Main Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide
Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive GuideRonald Carter, Michael McCarthy
A major reference grammar offering comprehensive coverage of spoken and written English based on real everyday usage. The Cambridge Grammar of English is a major reference grammar from the world's leading grammar publisher. Using ground breaking language research, it offers clear explanations of spoken and written English based on real everyday usage. A clear two-part structure makes the book particularly user-friendly. In the first section, A-Z entries give more attention to lexico-grammar and other language areas that tend to be neglected in grammar references. The second section covers traditional grammatical categories such as tense, clause structure and parts of speech.
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CAMBRIDGE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH A C O M P R EH E N SIV E G U IDE Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage Ca m b r id g e RONALD CARTER m ic h a e l M c C a r t h y CAMBRIDGE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage RONALD CARTER m ic h a e l M cCa r t h y M C a m b r id g e U N IV ER SITY PRESS CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sâo Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521588664 © Cambridge University Press 2006 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2006 Printed in Italy by Mtr Grafica Veneta S.p.A. A catalog u e record fo r this b o o k is a v a ila b le from th e B ritish Library Paperback ISBN -13 978-0-521-58846-1 Paperback ISBN -10 0-521-58846-4 Hardcover ISBN -13 978-0-521-58166-0 Hardcover ISBN -10 0-521-58166-4 Paperback and CD ROM ISBN -13 978-0-521-67439-3 Paperback and CD ROM ISBN -10 0-521-67439-5 Hardcover and CD ROM ISBN -13 978-0-521-85767-3 Hardcover and CD ROM ISBN -10 0-521-85767-8 Network CD ROM ISBN -13 978-0-521-58845-4 Network CD ROM ISBN -10 0-521-58845-6 The Authors Professor Ronald Carter is Professor of Modern English Language in the School of English Studies, University of Nottingham. He has published extensively in the fields of language education, applied linguistics and literary-linguistic studies. He is co-author of Exploring Spoken English and Exploring Grammar in Context, and co-editor of The Cambridge G uide to Teaching English to Speakers o f Other Languages for Cambridge ELT. Professor Michael McCarthy is Emeritus Professor of Applied Linguistics in the School of English Studies, University of Nottingham. He has also published extensively on corpora, vocabulary and discourse. He is the co-author of several of the Vocabulary in Use titles, Exploring Spoken English and Exploring Grammar in Context as well as a number of applied linguistics titles for Cambridge ELT. The Cambridge Grammar Reference Panel The Cambridge Grammar Reference Panel is a group of eminent and experienced applied linguists and teachers of English who have collaborated with the publisher and authors in the development of the Cambridge Grammar o f English. The panel members have contributed to workshops, commented on draft chapters and generously offered their time, advice and support during various stages of the project. Professor Karin Aijmer, Gothenburg University Dr Franz Andres Morrissey, University of Bern Dra. Pilar Aguado Giménez, Universidad de Murcia Dr Jean Hudson, Malmö University Professor Susan Hunston, University of Birmingham Dr Anne O’Keeffe, Mary Immaculate College, University of Limerick Dr Marilyn Lewis, University of Auckland Mr Keith Mitchell, Edinburgh University Professor Sophia Papaefthymiou-Lytra, University of Athens Professor Svetlana Ter-Minasova, Moscow State University Professor Masanori Toyota, Kansaigaidai University Ms Geraldine Mark, Project manager, UK To Jane and Jeanne Acknowledgements AUTHORS'ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In relation to a huge book such as this one, which has been some seven years in the writing, many colleagues and other scholars have been influential in our thinking and have directly or indirectly influenced the content and wording of the grammar as it is now published. Some names deserve a special expression of our gratitude. First and foremost we thank the Cambridge Grammar Reference Panel, whose names are listed on the preceding page. Without the input and inspiration of the panel, the book would have lacked much in terms of accuracy, organisation and detail. In particular we thank Karin Aijmer, Franz Andres Morrissey, Susan Hunston, Marilyn Lewis, Keith Mitchell and Anne O’Keeffe for their most thorough and meticulously detailed reports on the various versions of the manuscript and their suggestions, always an improvement on our attempts, for revision. Special thanks also go to Jean Hudson, who began as our research assistant for the project and taught us a great deal about searching corpora, and who later became a member of the Cambridge Grammar Reference Panel in its initial stages. Cambridge University Press has given us outstanding and unfailing support from the outset. First and foremost, thanks must go to Colin Hayes, Group Director of ELT at the Press from 1988 to 2003, whose vision and willingness to back this project effectively started the whole enterprise. It was Colin, along with Jeanne McCarten, to whom we also owe a huge debt, who saw the significance of developments in corpus linguistics and their implications for English Language Teaching and, as a result, was prepared to make the commitment on behalf of CUP to the building of the CANCODE spoken corpus and the commissioning of this grammar. In its latter phase of development, we have enjoyed continued support and unstinting commitment from Colin Hayes’ successor, Andrew Gilfillan, and from our commissioning editor, Alison Sharpe. Alison has steered the project with immense skill and provided us with inspiration, encouragement and good advice. The day-to-day running of the project has been expertly managed by Geraldine Mark, who brought to it her considerable experience as an English language teacher and ELT editor, along with an unerring instinct for how best to present the grammar. By a small-world coincidence, Michael McCarthy was first introduced to the complexities and pleasures of English grammar as a schoolboy by Geraldine’s father, Brian Mark, who taught English at Saint Illtyd’s College Grammar School, Cardiff, when Michael was a pupil there. Brian Mark, like his daughter, deserves a special thank-you. CUP also supplied us with corpora and expert computational support from Patrick Gillard, Paul Heacock, Andrew Harley, Ann Fiddes and Dominic Glennon, to all of whom we say thank you. In the final stages of preparing the bulky manuscript for publication, we were privileged to have the editorial expertise, vast experience and eagleeye of Thérèse Tobin to assist us; Thérèse made invaluable suggestions for clarifying our sometimes unclear statements. Linda Matthews steered the book through its final stages of production; she too deserves our thanks, as do Jane Durkin and Alex Priestley for sales and marketing campaigns. Thanks are also due to Linda Hardcastle for showing such understanding of a long and complex book in the compilation of the index. A huge amount of background research went into the grammar, and, in addition to Jean Hudson, who worked as a researcher on the project in its earliest stages, we wish particularly to thank Svenja Adolphs, Julia Harrison and Jane Evison for their work in developing the CANCODE spoken corpus and their insightful investigations of it. Without their support as co-researchers, we would have been overwhelmed by the sheer volume of data. Among university colleagues both authors have shared over the years, certain figures stand out as having profoundly influenced us. John Sinclair was, and remains, the most important inspiration and mentor for us both; his scholarship is unmatched in its originality, breadth and depth. He and other colleagues at the universities of Birmingham and Nottingham have moulded us academically into what we are today; those figures include Margaret Berry, David Brazil, Malcolm Coulthard, Michael Hoey and Walter Nash. Other British-based colleagues and friends who have supported us and given us ideas and inspiration over the years include Dave Allan, Michael Baynham, Bethan Benwell, Chris Brumfit, Martin Bygate, Lynne Cameron, Joanna Channell, Caroline Coffin, Guy Cook, Sandra Combleet, Justine Coupland, David Crystal, Joan Cutting, Zoltân Dömyei, Amorey Gethin, Sarah Grandage, Peter Grundy, Michael Handford, Martin Hewings, Ann Hewings, Sue Homer, Rebecca Hughes, Howard Jackson, Martha Jones, Almut Koester, Geoffrey Leech, Michael Lewis, Janet Maybin, Tony McEnery, Neil Mercer, Ros Mitchell, Louise Mullany, Felicity O’Dell, David Oakey, Kieran O’Halloran, Antoinette Renouf, John Richmond, Mario Rinvolucri, Paul Roberts, Norbert Schmitt, Mike Scott, Alison Sealey, Paul Simpson, Roger Smith, Peter Stockwell, Michael Swan, Paul Thompson, Ivor Timmis, Brian Tomlinson, Alistair West, Janet White, David Willis, Jane Willis, Alison Wray and Martin Wynne. From universities and other institutions overseas, inspiration, ideas and friendly support came to us from Jens Allwood, Carolina Amador Moreno, Gabriela Appel, Michael Barlow, Douglas Biber, James Binchy, Anne Bums, Dermot Campbell, Christopher Candlin, Marianne Celce-Murcia, Wallace Chafe, Angela Chambers, Winnie Cheng, Margaret Childs, Brian Clancy, Sylvia de Cock, Susan Conrad, Fiona Farr, Tony Fitzpatrick, Loretta Fung, Sylviane Granger, Carmen Gregori Signes, Michael Halliday, Kieran Harrington, Ruquiya Hasan, Kent Hill, San San Hnin Tun, Paul Hopper, Ken Hyland, Yoshihiko Ikegami, Karen Johnson, Celeste Kinginger, James Lantolf, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Anna Mauranen, Nigel McQuitty, John McRae, Marty Meinardi, Freda Mishan, Brona Murphy, David Nunan, Aisling O’Boyle, Mana Palma Fahey, Aneta Pavlenko, Scott Payne, Luke Prodromou, Nikoleta Rapti, Randi Reppen, Antonia Sânchez Macarro, Helen Sandiford, Elana Shohamy, Rita Simpson, Anoma Siriwardena, Diana Slade, Carol Spöttl, Jeff Stranks, Susan Strauss, Merrill Swain, John Swales, Gerry Sweeney, HongyinTao, Steven Thome, Elena Tognini-Bonelli, Geoff Tranter, Amy Tsui, Koen Van Landeghem, Elaine Vaughan, Mary Vaughn, Steve Walsh, Shih-Ping Wang, Martin Warren, Linda Waugh, Fiona Wheeler, Geoff Williams, Brent Wolter andXuelianXu. Others too many to mention have inspired us with conference papers and published work, and to all of them we owe a debt of gratitude. Whatever shortcomings remain in the book, they must rest entirely at our door. Ronald Carter Michael McCarthy Nottingham, 2005 PUBLISHERS' ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Development of this publication has made use of the Cambridge International Corpus (CIC). The CIC is a computerised database of contemporary spoken and written English which currently stands at 700 million words. It includes British English, American English and other varieties of English. It also includes the Cambridge Learner Corpus, developed in collaboration with the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. Cambridge University Press has built up the CIC to provide evidence about language use that helps to produce better language teaching materials. The author and publishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material. It has not always been possible to identify the source of material used or to contact the copyright holders and in such cases the publishers would welcome information from the copyright owners. Advertisement for Satellite trainers, with the kind permission of Reebok International Limited; Unilever UK for, ‘I can’t believe it’s not butter’; Nabisco Foods for, ‘Fruitful from Shredded Wheat’; Kraft Foods for, ‘Enjoy the smooth, silky taste of Creamery butter’; extracts from the online website of Save the Children Fund, reproduced with the permission of Save the Children; extracts from The Guardian and The Observer © Guardian Newspapers Limited; for extracts from Absolute Truths by Susan Howatch, The Black Opal by Victoria Holt, The Conviction of Guilt by Lew Matthews, Codebreaker by Alastair MacNeill, The Devil’s Door by Alastair MacNeill, Dreams of Innocence by Lisa Appignanesi, Family Blessings by Lavyrle Spencer, Final Resort by Ian St. James, For the Love o f a Stranger by Erin Pizzey, The Glasgow Girls by Francis Paige, The Open Door by Alan Sillitoe, Rushing to Paradise by J.G.Ballard, Testimonies by Patrick O’Brian and Walking Back to Happiness by Helen Shapiro, © HarperCollins Publishers; for extracts from Desperadoes by Joseph