverbials often come at the end of a sentence. However, you can put them at the beginning of a sentence if they’re important and you want them to stand out. These are called fronted adverbials. US_078-079_Adverbials.indd 79 13/01/17 4:21 pm 80 Clauses Verbs are words that tell you what someone or something does, such as sing, go, and play. A clause is a group of words that contains a verb. we play indoors We’re happy. It’s snowing! I’m going on vacation it’s snowing Some clauses can also be a sentence on their own, if you give them a capital letter and a period. he is happy US_080_081_Clauses.indd 80 06/02/17 5:02 pm 81 You can put clauses together to make longer sentences. To do this, you add a word to join the two clauses together. You join clauses together with conjunctions. We play indoors when it’s snowing. the magician waved his wand + the prince turned into a frog He is happy because he’s going on vacation. There are different ways to join clauses together in a sentence. The magician waved his wand and the prince turned into a frog. The prince turned into a frog as soon as the magician waved his wand. kangaroos can jump far + they have powerful back legs Kangaroos can jump far because they have powerful back legs. Kangaroos have powerful back legs so they can jump far. US_080_081_Clauses.indd 81 06/02/17 5:02 pm 82 Main clauses A main clause is a clause that makes sense on its own, so it also works as a sentence on its own. All sentences must have at least one main clause. I bought a kite, so I went to the park. I was terrified when I saw the spider. As soon as it was dark, the badger set off to find food. This is a main clause because it could be a sentence on its own. This is not a main clause because it doesn’t make sense on its own. The main clause doesn’t have to come first in the sentence. This is a main clause. This is a main clause. This is not a main clause. This is not a main clause. Because it was hot, we stayed in the shade. Top tip If a clause is a main clause, you can make it into a sentence on its own. US_082_083_Main_clauses.indd 82 06/02/17 5:02 pm 83 We use conjunctions to link clauses together. The conjunctions and, but, and or are called coordinating conjunctions. When we use these conjunctions to join clauses, we say that both clauses are main clauses. In these sentences, both the underlined clauses are main clauses. It’s raining and I’m happy! We opened the chest, but it was empty. I read a book, but then I lost it. I like tennis and I like basketball. Meerkats eat insects or they sometimes eat snakes’ eggs. We can play the guitar or we can bang on the drums. US_082_083_Main_clauses.indd 83 13/01/17 4:21 pm 84 Subordinate clauses A clause that doesn’t make sense on its own is called a subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses often begin with conjunctions such as after, before, because, as, when, while, if, since, and although. These conjunctions are called subordinating conjunctions. I was amazed when I saw all the presents. Charley’s excited because it’s time for his walk. I always brush my teeth before I go to bed. While I was waiting, I played a game. Although they are small, bees do a very important job. We’ll be late for school if we don’t hurry! Sometimes a subordinate clause can come first in a sentence. US_084_085_Sub_Clauses.indd 84 06/02/17 5:02 pm 85 Relative clauses Sometimes you might want to add more information about someone or something that you are talking about. To join this extra information into one sentence, you can use a relative clause. Relative clauses often begin with who, which, or that. astronauts are people + they go into space Astronauts are people who go into space. scientists often use microscopes + microscopes make tiny things look bigger Scientists often use microscopes, which make tiny things look bigger. dinosaurs were huge creatures + they lived millions of years ago Dinosaurs were huge creatures that lived millions of years ago. I’m going to be in a play, which is exciting! You can also use a relative clause to make a comment about a whole idea and give your opinion. US_084_085_Sub_Clauses.indd 85 06/02/17 5:02 pm 86 Relative pronouns Relative pronouns are words such as who, which, that, where, and when. We use them in relative clauses to add more information about a person or thing. A magician is a person who does magic tricks. The player that gets the most counters into the hole is the winner. Rhinos live in Africa, which is a big continent. We use who to add more information about people, and we use which to add more information about things. We can use that for either people or things. We use where to give more information about a place, and when to give more information about a time. I can remember the day when I started school. I’m playing on the swing that I got for my birthday. Small birds try to find a safe place where they can nest. US_086_087_rel_pronouns.indd 86 06/02/17 5:02 pm 87 Top tip We can never leave out the relative pronouns where, when, or whose. Parrots are birds that can learn to talk. Max is the one who loves me true. Max is the one whom I love too! Parrots are birds that you can teach to talk. I played with Dan, whose new trampoline is amazing! This is Elsie, whose cat follows her everywhere. We can sometimes leave out the relative pronouns who, which, and that. We can leave them out when the person or thing we are talking about is the object of a verb. Compare these sentences: We use whose to say who something belongs to. It’s Dan’s trampoline— it belongs to him. Parrots are the subject because they can learn to talk. We can’t leave out “that.” We sometimes use whom in formal writing. We use it when the person we are talking about is the object of a verb. Compare these two sentences: Parrots are the object because we teach them to talk. We can leave out “that.” It’s Elsie’s cat— it belongs to her. Here, Max is the subject. Here, Max is the object. Hello US_086_087_rel_pronouns.indd 87 13/01/17 4:21 pm 88 Active and passive sentences In active sentences, the doer of the action comes first. In passive sentences, you can change the order around, and put the receiver of the action first. These cakes were made by my sister. Noah caught the ball. My sister made these cakes. The ball was caught by Noah. Notice that we change the verb in passive sentences. This is a passive sentence: This is an active sentence: Remem ber! Active and pa ssive a re simp le, you see: If I hit t he ball , the ba ll is hit by me! US_088_089_Active_and_Passive_sentences.indd 88 13/01/17 4:21 pm 89 Some jewels were stolen from the castle last night. My boots have been cleaned! My sweater was made in America. Her fur has been clipped. These paw prints were made by a dog. We often use passive sentences when we don’t know who did the action of the verb. We also use the passive if we want to focus on what happened, rather than on who did something. In passive sentences we can add the doer of the action, using by. The first practical telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. US_088_089_Active_and_Passive_sentences.indd 89 13/01/17 4:21 pm Direct speech In stories, we often write about what people say to each other. When we write direct speech, we write exactly what someone says, and we use quotation marks. “Let’s go and find the treasure.” “Is there anyone in there?” “There’s a shark in the water!” “It’s a secret.” “Go away!” “Look, there’s a rainbow!” When you use direct speech in your writing, try using lots of different verbs instead of just said. Try verbs such as cried, shouted, whispered, and screamed. Top tip 90 US_090_091_Direct_report_speech.indd 90 09/02/17 12:42 pm Reported speech When we use reported speech, we report back what the person said. We don’t give their exact words, and we don’t use quotation marks. “I’m cold.” “Where has the hamster gone?” “What’s in your bag?” Molly asked me what was in my bag. Beth said that she was cold. Oliver asked where the hamster had gone. Anthony said that the bouncy castle was amazing. “The bouncy castle is amazing!” This is direct speech: This is reported speech: 91 US_090_091_Direct_report_speech.indd 91 08/02/17 4:42 pm 92 Direct to reported speech When we change direct speech to reported speech, we have to make some changes to the words we use. If direct speech uses a present tense, we use a past tense in reported speech. “I am hungry.” “The water is lovely and warm.” Jayla said that the water was lovely and warm. “The cat has hurt his paw.” Ali said that he would beat Harry at chess. “I love pasta.” Emily said that she loved pasta. Daisy and Lucas said that they were making cakes. Krishna said that she was hungry. “We are making cakes.” “I will beat Harry at chess.” We also have to change pronouns such as I, he, and she in reported speech. Poppy said that the cat had hurt his paw. US_092_093_Direct_report_speech.indd 92 08/02/17 11:53 am 93 Tim refused to go to bed. “Fetch!” “Would you like to come to my party?” “It wasn’t me.” Maria ordered the dog to fetch the ball. When you write, try using lots of different verbs to report what people say. It will help make your writing more interesting. Here are some more verbs you can use in reported speech: Liam promised to clean up later. “Let’s go to the beach.” Sophie invited me to her party. Jack denied breaking the cup. “I don’t want to go to bed!” Mia suggested going to the beach. “I’ll clean up later.” US_092_093_Direct_report_speech.indd 93 13/01/17 4:21 pm 94 Sentences quiz Trembling with fear, I approached the wizard’s door, which was huge and black. I couldn’t turn back now. I lifted the ancient brass knocker and knocked three times. After a while, the door was pulled open. In front of me stood a small, friendly looking boy. I was taken aback, because I was expecting the wizard. “Who are you?” I asked. “I’m Tom, the wizard’s assistant,” he replied. “How nice to see you! Come in. The wizard’s expecting you.” I couldn’t turn back now. 1. What kind of sentence is this? Is it a statement, a question, an exclamation, or a command? 2. How many clauses does the sentence have? 3. Can you find a question, an exclamation, and a command in the story? sentence Here is a passage from a story for you to read. Then, see if you can answer the questions below. You’ll find the answers on the next page. US_094_095_Sents_Clauses_Phrases.indd 94 06/02/17 5:02 pm 95 the door was pulled open Who pulled the door open? the ancient brass knocker Can you find another noun phrase in the story? trembling with fear Can you find two more adverbials in the story? because I was expecting the wizard 1. What is the conjunction in this clause? 