O’Connor, reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers and Blake Friedmann Literary Agency © Joseph O’Connor, 1994; for extracts from Lost Children by Maggie Gee by permission of HarperCollins Publishers and Curtis Brown Group, © Maggie Gee; for extracts from Yellow Bird by Trudi Pacter, by permission of HarperCollins and the author; for extracts from An Indecent Act by Maria Barrett, The Ambassador by Edwina Currie, Dead & Gone by Dorothy Simpson, Siena Summer by Teresa Crane, Two Gentlemen Sharing by William Corlett, Solomon Grundy by Dan Gooch, The Scholar by Courttia Newland and What Treasure did Next by Gina Davidson, © Little, Brown and Company; for extracts from The Keepers by Pauline Kirk, by permission of Little, Brown and Company and David Grossman Literary Agency on behalf of the author; for extracts from Another Kind of Cinderella by Angela Huth, © Angela Huth 1995, reproduced by permission of Little, Brown and Company, Felicity Bryan Agency and the author; for extracts from Every Man for Himself by Beryl Bainbridge, by permission of Little, Brown and Company and Johnson and Alcock on behalf of the author; for extracts from Like by Ali Smith, by permission of Ali Smith, Xandia Hardie and Little, Brown and Company; extracts from The Waiting Game by Bernice Rubens are reproduced by permission of Little, Brown and Company and PFD fwww.pfd.co.uk) on behalf of The Estate of Bernice Rubens; for extracts from Transgressions by Sarah Dunant, by permission of Little, Brown and Company and Gillon Aitken on behalf of the author; for extracts from The Angry Mountain by Hammond Innes, Arcadia by Jim Crace, Cam by Patrick McCabe, and Ever After by Graham Swift, © Macmillan; for extracts from Cast the First Stone by Jane Adams, by permission of Macmillan and the author; for extracts from A Green Bag Affair by Paul Geddes, Harvey Angell by Diana Hendry, Flight from the Dark, Lone Wolf 1 by John Denver © The Random House Group Ltd; for extracts from The Tenancy by Eva Figes by permission of The Random House Group Ltd and Rogers, Coleridge & White Ltd on behalf of the author; for texts from Act of Valour by Emma Drummond, Charlotte Street by Juliette Mead, Death Before Dishonour by Barnaby Williams, Fault Lines by Natasha Cooper, The Keeper by Eileen MacDonald, Miles & Flora by Hilary Bailey, Mr MacGregor by Alan Titchmarsh, Sentimental Journey by Juliette Mead and Sour Grapes by Natasha Cooper, © Simon & Schuster. Excerpts from the following works are also included: Emma, Mansfield Park and Northanger Abbey, by Jane Austen; The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, by Anne Brontë; A Tale of Two Cities, Dombey and Son and Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens; The Mill on the Floss, by George Eliot; The Mayor of Casterbridge, Far from the Madding Crowd and Tess of the D’Urbervilles, by Thomas Hardy; Lady Chatterley’s Lover, by D H Lawrence; Anna Karenina, by Leo Tolstoy; Lord Arthur Savile’s Crime, by Oscar Wilde; To the Lighthouse, The Waves and Mrs Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf. The following are reproduced with permission of Cambridge University Press: extracts from Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy (2002); Cambridge Advanced Learners’ Dictionary; Cambridge Encyclopaedia, Crystal; Contemporary European History, 2001,10 (3); Environmental Conservation, (2001); Environment and Development Economics (2002); International Review of Social History, 46 (2001); Issues in Applied Linguistics, McCarthy; Journal of American Studies, 2001 35 (1): Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2002; Journal of Nutrition, 1993; Journal of Social Policy (2002); Journal of Zoology (2002); Materials Development in Language Teaching, Tomlinson; More Grammar Games, Rinvolucri and Davis; New Cambridge English Course, Swan and Walter; New Horizons/Science; Key stage 3 Science, 1995; Review of International Studies (2001), 27:265-272 Cambridge University Press Copyright © 2001 British International Studies Association; Revolutions, Todd; The Historical Journal (2001); The Politics of the Picturesque, Copley; Vocabulary, Schmitt and McCarthy. Thanks go to the British National Corpus for extracts from the following works: A Song Twice Over by Brenda Jagger, Imprint: Fontana Press, 1994; Billion Dollar Brain by Len Deighton, Imprint: Arrow Books; Chymical Wedding by Lindsay Clarke, Imprint: Jonathan Cape; The Child Bride by Philippa Wait, Imprint: Robert Hale Ltd; Daughters o f the Moon by Susan Sallis, Imprint: Corgi Books; Frankenstein by Patrick Nobes, Imprint: OUP, 1994; Green and Pleasant Land by Howard Newby, Imprint: Wildwood House; House of Cards by Michael Dobbs, Imprint: HarperCollins, 1994; Jan e’s Journey by Jean Bow, Imprint: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, 1994; Murder Makes an Entrée by Amy Myers, Imprint: Headline Book Publishing pic, 1994; Nice Work by David Lodge, Imprint: Seeker & Warburg, 1994; Roads that Move by Walter Perrie, Imprint: Mainstream Publishing Co. Ltd; Sons of Heaven by Terence Strong, Imprint: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. Contents \ i> U ! ! * '. г i l l . ' n u n i b c l ' S a l V M ' C t i o 1! l l U Ü t l l C I ' N . I l ■) L paji-.: I H i n i b c f - : : i ■) : 4. ü о '.a I ! c ' J ^ u i u . i u s j X it .L ' s a ; i . к ч I î'I i 11 'j л с i ; с n a p l с г. Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English 1-4 From word to grammar: an A -Z 5-18 Spoken language Introduction to grammar and spoken English 82-91 From utterance to discourse 92-103 From discourse to social contexts 104-122 Grammatand discourse Grammar across turns and sentences 123-139 Grammar and academic English 140-154 Word and phrase classes Introduction to word classes and phrase classes 155-166 Nouns The noun phrase 167-175 Nouns and determiners 176-196 Pronouns 197-212 Verbs Verb phrase 1: structure of verb phrases 213-216 Verb phrase 2: tense and aspect 217-226 Types of verb 227-235 Adjectives and adverbs Adjectives and adjective phrases 236-241 Adverbs and adverb phrases 242-249 Prepositions and particles Prepositions and prepositional phrases 250-257 Word form ation Word structure and word formation 258-268 Sentence and clause patterns Introduction to sentences and clauses 2 6 9-280 Verb complementation 281-289 Clause types 290-303 Clause combination 304-318 Adjuncts 319-337 Introduction to the C a m b rid g e G ra m m a r o f E n g lis h j ix x I Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English Time Present time 338-345 Past time 346-360 Future time 361-376 Notions and functions Modality 377-407 Speech acts 408-423 Questions 424-433 Negation 434-447 Condition 448-459 Comparison 460-471 Information packaging Word order and focus 472-475 The passive 476-487 Speech representation 488-502 Appendices Word clusters and grammar 503-505 Punctuation 506 English spelling 507-511 Numbers 512-525 Referring to the time 526 Units of measurement 527 Nationalities, countries and regions 528 Irregular verbs 529 North American English grammar 5 3 0 - 5 3 8 Glossary 5 3 9 Bibliography 5 4 0 Index 5 41 Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English What is grammar? 1 Arrangement of items (syntax) la Structure of items (morphology) lb Acceptable and unacceptable forms lc Vocabulary (lexis) Id Phrases le Clauses If Classes of word, phrase and clause lg Functions lh Sounds (phonology) li Choices lj What is the Cam bridge G ram m ar o f English? 2 Usage and acceptability 2a Grammar rules: deterministic and probabilistic 2b Descriptive versus prescriptive approach 2c Grammar as structure and grammar as choice 2d Grammar and lexis 2e Grammar and discourse 2f Grammar and variation: the importance of context 2g Grammar and the spoken language 2h Grammar and corpus data 3 What is a corpus? 3a Using the corpus 3b Information on frequency 3 c Information on concordance 3d Deciding what to include 3e Insights into use 3f Word clusters 3g Frequent, common and preferred patterns 3h Learner corpus 3i How CGE is organised 4 From word to grammar: an A-Z 4a Topic chapters 4b Appendices 4c Glossary 4d Index 4e Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English WHAT IS GRAMMAR? 1 Grammar is concerned with how sentences and utterances are formed. In a typical English sentence, we can see the two most basic principles of grammar, the arrangement of items (syntax) and the structure of items (morphology) : I gave my sister a sw eater for her birthday. Arrangement of items (syntax) 1a The meaning of this sentence is obviously created by words such as gave, sister, sw eater and birthday. But there are other words (I, my, a, for, her) which contribute to the meaning, and, additionally, aspects of the individual words and the way they are arranged which enable us to interpret what the sentence means. For example, we know it is I who gave the sweater, not my sister, because I comes before the verb (gave). In English, subjects (the doers of actions) come before verbs in statements. We also know the relationship between the indirect object, my sister, and the direct object, a sweater, (that the sw eater was given and my sister was the recipient) because indirect objects come before direct objects. We also expect my to come before sister, not after. These aspects of the arrangement of things in sentences is referred to as syntax. Syntax is one of the two basic principles of grammar. Structure of items (morphology) 1b The example sentence also illustrates the other basic principle of grammar. I and my are two different forms, one with a subject meaning, the other with a possessive meaning, even though they both refer to the same person. G ave refers to past time, in contrast to give(s), which refers to present time. Sw eater is singular; if there were more than one sweater, the form would be sweaters. These small items of meaning, such as I, my, the past form gave, a plural -s ending, are called grammatical morphemes, and come under the heading of morphology. Morphology is concerned with the structure of words and phrases. It is the second basic principle of grammar. Acceptable and unacceptable forms 1с Grammar is concerned with acceptable and unacceptable forms and the distinctions of meaning these forms create. The fact that sw eater means ‘knitted outer garment worn on the upper part of the body for warmth’ and that sister means ‘female sibling’ are matters of vocabulary (lexis), but the distinction between present and past, one and more than one, subject and object, possession 2 1Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English 13 and non-possession, etc., are matters of grammar. In every language, some forms are acceptable and others are not. So, in English, we can create arrangements of our example sentence which are not acceptable, either syntactically or morphologically: I my sister gave a sw eater for birthday her. G ave I my sister a sw eaters for his birthday. /gives my sisters sw eater a for her birthday. In this grammar book, we indicate unacceptable forms with a line through the text: I my-sister-gave a sweater for birthday her. Vocabulary (lexis) 1d Although some aspects of our example sentence are concerned with lexis, lexis and grammar are not totally independent. A ‘sweater’ is the kind of thing in the world that English treats as countable (we may have one, two or more of them). However, if I gave my sister ‘information’, the fact that information is an abstract entity, which English considers to be uncountable, affects the grammar, and the sentence would have to be I gave my sister som e information. ‘I gave my sister an information’ would be an unacceptable form. Phrases 1e Our initial example sentence may also be seen as composed of units or building blocks of different sizes, not just individual words and their endings. For example, the sentence could be divided up thus: I Igave I my sister \a sw eater \for her birthday. We have now divided the sentence into its constituent phrases (items which have individual functions in the sentence). It is the phrase a sw eater which acts as the object, not just the word sweater, and the whole phrase for her birthday indicates the reason or circumstances of the giving. Clauses If We could extend the example sentence: I gave my sister a sw eater for her birthday an d she bought me a CD for mine. We can now see two larger building blocks (in green) in the sentence, connected by and. These are clauses (separate units containing their own verbs: gave/bought). Grammar is concerned with how the constituent units of sentences (morphemes, words, phrases and clauses) are put together to form sentences. •*£ 539 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms 4 1Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English Classes o f w ord, phrase and clause 1g Words are not all of the same type. Some, such as sw eater and sister, are nouns (words referring to entities: persons, things, animals, abstract concepts); some, such as gave and bought, are verbs (words referring to actions, events or states); and so on. These words belong to different classes. Equally, the phrases belong to different classes: for her birthday and for mine are prepositional phrases (phrases introduced by prepositions). Clauses too belong to classes: some are declarative(they havethe subject first and typically make statements), some are interrogative(they have a verb such as do, be or have first, and typically ask questions). Grammar is concerned with how units and classes relate to one another. Functions Ih The noun phrases my sister, a sw eater are types of object in our example sentence in If, and for my birthday and for m ine are operating as phrases indicating the circumstances. They are referred to as adjuncts. The terms subject, verb, object, adjunct refer to the functions the different phrase-types carry out in the clause. Grammar describes what the acceptable functions are. Sounds (phonology) 1i How sentences are spoken is also relevant. The sentence I do like your car, on the face of it, seems to break the rule that do is not used in statements. However, if the sentence is spoken with appropriate stress, then it becomes acceptable. This is the emphatic do, which may be used in statements: I do lik e your car. Phonology (the sound systems of a language) is therefore also connected in important ways with grammar and lexis, and influences the interpretation of sentences. Choices 1j Throughout the construction of a sentence, the speaker/writer makes choices. Choices involve things such as number (singular or plural), tense (present or past), definiteness (a sweater versus the sweater), etc. Every choice carries a different meaning, and grammar is concerned with the implications of such choices. WHAT IS THE CAMBRIDGE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISHl Usage and acceptability 2 2a This book is a grammar of standard British English. Standard British English is a variety of English defined by its grammar, lexis and phonology. There are, of course, other standard varieties of English, for example, standard North American English or standard Indian English or standard Australian English, which may Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to theCambridgeGrammarof English 15 differ quite considerably in terms of pronunciation, but only minimally as far as grammar is concerned. Appendix 530-538 for particular differences in North American English grammar. However, issues of acceptability are never far from the surface when there is reference to what is standard in grammar or in language use in general. In this book, the following main categories of British English are adopted: • acceptable in standard written and spoken English (most forms are in this category) • acceptable in standard written and spoken English but not approved in more prescriptive grammar books and often avoided by many writers of formal English; for example: split infinitives, stranded prepositions, choices between w ho and whom • unacceptable in standard written English but acceptable in standard spoken English (-£ for example 9 6 and 97 on headers and tails) • unacceptable in standard written and spoken English but acceptable in many regional varieties of English (-£ for example 119b on the use of ain ’t) ; such forms are not included in the main description in this book, and are simply referred to occasionally • unacceptable in all varieties of English (for example a structure such as he did must speak); such forms are excluded from this book.* Where possible in this book, we always give an indication if a particular grammatical usage is likely to be considered non-standard, but we also indicate in which contexts such usage may nonetheless pass unnoticed. Grammar rules: deterministic and probabilistic 2b The general lay person’s perspective is that grammar is about rules of speaking and writing, but not all ‘rules’ given by grammarians are of the same kind. Some rules are deterministic, that is, they are rules which always apply. For example, the definite article always comes before the noun (we say the cup, not cup the), or indicative third person singular present tense lexical verbs always end in -s (we say sh e works, not she work). Other rules are probabilistic, that is to say, they state what is most likely or least likely to apply in particular circumstances. For example, in the overwhelming majority of cases, a relative pronoun (e.g. w ho, w hich, that) must be used to refer to the subject of a relative clause: We met a w om an who h ad lived in Berlin during the 1980s. However, in informal spoken styles, the relative pronoun may often be omitted, especially after a there construction: There was a shop in the village sold hom e-m ad e ice cream. (or: There was a shop in the village which/that sold home-made ice cream.) * Our thanks to Susan Hunston for suggesting this list of categories. 539 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms б I Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English It is not a rule that the relative pronoun must be omitted; it can be omitted. The rules concerning its use are therefore probabilistic (it is most probable in most cases that the relative pronoun will be used). In this book, many of the rules given are probabilistic, since they are based on observations of what is most likely and least likely in different contexts in real spoken and written data. Descriptive versus prescriptive approach 2c A descriptive approach to grammar is based on observations of usage; it states how people use the grammar of a language. A prescriptive approach to grammar is based on the idea that some forms are more ‘correct’ or more associated with ‘good usage’ than others. Prescriptive rules are often social rules that are believed to mark out a speaker or writer as educated or as belonging to a particular social class. Examples of prescriptive rules are: Do N O T EN D A S E N T E N C E W IT H A P R E P O S IT IO N . (e.g. Do not say This is som ething you shou ld not be involved in; say This is som ething in which you sh ou ld not be involved) Do N O T S P L IT AN IN F IN IT IV E . (e.g. Do not say I expect to shortly w elcom e him h ere; say I expect to welcom e him here shortly) Examples are given throughout the book of contexts of use in which prescriptive rules do or do not apply, where this is useful to language learners. The book also contains a number of specially written panels that highlight common prescriptive rules, discuss attitudes to the rules and examine how they do or do not apply in different contexts of use (•••:•for exam ple 3 3 7 ). The main approach taken in this book is descriptive. The emphasis throughout the book is on describing the ways in which speakers and writers of English use the language to communicate with one another, as evidenced in large numbers of spoken and written texts from all over the British English community. The approach taken is, we believe, compatible with a pedagogical grammar which is written primarily for advanced learners of English. It is therefore important that learners are aware of the social importance which attaches to certain prescriptive rules while at the same time being aware of the way in which English is used by real speakers and writers of the language. Issues relevant to a learner’s grammar are explored further at several places below. Grammar as structure and grammar as choice 2d The book regularly draws attention to the implications of different grammatical choices and gives the user opportunities to observe and learn about grammatical choices in relation to particular contexts in which the language is used. The Cambridge Grammar o f English (CGE) makes a distinction between grammar as structure and grammar as choice. Grammar as structure means: What rules does one need to know in order to construct a sentence or clause appropriately? An example of a structural rule would be that the determiner none must be followed by o f (non e o f my friends, as opposed to none my friends). Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English |7 On the other hand, grammar frequently involves ellipsis, which is the absence of words which can be understood from the surrounding text or from the situation. For example the ellipsis of the subject noun or pronoun in expressions such as L ookin g forw ard to seeing you, D on ’t kn ow and Think so is largely the speaker’s/ writer’s interpersonal choice. Interpersonal choices are choices which are sensitive to the relationship between the speaker/writer and the listener/reader. In such a case as this, grammar as choice means: When is it normal to use ellipsis? Are some forms of ellipsis more likely to be used in spoken than in written modes? What kinds of relationship does it project between speakers and listeners? Are the forms linked to greater or lesser degrees of intimacy and informality? Another example of grammar as choice would be the use of the past simple and the past progressive tense in reported speech. For example, the most frequent form of speech report is the past simple, as in: She said the central heating n eeded to be repaired. But the past progressive form can also be used. This is especially common in spoken rather than in written English as speakers can choose to express reports as ‘pieces of news’ rather than as representations of people’s words: She was saying that s h e ’s going to quit her job. Both forms of say are acceptable but the progressive form is less frequent. It is, however, a choice which speakers or writers can make in particular contexts. In this book, both grammar as structure and grammar as choice are treated, and the grammar of choice is as important as the grammar of structure. Grammar and lexis 2e Grammar does not exist separately from other levels of language. There is a close link between grammar and lexis and in this book attention is given to the meaning, structure and formation of individual words. There are also many places in the book where grammatical choices entail particular choices of vocabulary, or vice versa. The book reflects recent computer-assisted research, which shows the patterned relationship between vocabulary and grammar. For example, the pattern of about twenty verbs in English is verb + by + -ing, where the verb is followed by the preposition by and an -ing clause. Most verbs of this kind fall into two main groups, one group meaning ‘start’ or ‘finish’, the other group meaning ‘respond to’ or ‘compensate for’ something. For example: They started off by collecting money for ch ild ren ’s charities. She concluded by singing three songs in Italian. They responded to the new s by cutting o ff a ll com m unication with the outside world. H e allowed for the bend by braking sharply. 539 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms 8 1Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English Experienced users of English recognise such patterns intuitively but it is often only when computer analysis demonstrates the patterns across many examples of use that they are fully acknowledged. Description of such patterns is becoming a more established feature of many modern grammar books. CGE is no exception and lists of words which behave in similar ways to one another are frequently given. Grammar and discourse 2f Another important level of language organisation that has received detailed investigation in recent years is the level of discourse. Discourse refers to the patterns of language used beyond the level of the sentence or beyond the individual speaking turn. There has been much description of spoken discourse patterns (e.g. how people open and close conversations; how they organise their speaking turns) and also attention to the ways in which sentences combine to form coherent texts in writing. This book pays attention to such patterns and describes the cohesion of sentences - that is, the ways in which grammatical links across sentences or speakers’ turns create coherent texts (••* 214). Two chapters in this grammar (123-139 and 140-154) are devoted to grammar and discourse and to the way in which larger units of meaning are created. In CGE it is not our aim to take a text and then extract atomised, grammatical points from it. Rather, texts are used to illustrate how grammatical meanings are created in actual use. The place, distribution and sequencing of the grammatical feature in its text and context are as important as its actual occurrence. This book is based on insights from the fields of text and discourse analysis, rather than just traditional sentence grammars. The emphasis in CGE is, wherever appropriate, on the relationship between choice of form and contextual factors. In parts the book represents a first step towards a context-based or discourse grammar of English. For example, where it is appropriate, extracts from different written sources are clearly indicated and spoken exchanges are marked and explained with reference to particular contexts and speaker roles. Examples are drawn here from section 000. [public notice] Vehicles p arked here will be tow ed away. [notice in a train compartment] These seats are reserved for disabled customers. [at a travel agent’s; the customer has just received his tickets] Customer: Right well this is all right now is it? Agent: That's the ticket yes. (what is this for the customer is that for the agent) Grammar and variation: the importance of context 2g Language variation takes many different forms. Language can vary in levels of formality; it can vary according to the regional or social groups to which speakers belong; it can vary over time; it can vary according to the uses to which it is put. Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English 19 Certain types of language use are associated with particular forms of activity or registers and are marked by distinctive patterns of use, including distinctive patterns of grammar. For example, cookery books and instructional manuals use many imperatives; newspaper headlines often deploy highly compressed forms of language; some forms of academic English make particular use of the passive voice; incomplete sentences are commonly used to highlight key information in advertisements and in radio and television news broadcasts. In conversation, too, the choice of one grammatical feature rather than another can depend on the speaker’s perception of the relationship they have with other speakers, the formality of the situation or their assessment of the context in which they are communicating. An important factor that affects the context of communication is whether the medium is spoken or written. Several parts of this book describe differences and distinctions between spoken and written grammar and indicate the different degrees of formality that affect choices of grammar. Wherever necessary to avoid ambiguity, information about the context in which examples typically function, whether predominantly spoken or written, is given. In CGE we are assisted in this practice by access to a corpus (••>•3 a), which is very carefully annotated with reference to contexts of use. Grammar and the spoken language 2h Most books on the grammar of English have had a bias towards the written language. For many centuries dictionaries and grammars of the English language have taken the written language as a benchmark for what is proper and standard in the language, incorporating written, often literary, examples to illustrate the best usage. Accordingly, the spoken language has been downgraded and has come to be regarded as relatively inferior to written manifestations. Both in the teaching and learning of first, second and foreign languages, and in educational institutions and society in general, oral skills are normally less highly valued, with linguistic expertise being equated almost exclusively with a capacity to read and write. Until recently, the forms and structures typically found in spoken communication have not been highlighted. It is only recently that advances in audio-recording and associated technology have enabled sufficient quantities of spoken language to be used for analysis. CGE draws for its examples of spoken English on the CANCODE corpus (-|> 3a). The CANCODE corpus is a collection of everyday informal spoken texts which provides very useful evidence of significant structures, especially as they are found in spontaneous, unplanned, conversational usage. Although the corpus has not been systematically coded for phonetic features and features of intonation, this book has an accompanying CD-ROM in which key sentences, conversational exchanges and patterns of use can be listened to. A bias towards written grammar means that in some cases appropriate terms for describing particular features of spoken grammar are not available within existing grammatical frameworks. In some cases new ways of describing language 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 10 1Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English (metalanguage) have to be introduced. An example is the use of the terms ‘headers’ and ‘tails’ (•••>96 and 97). Thus, structures such as: header Her friend , Jill, the one we met in Portsm outh, she said they’d m oved house. tail H e always m akes a lot o f noise an d fuss, Charlie. are unlikely to be found in written contexts but are standard spoken forms. These have, in the past, often been described using metaphors such as left- and rightdislocation, based on the way words are arranged on a page in western writing. We consider these inappropriate to describe spoken grammar, which exists in time, not space. Another example of differences between spoken and written use involves voice (the choice of active or passive). Voice is more subtle and varied in the grammar of everyday conversation than is indicated in grammar books that focus only on written examples. There is, naturally, a focus on the core fee-passive in contrast to the active voice, but when we look at a large amount of conversational data, we see that the gei-passive form is much more frequent in spoken data than in comparable amounts of written data. At the same time it adds a further layer of choice, reflecting speakers’ perceptions of good or bad fortune, or of the degree of involvement of the subject. For example: I ’m afraid his car window got broken. (an unfortunate outcome) She got herself invited to the official opening. (she is seen as partly instrumental in being invited) Detailed attention needs to be paid to such complex phenomena, which might otherwise be underplayed in a book based only on written examples. Where it is appropriate to do so, in CGE there is a thorough examination of spoken examples side by side with balanced written examples so that relevant differences can be revealed. Some people argue that learners of English should not be presented with details of how native speakers speak. The position taken in this book is that such an approach would disadvantage learners. This book presents information about spoken grammar because it is important for learners to observe and to understand how and why speakers speak as they do. To describe these features does not mean that learners of English have to speak like native speakers. CGE presents the data so that teachers and learners can make their own informed choices. GRAMMAR AND CORPUS DATA What is a corpus? 3 3a The word corpus has been used several times already in this introduction. A corpus is a collection of texts, usually stored in computer-readable form. Many of the examples in this book are taken from a multi-million-word corpus of spoken and written English called the Cambridge International Corpus (CIC). The corpus Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English 111 is international in that it draws on different national varieties of English (e.g. Irish, American). This corpus has been put together over many years and is composed of real texts taken from everyday written and spoken English. At the time of writing, the corpus contained over 700 million words of English. The CIC corpus contains a wide variety of different texts with examples drawn from contexts as varied as: newspapers, popular journalism, advertising, letters, literary texts, debates and discussions, service encounters, university tutorials, formal speeches, friends talking in restaurants, families talking at home. One important feature of CIC is the special corpus of spoken English - the CANCODE corpus. CANCODE stands for Cambridge and Nottingham Corpus of Discourse in English, a unique collection of five million words of naturallyoccurring, mainly British (with some Irish), spoken English, recorded in everyday situations. The CANCODE corpus has been collected throughout the past ten years in a project involving Cambridge University Press and the School of English Studies at the University of Nottingham, UK. In CGE dialogues and spoken examples are laid out as they actually occur in the transcripts of the CANCODE recordings, with occasional very minor editing of items which might otherwise distract from the grammar point being illustrated. The CANCODE corpus is a finely-grained corpus. The CANCODE research team have not simply amassed examples of people speaking; they have tried to obtain examples from a range of sociolinguistic contexts and genres of talk. There is considerable advantage in being able to demonstrate statistical evidence over many millions of words and broad general contexts. Using the corpus 3b Grammar, like vocabulary, varies markedly according to context, allowing speakers considerable choice in the expression of interpersonal meanings (that is, meanings realised in relation to who one is speaking to rather than just what one is saying). A carefully constructed and balanced corpus can help to differentiate between different choices relative to how much knowledge speakers assume, what kind of relationship they have or want to have, whether they are at a dinner party, in a classroom, doing a physical task, in a service transaction in a shop, or telling a story (for example, our corpus tells us that ellipsis is not common in narratives, where the aim is often to create rather than to assume a shared world). By balancing these spoken genres against written ones, our corpus can also show that particular forms of ellipsis are widespread in certain types of journalism, in magazine articles, public signs and notices, personal notes and letters and in certain kinds of literary text. In descriptions of use, the most typical and frequent uses of such forms are described in relation to their different functions and in relation to the particular contexts in which they are most frequently deployed. (~ÿ 3h below) CGE is a grammar book that is informed by the corpus. The word ‘informed’ is used advisedly because we are conscious that it is no simple matter to import real data into a reference book in the belief that authentic language is always the right language for the purposes of learning the language. In places, this means that corpus examples which contain cultural references of the kind that are so common in everyday language use are either not selected or, while ensuring that 539 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms 1 2 1Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English the key grammatical patterns are preserved, are slightly modified so that they do not cause undue difficulties of interpretation. It is our strong view that language corpora, such as the Cambridge International Corpus, can afford considerable benefits for language teaching but the pedagogic process should be informed by the corpus, not driven or controlled by it. Information on frequency 3c The corpus was analysed in a variety of ways in the preparation of this book. One way was to compile frequency lists. A frequency list simply ranks words, phrases and grammatical phenomena (e.g. how many words end in -ness or -ity, or how many verb phrases consist of h av e + a verb ending in -en) in a list. In this way, we are able to see not only which items are most and least frequent, but also how they are distributed across speech and writing and across different registers (e.g. newspapers, academic lectures, conversations at home). For example, the list of the twenty most frequent word-forms in the CIC for spoken and written texts (based on five-million-word samples of each) are different. The tw enty most frequent word-forms in spoken and w ritte n texts spoken 1 2 3...... 4 5 6 7 8 9 i o "... 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 the I an d you it to a yeah that of in was it’s know is mm er but so they written 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 the to and of a in was it I he that she for on her you is with his had In the spoken list, I and you rise to the top, indicating the high interactivity of face-to-face conversation. Know is at number 14, indicative of the high frequency of the discourse marker you kn ow (•••:•106b), and mm and er reflect the frequency with which listeners vocalise their acknowledgement of what the speaker is saying, or whereby speakers fill silences while planning their speech in real time or while hesitating. It’s and yeah reflect the informality of much of the talk in the CANCODE spoken corpus. Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English 113 Information on concordance 3d Another way the corpus was analysed was in terms of concordance. Concordances help researchers see how words are actually used in context. Words or phrases which researchers are interested in are displayed in a vertical arrangement on the computer screen along with their surrounding co-text: we see what came just before the word and what came just after. For example, these sample lines from a concordance for the adverb yet in the spoken corpus show us that a negative environment is very common, but not in questions (negative items and question marks in bold), and that as yet is a recurrent pattern. The A -Z entry for yet in this book, and much of our grammatical description, is based on this type of observation. Sample lines from a concordance for yet___________________________________________________ <$2> Yeah. We haven’t got any answer yet. We’d like it trimming. <$E> laughs the wedding. <$2> I haven’t got any yet. Em < $069> Janet looked lovely <\$06 but we haven’t made er any arrangements yet it’s sort of er a bit too early yet ? <$1> Sorry? <$2> Has FX arrived yet? < $l> W h o is this? <$2> MX’s f be in. <$2>They haven’t arrived as yet. < $ l> < $= > Itisaw h o le < \ $= > it yet? <$1> No not a price breaker as yet. Just their own winter programme. ame in. <$E> laughs <\$E> Erm but er as yet it’s not available in every store. 11 over the place. Em we haven’t got as yet a timetable to show you as to what’s haven’t come have they? <$2> Not as yet. No. Normally about two weeks before . Well I said I don’t know the story as yet <$2> Mm. <$1> <$=> I said But . But they’re not putting anybody up as yet because they have an appeal launch r ms. Er that’s still not p= er set up as yet though. Erm we’re gonna do something n’t managed to mark any of your work as yet but 1 1 promise I’ll have it back to manda are you ready for your assessment yet? <$F> I think so yeah. <$1> I’ Anyway you obviously haven’t gone back yet so <$=> erm I won’t be er <\$=> you tknow. <$G ?> <$1> Oh he’s not back yet. <$2> No. <$1> Oh right. < eeks ago. And he he hasn’t written back yet. So <$E> laughs </$E> <$1> No. Mm G?>. <$4> Have you changed your bank yet? <$3> My turn. <$E> sighs <\$E> < $l> B ye. Cheers. <$3> Won’t be yet until I’ve < $ 0 1 3 > lost <\$013>a lit <$2> Have you seen Beauty And The Beast yet? <$1> No I was wanting to go. p to see me every year. She hasn’t been yet. And she and I like to trip out on a tomorrow <$6> No. No. Not for a bit yet. <$3>Good. <$6> We we thought 71094002.dcx 90127004.dcx 80339001.inx 90449020.dcx 70752001.dnx 70764003.dnx 90089007.knx 90003001.dnx 70765004.dnx 70365004.dcx 70502001.dfx 70499001.dfx 71232001.kpx 71229001.kpx 70515012.imx 70584004.dcx 70645001.dcx 71031003.kmx 90082002.knx 70056002.dcx 71094002.dcx 70499004.dfx The concordance also gives us a code on the right of the screen (in green here) which tells us what type of conversation each line occurs in, and leads us to the corpus database where we can verify who the speakers are, what age, gender, and social profile they have, how many people were involved in the conversation, where it took place, etc. We are therefore able to say something is in common usage as we see it represented across a range of texts and users in the corpus. Deciding what to include 3e In deciding on priorities with regard to the description of items and patterns, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are important. On the quantitative side, the corpus evidence can often show striking differences in distribution of items 539 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms 1 4 1Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English between speaking and writing. For example, the forms no on e and nobody are, on the face of it, synonymous, yet their distribution across five million words each of spoken and written data is very different, with nobody greatly preferred in the spoken corpus, as shown below. Use of no one and nobody in spoken and written English 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 spoken written 100 0 no o n e nobody The interpretation of such statistics then depends on a more qualitative interpretation of the data, observing how nobody tends to correlate with the more informal end of the spectrum. A similar pattern of usage, in this case more clearly related to formality, can be seen for w ho and w hom , where whom is shown to be relatively rare in conversation, only occurring in more formal contexts. Whom in written and spoken English 600 .........- .......... 500 400 300 200 100 0 zvritten Insights into use spoken 3f Statistical evidence from the corpus can also give insight into the communicative acts most typically performed by particular items. The next diagram shows the different functions of w hat abou t and how abou t in the CANCODE corpus. Both forms are used to change the topic in conversation, with w hat abou t being used to do this more frequently than how abou t (W hat abou t this new airport plan; w hat do you think o f that?). Another common function for both items is in the turntaking system, where there is a strong preference for how abou t as a way of selecting the next speaker (H ow abou t you Jean ; w hat do you think?). When suggestions are being made, both forms seem more or less equally available (How abou t a w alk before lunch?) (••$• also 421a). Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English 115 What about and how about in conversation % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 W hat a b o u t И ® H ow a bou t I ■I topic changing selecting sp eak er suggesting W ord clusters Searching a corpus also continually reveals new insights into language structure and use. For example, research for this book has revealed the importance of word clusters and grammar. Word clusters are groups of words that often occur together; some consist of just two words, e.g. you know , some are longer, e.g. on the other hand. Some of the most frequently repeated clusters reveal grammatical regularities. They often merit special consideration outside of the normal structural rules as described in the rest of this book, since they perform important basic functions in everyday usage, such as a turn-taking function in a conversation. These word clusters are sometimes different in spoken and written texts but such clusters are an important overall component in speaking and writing a language fluently since they can operate as the frequent and regular building blocks in the construction of meaning. Research has highlighted patterns that include a range from two-word to six-word clusters and different patterns exhibit different ranges of meaning. It is possible that further research will demonstrate that lines between the vocabulary and the grammar of a language need to be drawn less sharply. The research is ongoing and new descriptions of the functions of clusters are being formulated. In CGE the main findings concerning clusters are presented in 503-505 Appendix: Word clusters and grammar; however, readers will find a number of observations placed in key places throughout the book (particularly, for example, in chapters on spoken grammar, on the noun phrase, and on prepositions and prepositional phrases). The appendix on word clusters highlights possibilities in description, but corpus research is a constant and ever-developing feature of the study of grammar, and subsequent editions of CGE may well contain a separate chapter or chapters devoted to word clusters. Frequent, common and preferred patterns 3h Throughout CGE particular patterns are said to be frequent or common, either in the language as a whole or in speech rather than in writing or in formal rather than informal contexts of use. Sections 3a-3g above indicate how in this book a corpus is consulted before statements concerning the frequency of grammatical patterns are made. 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 1б I Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English As we have seen, some patterns are frequent but not acceptable in standard grammar while some patterns are non-standard in written usage but frequent in informal spoken varieties and perfectly acceptable in those varieties. Section 2a above indicates the range of possibilities. We believe information about frequency is important, especially for learners of a language. A corpus also enables us to indicate which patterns are ‘preferred’. Speakers and writers have choices and some choices are more typical in some contexts than in others. Preferences are attested with reference to the corpus and in several places throughout the book the choices open to a speaker or writer are described with an indication of which choices most typically occur. The fact that a speaker may choose the form which is the most typical does not mean that the alternative forms are incorrect or non-standard. The term ‘preferred’ as used in CGE highlights the most frequent choices made by users of the language. Learner corpus 3i We also had access during the writing of this book to a large learner corpus consisting of texts produced by learners of English from a wide range of lingua-cultures, coded for error and inappropriate use. This, along with our own language-teaching experience and that of our reference panel, has enabled us to give warnings of common areas of potential error where appropriate. These error warnings are signalled by the О symbol. CGE is organised differently from other contemporary books on the grammar of English. Our coverage is, we believe, extensive, and major areas of description of the grammar of English are treated. However, as argued in section 2b above, this book is unique in the attention devoted to the spoken language. A high proportion of illustrative examples in CGE are drawn from a spoken corpus, a unique A -Z section covers many key words and phrases that have particular prominence in spoken English, and there are several chapters specifically devoted to the structural features of spoken grammar. The organisation of CGE reflects this orientation and the first chapters in the book are therefore those most saliently devoted to spoken grammar and to differences and distinctions between spoken and written English grammar. This is not to say that spoken grammar is not treated throughout the book, including the appendices, but it is to underline the belief that spoken and written language need, as far as is practicable, to be accorded equal priority. Previous grammar books have given greater attention to written grammar. CGE offers a more balanced approach. Throughout the book, we make much use of cross references. This is because some of the most common grammatical items in English have many different meanings and uses and their descriptions will consequently be found under different headings in the book. For example, the word anyway is used as an adverb, and is also used as a discourse marker in spoken language; the modal verb Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English |17 co u ld is used to express possibility but it is also common in the performance of everyday speech acts such as requesting and suggesting. It is rarely possible to say everything that needs to be said about an item in one place in the book. The cross-references also allow further exploration of any item you may be interested in, and may be useful to lead you to more precise information when you look up an item. From word to grammar: an A -Z 4a The first part of CGE (5-81) is the A -Z, where individual words are described. These words have been selected for special attention because they are: • very frequent in everyday language • often polysemous (that is, they have more than one meaning) • individual in some way in their grammar, possessing characteristics that are worthy of particular note • known to be difficult for learners of English and often lead to errors. 4b Topic chapters The A -Z is followed by the topic chapters. These are organised as follows: Spoken language 82-91 Introduction to grammar and spoken English 92-103 From utterance to discourse 104-122 From discourse to social contexts The three chapters here are a major focus of CGE. They are devoted to aspects of the grammar of everyday speech, including the effects of social context. Grammar and discourse 123-139 Grammar across turns and sentences 140-154 Grammar and academic English These two chapters take us beyond the sentence. How grammar creates links across sentences and speaker turns is described, and there is a special chapter on the discourse conventions of academic English. Word and phrase classes 155-166 Introduction to word classes and phrase classes This chapter acts as an introduction to the sections on Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and adverbs, and Prepositions and particles. Nouns 167-175 The noun phrase 176-196 Nouns and determiners 197-212 Pronouns These three chapters first look at the construction of noun phrases; they then focus on nouns, pronouns and determiners (e.g. the, a, som e, my). 