2. Can you find a relative clause in the story? “Who are you?” I asked. Can you find two examples of direct speech that Tom says? I approached the wizard’s door Can you find three more main clauses in the story? passive verb noun phrases adverbials subordinate clause direct speech main clauses sentence 1. a statement 2. one 3. Who are you?; How nice to see you!; Come in. noun phrases a small, friendly looking boy adverbials three times; after a while main clauses I lifted the ancient brass knocker; I was taken aback; the door was pulled open subordinate clause 1. because 2. which was huge and black passive verb the boy direct speech “I’m Tom, the wizard’s assistant,”; “How nice to see you! Come in. The wizard’s expecting you.” Answers US_094_095_Sents_Clauses_Phrases.indd 95 07/02/17 5:25 pm 96 Can you ride a bike? What a scary dinosaur! The balloons are red, yellow, green, and blue. Let’s play cards. Dr. Dept. ! ? , ’ . US_096-097_Opener_Punctuation.indd 96 13/01/17 4:21 pm 97 Punctuation – Sam said, “Look at this map.” For my birthday, I had a chocolate cake—which is my favorite—and lots of other lovely food! This car is really fast: it can travel at 150 miles (240 km) per hour. I love flying my kite; it goes really high! - a double- decker bus ’s Look at the princess’s beautiful dress. ; : “b” US_096-097_Opener_Punctuation.indd 97 13/01/17 4:21 pm 98 Capital letters We had our field day last week. It was fun. Everyone enjoyed it. Meet my brother Joe and my sister Alice. We were born in New York City in the USA, but we now live in Sydney, Australia. My birthday is on September 12th. This year, it’s on a Saturday. I climbed into the canoe and I started to paddle down the river. I’m reading Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. We use capital letters for the names of people and places. The names of days of the week and months always start with a capital letter, too. Always use a capital letter when you use the word I to talk about yourself. We use capital letters in the titles of books and films, but not for every word. Sentences always begin with a capital letter. So a capital letter shows you where a new sentence starts. September S M 1 876 151413 222120 292827 2 9 16 23 30 3 10 17 24 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 T W T F S A US_098-099_Capital_letters.indd 98 13/01/17 4:21 pm 99 Periods You use a period at the end of a sentence. It shows that the sentence is finished. Don’t forget that after a period you need to use a capital letter to start your next sentence. This is an African elephant. It has a long trunk and big ears. It eats grass, leaves, and other vegetation. You can make really l o n g s e n t e n c e s when you write stories by adding lots of exciting adjectives and adverbs to describe exactly what is happening. But your sentence needs to end somewhere. That’s when we use a PERIOD. Dr. stands for “Doctor” e.g. stands for “for example” dept. stands for “department” D.C., in Washington D.C., stands for “District of Columbia” Sometimes a period can be used at the end of shortened, or abbreviated, words. But it is also acceptable not to include the period. . US_098-099_Capital_letters.indd 99 06/02/17 5:03 pm 100 Question marks After a question mark, you need to use a capital letter to start your next sentence. Can you ride a bike? How many oranges are there? I looked at the old wooden chest. Who did it belong to? What was inside it? There was only one way to find out. Who made these cookies? Where is your rabbit? If you are writing a question, you need to put a question mark at the end of the sentence. ? US_100-101_Question_marks.indd 100 13/01/17 4:21 pm 101 Exclamation points After an exclamation point, you need to use a capital letter to start your next sentence. What a cute kitten! Can we take her home? We won the competition! We were the champions. What a scary dinosaur! Go away! You can use an exclamation point at the end of a sentence instead of a period. An exclamation point makes a sentence sound more exciting. It suggests that someone is surprised, happy, angry, or scared. It can also suggest that someone is shouting. Top tip Try not to use exclamation points all the time. If you use them occasionally, they’ll have more impact! ! US_100-101_Question_marks.indd 101 06/02/17 5:03 pm 102 Commas You use commas between different clauses in a sentence. The comma separates the different ideas in the sentence and makes the sentence easier to understand. You can also use commas to separate out part of a sentence that is extra information. Notice that you use a comma before and after the extra information. The balloons are red, yellow, green, and blue. I’m older than Joaquin, but he’s taller than me. Jake, who is in my class, is really good at roller-skating. You can have an apple, an orange, a banana, or some grapes. Owls are nocturnal, so they come out at night. Young bears, which are born in the winter, have to learn to find food. You use commas to separate different things in a list. You usually use and or or before the last thing in the list, and you usually use a comma before and or or. , US_102-103_Commas.indd 102 07/02/17 5:25 pm 103 Come here, Winston! She’s got long, curly hair. Luckily, I still had the magic ring. Mom, can I go on that ride? Peacocks have large, colorful tails. Once upon a time, there was a beautiful princess. You use a comma before or after someone’s name to show that someone is speaking to them. You can use a comma to separate two adjectives before a noun. When you start a sentence with an adverb or an adverbial, you use a comma after it, before you begin the main part of the sentence. Top tip When you use commas in direct speech, always put them inside the quotation marks. US_102-103_Commas.indd 103 13/01/17 4:21 pm 104 Apostrophes There are some contractions that we would not usually write as separate words. In the past, they were written separately, but today we use contractions. Guinea pigs don’t eat meat. She’s a very good dancer. Let’s play cards. We’ve got a new car. It isn’t raining now. The clock struck twelve o’clock. Sometimes you can join two words together into one word, such as don’t (do not). These joined words don’t include all the letters of both words. You use an apostrophe to replace the missing letters. do not let us she is is not twelve of the clock we have ’ US_104-105_Apostrophes.indd 104 07/02/17 5:25 pm 105 Possessive apostrophes You can use a possessive apostrophe after someone’s name or after a noun. If you are talking about more than one person or thing, and the noun you are using ends in -s, you just add the apostrophe. You don’t add another s. Compare these sentences: Some nouns end in -ss even when you are only talking about one person or thing, and some names end in -s. These words add ’s as usual for possession. These are Olivia’s shoes. The chick’s feathers are yellow. Look at the princess’s beautiful dress. Those are my dad’s glasses. The chicks’ feathers are yellow. James’s new train set is amazing! You can use an apostrophe with an -s to show who something belongs to. This is called a possessive apostrophe. If you possess something, you own it. ’s US_104-105_Apostrophes.indd 105 13/01/17 4:21 pm 106 Its or it’s The dog is wagging its tail. The baby snake is coming out of its shell. This bucket has lost its handle. The baby monkey stays close to its mother. The bird is sitting on its eggs in its nest. I can’t play this now because its strings are broken. You use its, with no apostrophe, to show that something belongs to an animal or a thing. US_106-107_Its_or_it.indd 106 13/01/17 4:21 pm 107 It’s is a short form of it is or it has. The apostrophe replaces the missing letters. Look! It’s a starfish! Where’s the rabbit? It’s in the hat! This is my new coat. It’s got wooden toggles. It’s raining! Where is my scarf? It’s disappeared! Reme mber ! It’s a m ouse, as yo u can see. (Pleas e noti ce the apost rophe .) Its eye s are b right, its tai l is lon g. (Apos troph es her e wou ld be w rong!) it is it is it has it has it is US_106-107_Its_or_it.indd 107 13/01/17 4:21 pm 108108 Parentheses Look at how you can add extra information to these sentences using parentheses: When you are telling a story, you can use parentheses to add your opinion about the story. We saw a deer in the forest. My new kitten is really cute. We played on Sophie’s new trampoline (which was amazing). We saw a deer (and lots of rabbits) in the forest. My new kitten (white with pink paws) is really cute. For dinner, we had spaghetti (which is my favorite). You use parentheses to separate out part of a sentence that is extra information. You put parentheses around it to show that it is additional information and isn’t the most important thing you are saying. The rest of the sentence should still make sense if you take out the part in parentheses. Top tip You can also use commas and dashes instead of parentheses to add extra information. (b) US_108-109_Brackets.indd 108 13/01/17 4:21 pm 109109 Quotation marks The words inside quotation marks always start with a capital letter. The person who says the words can come before or after the words themselves. In the sentences below, the person who says the words comes first. Notice that we add a comma before the quotation marks. The speech inside the quotation marks can end with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark. This always comes inside the quotation marks. The rules are slightly different if the person who says the words comes after the quotation marks. The speech inside the quotation marks still begins with a capital letter, and it still ends with a comma, a question mark or an exclamation mark. However, it shouldn’t end with a period. Sam said, “Look at this map.” “Look at this map,” Sam said. Mom asked, “What are you doing?” Lucy said, “I’m building a house.” “What are you doing?” Mom asked. “I’m building a house,” Lucy said. We often write about what people say to each other. When we write someone’s exact words, we use quotation marks. “b” US_108-109_Brackets.indd 109 06/02/17 5:03 pm 110110 Dashes You can use a dash to separate one part of the sentence from the rest. You often use a dash to add an extra comment or an opinion at the end of a sentence. You can also use dashes like parentheses to separate out part of a sentence that is extra information. We were feeling quite cheerful and enjoying the picnic—until it