5 39 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms Всероссийская государственная библиотека иностоанной литепатеоы 1 8 1Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English Verbs 213-216 Verb phrase 1: structure of verb phrases 217-226 Verb phrase 2: tense and aspect 227-235 Types of verb The three chapters here look at how verb phrases are constructed, including the use of modal verbs and auxiliary verbs, and at the different types of verb. Adjectives and adverbs 236-241 Adjectives and adjective phrases 242-249 Adverbs and adverb phrases Here there are two chapters; they look at how adjectives and adverbs are formed and how they are used. Prepositions and particles 250-257 Prepositions and prepositional phrases This chapter deals with prepositions and the phrases they form (e.g. in the morning, on the floor). Word formation 258-268 Word structure and word formation This chapter describes the ways in which words are formed, including the use of prefixes and suffixes and the process of compounding. Sentence and dause patterns 269-280 Introduction to sentences and clauses 281-289 Verb complementation 290-303 Clause types 304-318 Clause combination 319-337 Adjuncts The five chapters here introduce the notion of the sentence and the clause, describe different clause types and illustrate how different verbs require different clause elements to be present (the process of verb complementation). How clauses combine to form sentences and the role of adjuncts are also dealt with. Time 338-345 Present time 346-360 Past time 361-376 Future time These three chapters look at how time is expressed in English, dealing with present, past and future time, and with how English expresses different perspectives on time. Cambridge Grammar of English Introduction to the Cambridge Grammar of English |19 Notions and functions 377-407 Modality 4 08-423 Speech acts 4 24-433 Questions 434-447 Negation 4 48 -4 5 9 Condition 460-471 Comparison In the six chapters here, core conceptual notions such as negation, condition and comparison are described. The important communicative functions performed by modal verbs and other items are explained in chapters on modality and speech acts. Information packaging 472-475 Word order and focus 476-487 The passive 4 88-502 Speech representation Here the three chapters are concerned with how speakers and writers decide to present information in clauses, by using active and passive voice choices, different word orders and other ways of emphasising things. How speech is represented and reported is also dealt with. Appendices 4c The appendices give detailed information on punctuation, spelling, irregular verbs, numbers, measurement, time, nationalities and countries, as well as important differences between British and North American grammatical usage, and an insight into the functions performed by word clusters. Glossary 4d The glossary contains brief definitions of all the key grammatical terms used in this book. The glossary also recognises that different grammar books use different terms. The CGE glossary refers to terms that are not employed in this book but which are a part of the language used to talk about grammar. Throughout, the aim is to provide an easy navigation between different terminologies and the description of the grammar of English contained in this book. Index 4e The comprehensive index is designed to provide access to a wide range of topics and key words covered in CGE. 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms From word to grammar: an A -Z About 5 Above 6 According to 7 Across 8 Actual, actually 9 After, afterwards 10 After all 10 Afterwards 10 Against 11 All 12 Allow 48 Already 13 Also, as well (as), too 14 Although, though 15 Always 16 Among 26 Anyway 17 Apart from 39 Around, round 18 As 19 Ask (for) 20 As well (as) 14 At 21 Back 22 Because/cos 23 Before 24 Below 25 Beneath 25 Besides 39 Between, among 26 Bit, a bit (of) 27 Both 28 Bring, take, fetch 29 By 24 Come, go 30 Cos 23 Do 31 Down 32 During 33 Each 34 Especially 35 Even 36 Ever 37 Every 38 Except 39 Expect 40 Explain 41 Fairly 66 Fall 42 Fell 42 Fetch 29 Few, Fewer 50 For 43 Get 30 Go 30 Hardly 44 Here, there 45 Hope 40 In 21 In fact 46 In front (of) 62 fust 47 Less 50 Let 48 Like 49 Little, a little, few, a few 50 Make 51 Mean 52 Mind 53 Now 54 Of 55 Of course 56 Oh 57 Okay/OK 58 On 21 Once 59 One 60 Only 61 Opposite, in pont (of) 62 Over 63 Own 64 Person 65 Pretty 66 Quite 66 Rather 67 ReaUy 68 Right, rightly 69 Round 18 Since 70 So 71 Still 72 Stuff 74 Take 29 Then 73 There 45 Thing, stuff 74 Though 15 Too 14 Under 25 Until 24 Wait for 40 Want 75 Well 76 Whatever 77 While 78 With 79 Worth, worthwhile 80 Yet 81 From word to grammar:an A -Z The individual words described here have been selected for special attention because they are: • very frequent in everyday language • often polysemous (that is, they have more than one meaning) • individual in some way in their grammar, possessing characteristics that are worthy of particular note • known to be difficult for learners of English and often lead to errors. ABOUT A 5 Preposition about 5a The most frequent meaning of abou t as a preposition is ‘on the subject of’ or ‘connected with’: Er, I ’m not too sure about that H e becam e very anxious about the condition o f two of his patients. We’ve only just started m aking enquiries about him. I ’ve already told you w hat I feel about the appointment Why is sh e alw ays going on aboutit? A less frequent use is as a synonym of round or arou n d: The dog was running about the garden a ll day. A bout can be contrasted with on, which focuses on more specific and detailed content: H e gave a lecture about Karl Marx. She gave a lecture on the position of English adverbs in spoken language. Adverb about 5b A bout is used as an adverb in expressions of time, number and quantity. It is used to express approximation and can be replaced by around. It also occurs in the phrase round about. It is more common in spoken than in written English: I ’ll see you about six then? That was about sixyears ago w asn ’t it? The suspect was about 1.7 metres tall The m ain changes to o k p la ce round about I8 60 at the tim e o f the shift away from agriculture as m ain source o f employm ent. 121 2 2 1From word to grammar: an A -Z About is rare without a complement. Particular uses are: Is John about? (Is John here/in the neighbourhood/in town?) There’s a lot of flu about at the moment. 18 Around, round 103b Approximations Sc Be about to Be about to means ‘be on the verge of doing something’: We were just about to leave She looks as if she’s about to burst into song Common spoken uses of about 5d About is common in spoken English when a speaker is orienting a listener to a topic: About that car ofyours, do you still want to sell it? About Fran, she can call in to see your grandmother, can’t she? What about is common in questions when the speaker points out something or wishes to orient the listener to a topic: What about all the cuts in education and in housing? What about Andreas? Isn’t he coming with us? What about, how about, and very informally, how’s about are commonly used to make suggestions: What about moving that bookshelf into the other room ? It would give us a bit more space. How about an ice-cream? How’s about going to Kyoto for the day? 421a What about, what if, how about About after nouns 5e Some common nouns are frequently followed by about. These include: anxiety argument assertion assumption complaint concern debate discussion doubt Cambridge Grammar of English enquiry feeling fuss idea information joke misgiving news point qualm question reservation scepticism speculation statement story talk uncertainty worry From word to grammar:an A -Z 123 It is dangerous to m a k e too many assumptions about basic cognitive processes. S h e’s alw ays m aking a fuss about our bedroom s being untidy. Is there any news about the p eop le trapped in that avalanche? About after verbs 5f Many common verbs are followed by about. They include: agonise ask bother care chat com plain enquire feel forget fret hear know learn m oan qu ibble read rem inisce sp eak specu late talk think w onder worry write They agonised fo r ages about changing their car. More an d m ore p eop le are beginning to speculate about a change o f management. О A bout is not used with the verb discuss : We w anted to discuss the arrangements fo r Chinese New Year. (We wanted to discuss about the arrangements for Chinese New Year.) I w anted to discuss ways o f improving the essay. Note, however, that a bou t is used with the noun d iscu ssion : Discussions about the situation took p la ce yesterday. A bout is used after com p lain : They didn ’t kn ow w hat to do when p eo p le cam e to complain about the goods they h a d bought. (They didn’t know what to do when people came to complain the goods they had bought.) About after adjectives 5g Many common adjectives are followed by about. They include: apprehensive bla sé cautious concerned coy enthusiastic excited fussy happy kn ow ledgeable nervous optim istic pessim istic sceptical snobbish sorry sure unhappy upset uptight worried The minister w as far too blasé about p u blic opinion an d in the end the m edia forced his resignation. S h e’s very nervous about flying in charter aircraft. 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 2 4 1From word to grammarian A-Z Ah, I ’m really sorry about this. She is m ore worried than she shou ld be about her exam results. Preposition above 6a A bove means ‘higher than’. It has a meaning that is close to the preposition over. Its opposites are below and beneath. In both the following sentences over can be substituted for above: There was a faded sign above the door. Once the p lan e got above the clouds an d levelled out, they started to relax. A bove is preferred when things are at an upper level: They lived in a sm all bungalow above the village. (They lived in a small bungalow over the village.) Above can only be used when there is no contact between the people or things referred to. Over or on top o f have a more general meaning and can be used whether or not one person or thing touches or covers another: He put a light plastic raincoat over his jacket (or: on top of his jacket) (He put a light plastic raincoat above his jacket.) A bove can be used to refer to a higher part, usually of a building, or to a higher structure or place. It can also be used to refer to an increase in size or scale: Nairobi is abou t 2000 metres above sea level Their perform ance was distinctly above average. A bove is also used metaphorically, often meaning ‘a long way from’ or ‘is superior to’. It can also have a sense of being difficult to understand. B eyond is also possible in such phrases: She is above suspicion and above reproach. I’m afraid that type o f m athem atics is a ll rather above me. Above modifying nouns 6b A bove can be used in writing as a premodifier to refer to something which has already been mentioned in the text. The fixed phrase the abov e means ‘the foregoing text’. B elow cannot be used in this way as a premodifier, and the below is not possible: As we can see from the above figures, the profits are likely to be significantly lower this year. As we have argued in the above, the results are not convincing. Cambridge Grammar of English From word to grammar: an A -Z 1 25 Both abov e and below can postmodify a noun: There w as n oise com ing from the room above, so I cou ldn ’t sleep. The picture below is a striking exam ple o f new m ethods o f advertising. Q A bove is not normally used with numbers. Over is normally preferred: You can only buy a lco h o lic drinks here if you are over 18. (You can only buy alcoholic drinks here if you arc above 18 .) It’ll cost over a thousand pounds to repair. 25 Below, 63 Over • а щ к » ............................ ,, . According to meaning 'as reported' 7a The most frequent use of according to is when reference is made to external evidence to support a statement or an opinion: According to the safety experts, it was a ll right w hen they left it. It’s the sam e in every block, according to Cliff, the caretaker. This delay, according to M r Mckay, probably v iolated federal law. It’s going to be delayed, according to what Nick told us. According to is frequently used to refer to statistics, official reports, surveys, opinion polls, studies, research, etc., especially in more formal contexts: According to a recent report by the N ational F o o d A lliance, children are being saturated with advertisem ents for sugar-rich confectionery. And regional government, according to a poll taken last m onth by Gallup, attracts the support o f less than on e in three o f the public. P Note that according to refers to evidence from someone or somewhere else. As such, it usually has a third person referent. It cannot be used to refer to one’s own views or statements: In my opinion all those sites shou ld b e m ad e green-field sites. (According to me/according to my opinion^all those sites should be ...) According to meaning 'in agreement with' 7b According to is also used to mean ‘in line with’, ‘in harmony with’ or ‘depending on’. In this meaning it is most typically not used in front position: And is it a ll going according to plan so far? 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 2 6 1From word to grammarian A -Z If the p o lice acted according to the law, then they sh ou ld arrest him. [talking about placing people on a salary scale] I ’m sure they probably grade p eop le according to their experience. Prices vary very slightly according to whether y ou want ‘h o tel’ or ‘h o stel’ service. A closely related phrase is in accordan ce with, which is used in formal, written contexts to mean ‘in obedience to’, or ‘strictly following (rules and regulations)’: The Socialist government, elected in 1994, resigned in December, but, in accordance with the constitution, the President h a d to call on the Socialist party to form an oth er government. ACROSl I Across is used as a preposition and as an adverb: It’s just not enough time to get across London. (preposition) [giving directions] A: You k ee p going down until you get to the m assive traffic-light com plex. You know y o u ’re at it. It’s sort o f bright an d there’s a big m ain road running across. B: Right. (adverb) О Across is not a verb. The verb form is cross : Every tim e you cross the road, y o u ’re worried y o u ’re going to get kn ocked over. (Every time you acro6S the road» you’re worried you’re going to get knocked eves) Across can be used to indicate movement or position relative to two sides or extremes of something: [referring to a newspaper article] In the p a p er there’s som ebody w h o ’s going to swim across the Atlantic four thousan d miles. She sat facing m e across the table. When indicating position relative to another person or thing, with the meaning of ‘opposite’, ‘on the other side of the road to’, across is used with from : The Town H all is across from the cathedral Cambridge Grammar of English From word to grammar: an A -Z 1 27 A cross is often used in contexts of comparisons to indicate a range of something: The researchers carried out a study across 20 countries. A cross is also used to refer to the width or diagonal measurement of something. It follows the unit of measurement: First, a copy; h e slipped a m inidisk into the port, form atted an d la belled it. Barely two centimetres across - easy to lose, but easy to hide. Across is also used to refer to an area in which things are distributed: There are other sm aller sites, scattered across the Caribbean an d even in the Mediterranean. Across and over 8a A cross and over are sometimes interchangeable with little difference in meaning: She w alked on across the bridge in the bitter wind. She put her arm aroun d his w aist an d led him over the bridge. However, when the meaning is ‘from side to side’ of a surface, across is preferred: Draw a line across the middle of the page. (Draw a line over the middle of the page.) H e glanced at his w atch an d strode across the room, Ju lian ’s dressing-gown flapping around his legs. (... and strode over the room ,...) Across and through 8b When there is a surrounding environment, movement is usually expressed by through, not across: It’s very pretty in the sum m er walking through the orchards. (It’s very pretty in the summer walking across the orchards.) 63 Over G A ctual and actually refer to whether something is true or factual. They do not refer to time: They went into a restaurant ...o r it w as actually a café. (it was in fact/in reality a café) I ’m not really sure a b o u t the actual procedure. (This means ‘the right/correct procedure’; if the meaning had been ‘the procedure that is used now’, the speaker would have said I ’m not really sure abou t the present/current procedure, or I ’m not really sure abou t the procedure now/nowadays.) 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 2 8 1From word to grammar: an A -Z S h e’s actually working for a com puter firm. (This means something like ‘She is in fact working for a computer firm’, or ‘Surprisingly, she is working for a computer firm’, depending on the context; if we mean ‘She is at the present time working for a computer firm’, we would say S he’s working for a com puter firm at the moment/(right)now.) Actual 9a A ctual usually has a meaning similar to ‘true’, ‘real’, ‘precise’, ‘right/correct’ or ‘the thing/person itself/himself/herself’: I cou ld n ’t get an appointm ent for that actual day. (that precise/exact day) My actual involvement with the project itself was negligible really. (my real/true involvement) [sales assistant (A) talking to a customer in a camera shop] A: You d o n ’t know w hich m odel it is, do you? B: No, I can look it up. M aybe I ’ll com e in with the actual camera. (the camera itself) A very common expression with actu al is in actual fact, which is an emphatic form of in fact-. But in actual fact, a year ago the situation was the sam e. ШШГЛ 46 In fact Actually 9b Actually can often be used emphatically, especially to refer to something which is in sharp contrast with expectations: He actually admitted that h e enjoyed it. (this was unexpected, not normal behaviour for him) There actually is a plant that produces w hat is know n as ‘the curry le a f’. The original connection with D ave was actually more through jazz than through fo lk music. Actually often implies a contrast between a desirable and an undesirable situation: So, here is a practical sem inar that actually offers solutions to the challenges wom en m anagers face. (implied: in contrast to most other seminars) Unlike a blender or liquefier, the juicer actually separates the juice from the pulp. Cambridge Grammar of English From word to grammarian A -Z 129 Actually often operates as a discourse marker in spoken language, signalling topic openings, contrasts in topics, specifying within topics, etc.: [customer (A) at the information desk in a large bookshop enquiring about a technical manual] A: Could you tell m e where your m anuals are kept? Actually I ’m looking for a Haynes manual. B: Er what on? A: It’s on washing machines. [beginning of a one-to-one student tutorial at a university; A is the student] A: Where w ould it be best for m e to sit? B: Urn, anywhere there’s a space. [pause] A: Well actually there’s a cou ple o f things really really quickly to ask you. One is abou t the draft o f my history o f English essay. When used in questions, actually can often focus on ‘missing’ information which the speaker desires or needs for the purposes of the conversation: [speakers are already talking about B ’s father] A: W hat did your d a d do actually? B: Well h e was a railway man. Actually is often used to hedge statements, making them less direct or less threatening: I think Sandra w ould win hands down actually. We h a d an argument actually, a few w eeks ago. In spoken language actually is frequently used in end position, though it may also occur in front and mid positions: A: In the afternoon w e ’ll continue with the tour into the training department an d on through into the m achine division. B: I ’d be quite interested in that actually. After is most frequently used with noun phrases referring to time or to timed events: You get used to that, strangely enough, after a while. So I ’ll do those two classes. I ’ll start probably after the holidays. 539 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms 3 0 1From word to grammarian A -Z I was sick an d tired o f being on my own. I wanted to get hom e. I mean, after nine m onths I was hom esick. References to place may also be made with after, especially when they are seen as part of a sequence of events in time: [giving directions to someone] And after th e fifth roundabout, you turn off, and there’s an other roundabout. Adverb after 10b After postmodifying a noun After may postmodify nouns such as day, morning, w eek, m onth, year, especially in informal speech: I ’ve got on e interview, then, er, a secon d interview the w eek after. (or, more formal: ... the following week) A: And you see yourself as staying round in the London area for the next year or so? B: O hyeah. Definitely. I mean, for probably the year after as well. After premodified by another adverb After does not normally occur alone as an adjunct. It is almost always premodified by adverbs such as shortly, soon, straight: [from a text about the young of the shrew, a small mouse-like animal] B o m blind an d naked, the young quickly develop a thin coat o f hair at around nine days old and their eyes open soon after. [a student talking about a difficult period of study] It’s just at this real crossroads at the m om ent when y ou ’re just abou t to start an essay an d then y ou ’ve got to do som ething else straight after. Occasionally, in informal speech, after may occur alone, with the meaning of ‘later’: That just reminds m e o f something, [laughs] I ’ll tell you the jo k e after. Afterwards 10c Where there is no premodifying adverb (••£ 10b above), afterwards, not after, is normally used: Suddenly a black cat ran in front o f her. In surprise, sh e cried out aloud. Afterwards, she felt rather foolish. (preferred to: After, she felt rather foolish.) They laughed together over their tea, but afterwards Esther was quiet, analysing w hat she h a d been told. Cambridge Grammar of English From word to grammarian A -Z 131 Afterwards may be premodified by adverbs such as im mediately, (not) long, shortly and soon, and other time expressions involving words such as days, w eeks, m onths, years: She heard a m uffled bang, then a car starting almost immediately afterwards. W hen the p h on e rang again shortly afterwards, h e p icked up the receiver with regret. A few days afterwards, Italy join ed the war, a n d with im m ense relief, w e gave up the idea o f our rescue. After+ -ing clause 10d When used to link two clauses, after followed by a verb in the -ing form is many times more frequent in writing than in speech. In informal speech there is a strong preference for a full finite clause: The p o lice claim h e d ied after falling an d hitting his head. After graduating h e becam e a lecturer a t the university. I w as out o f work for six m onths after being m ad e redundant. Q After having + -ed participle, although it occurs, is rare in both speech and writing. Where it does occur, it often serves to emphasise a contrast between two situations in time: [part of a speech welcoming a new member of staff in a company] And after having worked very closely with G erald for so many years, an d havinghadso m any p eop le actually believing that h e w as a m em ber o f the com pany staff, it’s very nice finally to be a b le to w elcom e him as a real m em ber o f staff, [applause follows] In most cases, after + the -ing form of a lexical verb is preferred: After journeying m ore than 11,000 m iles, R ussell fou n d the man for whom h e was searching. (preferred to: After having journeyed more than 11,000 miles, Russell found the man for whom he was searching.) After+ finite clause 10e After may be used with a variety of tense forms and time references to link two clauses: • Present simple with general present time reference: [from an article about John Daly, a well-known American golfer] H e uses at least a dozen balls per round becau se they lose their sh ap e after h e hits them. ••J 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 3 2 1From word to grammar: an A -Z • Present perfect with general present time reference: All adults, after they have told o ff a teenager for not doing his hom ew ork, say ‘D o I m ake myself clear?’