started to rain! Patch finally came home two hours later—very wet and muddy! I got a mini helicopter for my birthday—it’s amazing! Tara’s got a pet hamster—it’s so cute! I can play Happy Birthday to You—and a few more tunes—on the keyboard. For my birthday, I had a chocolate cake—which is my favorite— and lots of other tasty food! – US_110-111_Dashes.indd 110 13/01/17 4:21 pm 111111 Hyphens You can also use hyphens to create your own new words. You use hyphens to join together two words (or sometimes more!). The joined-up words are usually used to describe a noun. You can also use a hyphen to separate out syllables or sounds. When you write a hyphen, it is shorter than a dash. a double-decker bus a long-haired guinea pig a seven-year-old boy a man-eating shark a dinosaur with huge, bone-crushing teeth This is my special ghost-hunting flashlight. Top tip We use hyphens in numbers such as twenty-three, thirty-five, or ninety-nine. - US_110-111_Dashes.indd 111 07/02/17 5:25 pm 112 Colons You use a colon to introduce a list. You can also use a colon to join two ideas together into one sentence. You use a colon when the second idea explains the first idea. These are my favorite sports: hockey, basketball, and tennis. These are my friends: Ellie, Rohan, and Sarah. Lions are predators: They hunt and kill other animals for food. What to pack for the camping trip: a tent, a stove for cooking, and a sleeping bag. I’ve got three pets: a hamster, a guinea pig, and a new kitten. This car is really fast: It can travel at 150 miles (240 km) per hour. You use a colon to introduce a list. You can also use a colon to join two ideas together into one sentence. Top tip If the text that follows a colon is a sentence, it begins with a capital letter. : US_112-113_Colons.indd 112 07/02/17 5:25 pm 113 Semicolons You can also use semicolons instead of commas to separate different things in a list. It’s best to use semicolons when each thing on the list is quite long and complicated. There are lots of monkeys in the safari park; there are elephants and giraffes, too. My uncle can make animals out of balloons; he’s going to teach me how to do it. To make your monster mask, you will need: a large piece of plain card; paints and brushes; a small pot of glitter; strong, fast-drying glue; and scissors. I love flying my kite; it goes really high! I’ve never been on a plane before; I’m really excited! You can use a semicolon to join two sentences together to show that the ideas are closely linked. Never use a capital letter after a semicolon unless it’s the first letter of a proper noun. ; US_112-113_Colons.indd 113 06/02/17 5:03 pm 114 Ellipses With my heart thumping in my chest, I gradually climbed up the steps toward the castle ... I found William’s bike and helmet in the park, but there was no sign of him. Something was wrong ... You can use three dots, called an ellipsis, to show that a sentence is not finished. We often use an ellipsis to suggest that there is more to say about something. You can use an ellipsis to add suspense. You can use an ellipsis to show that someone pauses when they are speaking. You can also use an ellipsis to show that some numbers are missing in a sequence. You might use it so that you don’t have to write all the numbers. “We’ve got water and some fruit, so ... what else do we need for our picnic?” 1, 2, 3 … 10 10, 20, 30 … 100 “I found this key in the shed, but ... I don’t think it’s the right one.” ... US_114-115_Ellipses_and_Bullet_points.indd 114 13/01/17 4:21 pm 115 • • • Bullet points My packing list: • clothes • mask and snorkel • flip-flops • games Reasons to get a puppy: • I will enjoy taking it for walks. • It will be fun to play with. • I will learn how to look after an animal. Some advantages of technology: • You can message people. • You can learn things on the Internet. • You can play games. Things to do: • tidy my room • write party invitations • do homework • go ice skating (Hooray!) To help you organize things in a list, you can use bullet points. We use a colon before a list, to introduce it. Sometimes the things on the list can be full sentences, so they have a capital letter and a period. Top tip Bullet points can be different shapes—you might try star shapes instead of points! US_114-115_Ellipses_and_Bullet_points.indd 115 13/01/17 4:21 pm capital letters As Suddenly 1. Why are capital letters used in these words? 2. Can you find four capital letters used in the characters’ names? exclamation points That’s Grandma’s purse! Why is there an exclamation point here? Here is a passage from a story for you to read. Then, see if you can answer the questions. Punctuation quiz ! A question marks What’s the matter? Is the question mark inside or outside the quotation marks? ? quotation marks “What’s the matter?” What do the quotation marks show? “b” 116 Ben and I cal led Detective Bro wn and then stayed close behind as he and his partner follow ed the robbe rs back to their house ( a small house near the par k). As we watched from a distan ce, we saw th at the robbers were inside, and w ere taking th ings out of their large , black bag: m oney, jewelry , and expensive-lo oking watche s—all the thin gs they had stolen ea rlier. Sudden ly, Ben gaspe d. “What’s the matter?” I asked. “Loo k,” he whispe red. “There! That ’s Grandma’s purse!” We l ooked at each other and smiled; we couldn’t w ait to see Grand ma’s face wh en we told her we’d foun d her purse .. . US_116_117_Punctuation_recap.indd 116 06/02/17 5:03 pm 117 apostrophes What’s the matter? 1. What does the apostrophe replace here? 2. Can you find two possessive apostrophes? hyphens and dashes expensive-looking 1. Why is there a hyphen here? 2. Can you find a dash—is it longer or shorter than a hyphen? 3. Why is it there? parentheses (a small house near the park) Why are there parentheses here? commas As we watched from a safe distance, we ... 1. What does this comma separate? 2. Can you find a comma in a list, and a comma between two adjectives? colons they started taking things out of their bag: money, jewelry, and expensive-looking watches What does the colon introduce? Answers capital letters 1. because they are at the beginning of a sentence 2. Ben, Grandma, Detective Brown quotation marks direct speech—it is exactly what someone said question marks inside exclamation points to show that something exciting is happening periods 1. four 2. ellipses ... It suggests that there is more to say commas 1. two clauses 2. money, jewelry, and expensive-looking watches; their large, black bag colons a list of things parentheses because it’s extra information apostrophes 1. the letter “i” (what is) 2. Grandma’s purse, Grandma’s face hyphens and dashes 1. to join the two words together. 2. watches—all the things they had stolen earlier; longer 3. to introduce extra information periods ... I asked. 1. How many more periods can you find? 2. What is there at the end of the story, instead of a period? What does it suggest? . : ’ , (b) - Ben and I cal led Detective Bro wn and then stayed close behind as he and his partner follow ed the robbe rs back to their house ( a small house near the par k). As we watched from a distan ce, we saw th at the robbers were inside, and w ere taking th ings out of their large , black bag: m oney, jewelry , and expensive-lo oking watche s—all the thin gs they had stolen ea rlier. Sudden ly, Ben gaspe d. “What’s the matter?” I asked. “Loo k,” he whispe red. “There! That ’s Grandma’s purse!” We l ooked at each other and smiled; we couldn’t w ait to see Grand ma’s face wh en we told her we’d foun d her purse .. . US_116_117_Punctuation_recap.indd 117 13/01/17 5:17 pm 118 As quickly as we could, we climbed into the rowboat and rowed ashore. We dragged the boat ashore and tied it securely to a tree. We knew we didn’t have long. The pirates had gone back to their ship for supplies, but they would be back soon. Annie took the map out of her pocket and pointed to some large, jagged rocks in the distance. “Over there,” she said excitedly. “That’s where the treasure’s buried!” Use conjunctions to link clauses together and make longer sentences. The pirates had gone back to their ship for supplies, but they would be back soon. Use descriptive noun phrases to add more detail to nouns. some large, jagged rocks in the distance conjunctions descriptive noun phrases Here is a passage from a story for you to read, together with tips for how grammar and punctuation can help you improve your writing. Writing tips US_118_119_Writing_tips.indd 118 13/01/17 4:21 pm 119 Use interesting adjectives and adverbs. jagged, securely, excitedly Use exclamation points (but not too many) to create excitement. That’s where the treasure’s buried! Use the past perfect for things that happened earlier. The pirates had gone back to their ship Use pronouns so you don’t keep repeating the same nouns. We dragged the boat ashore and tied it securely to a tree. Be careful with the punctuation of direct speech. “Over there,” she said excitedly. Using an adverbial to start a sentence makes the adverbial stand out. As quickly as we could, we climbed into the rowboat adjectives and adverbs exclamation points past perfect pronouns direct speech adverbial US_118_119_Writing_tips.indd 119 06/02/17 5:03 pm 120 Common mistakes in grammar They’re means they are. We use there to refer to a place. Their means belonging to them. We’re means we are. Were is the past tense of the verb be. Look, it’s a polar bear. Look, its a polar bear. Yesterday we were at school. Yesterday we we’re at school. Look at the ducks. They’re swimming on the lake. They use their feet to paddle. Look at the ducks. There swimming on the lake. They use they’re feet to paddle. This monkey is using its tail to hold on! This monkey is using it’s tail to hold on! We’re on vaction now! Were on vacation now! There are some buckeyes over there. They’re are some buckeyes over their. It’s means it is or it has. Its shows that something belongs to an animal or an object. It’s easy to make mistakes with grammar! Here are a few things to watch out for. US_120-121_Common_mistakes_in_grammar.indd 120 13/01/17 4:21 pm 121 Who’s means who is or who has. You use whose to ask who something belongs to. You use what to ask questions. You use that in relative clauses. You’re means you are. Your things are the things that belong to you. He’s means he is. His things belong to him. Who’s coming to your party? Whose coming to your party? What are those? Are they lychees? He’s my brother. His my brother. Whose shoes are these? Who’s shoes are these? This is a fruit salad that I made. This is a fruit salad what I made. You’re good at drawing. Your good at drawing. Are these your pencils? Are these you’re pencils? Dan is riding his new bike. We’re on vaction now! Were on vacation now! US_120-121_Common_mistakes_in_grammar.indd 121 13/01/17 4:21 pm 122 Bill Common mistakes in punctuation Use an apostrophe to show possession, and remember to put it in the correct place. Singular Plural It’s easy to make mistakes with punctuation! Here are a few things to watch out for. Don’t use a capital letter after a colon or a semicolon (unless it’s a proper noun or the pronoun I). Giraffes live in Africa. giraffes live in africa. He showed me what was in his pencil case: pencils, pens, and an eraser. He showed me what was in his pencil case: Pencils, pens, and an eraser. my brother’s shoes my brothers’ shoes my brothers’ shoes my brother’s shoes Our dog is always muddy; she loves playing in the yard! Our dog is always muddy; She loves playing in the yard! This is a present I bought for Arjun. This is a present i bought for arjun. Always use a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence, for names (proper nouns) and for the pronoun I. JohnJohn US_122-123_Common_mistakes_in_punctuation.indd 122 13/01/17 4:21 pm 123 Use a comma between adjectives, when they come before a noun. You can use parentheses for adding extra information. The period usually goes after parentheses, but it goes inside the parentheses if the information in the parentheses is a full sentence. Always use a capital letter at the beginning of direct speech. Don’t forget to put a punctuation mark at the end, inside the quotation marks. a huge, terrifying dinosaur a huge terrifying dinosaur “Let’s play on the swings,” Zara said. “Let’s play on the swings”, Zara said. I love those shoes (the red ones). I love those shoes (the red ones.) I’ve always wanted a hamster. (My mom has always refused to buy me one.) I’ve always wanted a hamster. (My mom has always refused to buy me one). “This is fun!” Charlie shouted. “This is fun”! Charlie shouted. a beautiful, colorful bird a beautiful colorful bird US_122-123_Common_mistakes_in_punctuation.indd 123 13/01/17 4:21 pm 124 Glossary abstract noun Type of noun that is the name of a feeling or idea anger, happiness, fear adjective Word that describes a noun tall, clever, beautiful, green, happy adverb Word that describes how, when or where you do something quickly, slowly, soon, now, then, here, there adverbial Word or group of words that do the same job as an adverb and tell you how, when or where something happens after a while, all at once, on the fifth of June, over there, as quickly as I could adverb of manner Type of adverb that describes how you do something carefully, dangerously, immediately, badly, well adverb of place Type of adverb that describes where something happens here, there, everywhere, indoors, upstairs adverb of time Type of adverb that describes when something happens today, yesterday, now, later apostrophe Punctuation mark that you use to show that a letter is missing, or to show possession there’s, she’s, it’s, Jack’s auxiliary verb Type of verb that you use to help you form different tenses We are playing. We have finished. I don’t like cheese. bullet points Small round punctuation marks that you use to list things one below the other capital letter Big form of a letter that you use at the beginning of a sentence or for names A, B, C clause Group of words that contains a verb I live in London, that’s my dog collective noun Type of noun that refers to a group of animals, people, or things a flock of sheep, a crowd of people colon Punctuation mark that you use to introduce a list I love sports: tennis, football, basketball, and hockey. comma Punctuation mark that you use between clauses, in lists, and between adjectives We finished our food, then we went home. I’m going to invite Sam, Anna, and Toby. We found an old, wooden chest. command Type of sentence that tells someone to do something Sit down! Come here. comparative Form of an adjective that you use for comparing two things or people taller, bigger, more important, better, worse compound noun Type of noun that is formed when two other nouns are put together toothbrush, fingernail conjunction Word that joins clauses together and, but, so, because coordinating conjunction Word that joins two main clauses together and, but, or dash Punctuation mark that you use to separate one part of a sentence Sophie looked really happy—I don’t know why! determiner Word that goes before a noun to tell you which one you are talking about this, that, my, your, one, two direct speech Words that someone actually says “Stop!” she shouted. ellipses Punctuation mark that you use to show a sentence is not finished There was no time to lose ... exclamation Type of sentence that begins with “How” or “What” and says something with a lot of feeling How amazing! What a strange animal! exclamation point Punctuation mark that you use at the end of an exclamation or a sentence to suggest that someone is excited, surprised, or angry, or that they are shouting Look—a ghost! Go away! fronted adverbial Adverbial that is moved to the front of a sentence, to make it stand out more All at once, the door flew open. Once upon a time, there was a beautiful princess. future Forms of verbs that refer to things that will happen one day I will go to school tomorrow. I may invite some friends for tea. We’re going to build a sandcastle. grammar Way in which you put words together into sentences so that they make sense helping verb Another name for an auxiliary verb hyphen Punctuation mark that you use to join two words together a three-eyed monster, a ten-year-old boy, a dark-haired girl infinitive Basic form of a verb that hasn’t been changed to form different tenses make, sing, go interjection Word that you can use to make a sentence on its own Wow! Hello. Hooray! main clause Clause that carries the main meaning in a sentence Dan was happy because there was no school. The film was finished, so we went home. modal verb Verb that you use in front of an infinitive of another verb to express possibility, ability, or duty will, might, may, can, could, should, must US_124-125_Glossary.indd 124 13/01/17 4:21 pm 125 noun Word that is the name of a thing, animal, or person ball, apple, dog, horse, brother noun phrase Group of words that go with a noun and add more information about it an old man, a black dog with white paws object Person or thing that receives the action of a verb I hit the ball. She ate an apple. parentheses Punctuation marks that you use to separate out part of a sentence that has extra information I went to the park with George (he’s my best friend) and Chloe. part of speech Type of word noun, verb, adjective, adverb, determiner passive Form of a verb in which the receiver of the action comes before the verb All the food was eaten. The money was stolen from the bank. past perfect Form of a verb that refers to something that happened earlier in a story My friends had warned me not to get involved. Someone had eaten all the cake. past tense Form of a verb that refers to something that happened in the past played, enjoyed, ate, won, went past progressive Form of a verb that refers to something in progress in the past We were playing tennis when it started to rain. period Punctuation mark that you use at the end of a sentence My name’s Adam. plural Form of a noun that refers to more than one thing, person, or animal books, toys, dogs, children possessive pronoun Pronoun that tells you who something belongs to mine, yours, his, hers preposition Word that links a noun into a sentence in, at, on, of, for preposition of place Preposition that tells you where something is in the box, under the table preposition of time Preposition that tells you when something happens on Monday, in the summer, at six o’clock prepositional phrase Preposition and the noun or pronoun that follows it in the yard, with a ball present perfect Form of a verb that refers to something in the past that still has an effect now I’ve lost my phone. He’s cut his knee. present progressive Form of a verb that refers to something in progress in the present I’m doing my homework. We’re playing on the computer. pronoun Word that you use instead of a noun I, you, he, she, it, we, they proper noun Noun that is the name of a person or place Rosa, Eve, Adam, London, New York punctuation Marks that you use in writing to tell the reader when to pause, when something is a question, when something is shouted, etc. ?, !, “ “ ( ) question Type of sentence that asks for information Where do you live? Are you OK? question mark Punctuation mark that you use at the end of a question What’s that? quotation marks Punctuation marks that you put around direct speech “I’m sorry,” he said. relative clause Clause that adds more information about a noun Sam showed me the bike that he got for his birthday. My sister has a friend who can juggle. relative pronoun Word that introduces a relative clause a boy who likes tennis, a dog that bites, the place where we do drama reported speech Words that report what someone says, without using direct speech Dan told me that he was tired. She asked me what I was doing. reporting verb Verb that you use in reported speech say, tell, ask, warn, order, promise semicolon Punctuation mark you can use instead of a period, if sentences are closely linked The party was great; we all enjoyed it. sentence Group of words that include a verb and make sense on their own. We watched a film. It’s raining. singular Form of a noun that refers to just one thing, person, or animal bird, pen, computer, girl, mother statement Type of sentence that gives information My name’s Molly. Lions are big cats. subject Person or thing that does the action of a verb Olivia plays the recorder. Horses eat grass. subordinate clause Clause that is not a main clause and is introduced by a subordinating conjunction I went indoors, because I was cold. Although he’s quite short, Ali is good at basketball. subordinating conjunction Word that introduces a subordinate clause because, so, although superlative Form of an adjective that you use for comparing three or more things or people biggest, funniest, most exciting, best, worst tense Form of a verb that tells you whether something happens in the past, present, or future play, played, is playing, was playing, will play verb Word that describes an action and tells you