. [that refers to the timing of questionnaires to patients concerning their experience of treatment in the National Health Service in Britain] And I think p eop le w ould get a better service if that was done, say, a month after they’ve been having treatment. • Present simple with future time reference: Ideally, I ’d lik e to m ove in straight after that, afteryou m ove out. (... after you will move out.) • Present perfect with future time reference: We w ould love to see you tonight, if it’s possible, after you’ve visited D avid’s mum. (... after you will have visited ... ) • Past simple: A: And it w as only afteryou m arriedyou discovered all this? B: Yes. • Past perfect: She was glad that sh e h ad resisted an im pulse to ring H al again after sh e had read his note. The perfect aspect versions stress the completion of the event in the after-clause and a break in time between the events in the two clauses. The present simple or past simple versions suggest a closer connection between the two clauses, as with before (•••:•24d). Other uses of after 10f In informal contexts, after is occasionally used as a preposition with the meaning of ‘because of’ or ‘as a consequence of’: [talking about a furniture shop] After the experience with the duiir, I d o n ’t think I ’ll buy anything else there. L o o k at Brian, how healthy h e lo o k s after all that sun. In informal speech, the expression to be after som ething often means ‘to want’ or ‘to look for, to seek’: [customer in a hardware shop] I ’m after a metre o f strong chain. Just a metre. It’s for a b ik e you see. You know, just to tie a bik e up. I ’ve got a lock and everything. (I want/I’m looking for-...) Cambridge Grammar of English From word to grammarian A -Z 133 [customer (A) in a bookshop; Rough G uides are a very popular type of travel guide book] A: D o you have any o f these travel guides, Rough G uide to ... wherever? B: Yes, w e do. W here in particular were you after? A: Erm, the south-w est o f America. 10g After all After a ll as a conjunction has a concessive meaning, similar to ‘besides’, or the meaning of ‘one should not forget/ignore the fact th a t... After a ll may occur in front, mid or end position in the clause. It is normally separated from the rest of the clause by a comma or commas: The garage on the m ain road h as been board ed up for som e time. It’s been boarded up now fo r nearly seventeen m onths. It just seem s silly. I mean, after all, it’s unusual to h av e a petrol station in a fairly quiet residential area. (front position) B ut I stuck at it, pretending to get on an d ta k e no notice. B ecau se it was, after all, none o f my business. (mid position) I d o n ’t m ind w hat you buy. It is your money, after att. (end position) The other main use of after a ll is as an adverb meaning ‘contrary to what was believed or expected’. In this meaning, it occurs almost always in end position, and frequently together with m aybe or perhaps. It is not usually separated by a comma in writing: M aybe s h e ’s not dating him. I m ean, m aybe they’re just friends after all (I thought they were dating. Maybe I was wrong.) A nd then at intervals during the interview, I fo u n d him ... well, er, creepy really an d rather worrying, but then again, at the end, I felt a s though I ’d don e him an injustice an d that perhaps h e w as lik ea b le after all Jerem y lo o k ed genuinely p lea sed to see her a n d sh e w ondered if they might becom e friends after att. AFTER A U 110 After, afterw ards AFTERWARDS 10 After, afterw ards 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 3 4 1From word to grammar: an A -Z 11 AGAINST Against denoting reactions 11 a Against is used after verbs and nouns denoting (often negative) reactions to situations, beliefs, people, events, etc. Some common verbs frequently followed by against include: act advise argue be cam paign decide dem onstrate discrim inate fight go guard have som ething m ilitate react rebel sp ea k out struggle testify vote [talking about speaker B ’s computer] A: One thing you could do is you cou ld actually upgrade this machine. В: I know but I decided against it. A: So you think it’s fair to discriminate against age? B: After a certain age, I think. We will vote against it but w e will be in the minority. Some common nouns frequently followed by against include: accusation action aggression allegation appeal argument battle campaign case charge com plaint crusade defen ce dem onstration discrim ination evidence fight grievance grudge law prejudice protection protest reaction rebellion safeguard She em phasised the n eed for concerted action against poverty and inequality which force children into exploitative work. There is not a scrap o f evidence against her. There’s a law against m urder but p eop le go out an d still murder d on ’t they and rob banks and w hat h ave you. Against denoting physical contact Against is frequently used to indicate physical contact between two or more things: There was a man leaning against the zvall Cambridge Grammar of English 11 b From word to grammarian A -Z J35 [swimming instructor to a learner] Right, I want to see your arm. That’s right. No the other orte. Face that way. That one. That’s it. Right, I want to see your arm brushing against your ear. Against denoting competition 11c Against occurs frequently with verbs and nouns connected with sport and competing, such as com pete/com petition, final, gam e, match, play, sem i-final. A: We used to go there for football. And cricket we used to play on the recreation ground. B: Yes. Mm. And did you h ave a sch ool team ? Play against other schools? A: No we used to play football against other team s but not cricket. [the Clifton Downs is an area of open land near the city of Bristol in England] In the holidays som etim es we played a h ockey m atch against the Clifton College boys on the Clifton Downs. О Against, not with, is used in sporting contexts with play when two teams or individuals compete: It was three years ago when my volleyball team was selected to play against an Italian one. (It w q s three years ago when my volleyball team was selected to play with anItalian one.) About, not against, is used with do to refer to taking action to solve problems: [speaker is talking about a very noisy party] They were all out on the street and Jim an d Sally cou ld n ’t sleep. They h ad to p h on e the police. The p o lice cou ld n ’t do anything about it. (The police couldn’t do anything against it.) Do not confuse against and contrary to-. Contrary to w hat you may read in the gu idebooks, very few o f the locals actually sp eak English. (Against what you may-read m-the guideb o o k s,...) ML Determiner all 12a A ll is mainly used as a determiner: All the tickets are sold out. We’ll have to get rid o f all our old furniture. 539 Glossary for any unfamiliar terms 3 6 1From word to grammar: an A -Z As a determiner, all comes before articles, possessives or demonstratives, and before numerals. article, possessive or numeral head noun four children clothes boxes b o o ks demonstrative all all all all the my those © When all refers to an entire class of people or things, the is not used: AU dogs love meat. (every dog in the world) (All the dogs love meat.) Everybody/everyone is preferred to ‘all people’. Everyone has to die soon er or later. (All-people have to die sooner or later.) All o f is used before personal, demonstrative and relative pronouns. The object form of the pronoun is used: Thanks to all ofyou for giving up your time to help us. That’s very bad news. AU of this is just too upsetting. They have three sons an d two daughters, all of whom are married. ( ... all of who are married.) Of is optional before definite noun phrases: I left all (of) my money in an accou n t invested in the stock market. W ho’s going to eat all (of) this food? Time expressions like all afternoon, a ll day, a ll night are a special case. They have definite reference but do not require the definite article. However, the definite article is permitted with or without o f : I spent all afternoon at the gym. I spent all the afternoon at the gym. I spent all of the afternoon at the gym. Q All, not all of, is used before indefinite plurals and non-count nouns: AH prisoners o f war h av e rights under international law. (All o f p risoners-of we f have rights under international law.) All tobacco is heavily taxed. All processed food is fattening. Cambridge Grammar of English From word to gram manan A -Z 137 All is not used with singular indefinite count nouns; a w hole is used: They m anaged to ea t a w hole chicken. (They managed to eat all a chicken.) Pronoun all 12b A ll can be used as an unmodified pronoun, but such usage is formal and infrequent: AU are w elcom e. AU were con cern ed that som ething sh ou ld be done. (more typically: Everyone was concerned ...) AU is not lost. AU will be revealed in the course o f time. [newspaper headline] M inister’s ex-secretary tells aU. A ll is most typically either premodified or postmodified: In the United Kingdom in 1988, there were nearly 25,000 m aintained primary schools, including 586 m iddle sch ools d eem ed primary. A lm ost a ll were mixedsex schools. It d oesn ’t m atter if the car’s dam aged. AU that matters is that y ou ’re okay. I p a id him a ll that h e wanted. When followed by a relative clause, all has a similar meaning to ‘everything’. That may be omitted before a personal pronoun: They lost aU that they h a d earned in the stock m arket crash. I told her to forget aU that h a d h ap p en ed She taught m e aU I know abou t computers. Adverbe// 12c A ll referring to the subject of a clause usually occupies the normal mid position for adverbs (~£ 325): The m em bers a ll knew w hat w as going on. W eaU try our best to be on time. This is som ething that they can a ll do. We’ve aU been waiting for ages. We could a ll h av e m ad e the sam e m istake. They are aU qu alified so cia l workers. 539 G lossary for any unfamiliar terms 38 \ From word to grammanan A -Z When a ll refers to a personal pronoun, there is a choice between pronoun + all and all o f + pronoun: We’re all thinking the sam e thing. (or: All of us are thinking the same thing.) A: Are there any cakes left? B: No, th e kids ate them att. (or: No, the kids ate all of them.) However, in short elliptical responses, the o f construction must be used: A: W hich bo o k s do you want to ta k e with you? B: AU of them if that’s okay with you. (Them all, if that’s okay with you.) All is also used as an adverb to mean ‘entirely’, ‘completely’ or ‘extremely’, especially in spoken English: I ’ve left them all alone in the house. When I a sk you where y ou ’ve been, you get all upset and agitated H e to o k on e o f the cans from the sh elf an d the w h ole sh elf all went down. I got lost an d it’s all because they gave m e the wrong directions. H e got all excited when h e heard the news. All in fixed expressions All is particularly common in fixed expressions, especially in spoken English. These are the most common: All right All right meaning ‘acceptable’ or ‘okay’: Is it all right if she just pops along tomorrow? (also spelled as a single word: alright) At all At all as an intensifier in negative and interrogative clauses: No, it isn ’t exactly modesty. I am not at all certain that I am modest. Are you at all concerned abou t interest rates rising? When placed at the end of questions, at all can also function as a marker of politeness: Do you h av e any sparkling w ater at all? And all that And all that is used as a marker of deliberate vagueness and imprecision: H e’s into rock m usic and all that Cambridge Grammar of English 12d From word to grammar: an A -Z 139 And all A nd a ll (usually pronounced /э'пэ:!/) can mean ‘as well’ in informal spoken language: T hey’ve already h a d on e holiday this year an d now they’re o ff to France and all Discourse markers All occurs in a range of fixed expressions which function primarily as spoken discourse markers. In most cases, the markers function to signpost the direction in which a stretch of talk is going or has gone: Above all, the election w as won on a sym pathy vote. (meaning: primarily) First of all, let m e thank you for attending this evening. (meaning: the first thing I want to say) All right, tell m e why you think w e sh ou ld change the schedule? (meaning: seeks to establish a new direction in the discourse) All the same, I think there are other points o f view. (meaning: despite this) All in all, the best team won. (meaning: to summarise) So you did decid e to go to L eeds after all, d id you? (meaning: nevertheless) Ш Я Г Л 3 4 E a ch ; 3 8 E v e ry ■ И я Р 4 8 Let ALREADY ■ - у ! ' ч , /' ; ’ 'P Already refers to things that have happened or will have happened at a given point in time, and often (but not necessarily) contrary to expectations. It usually occurs in mid or end position; it is particularly frequent in end position in spoken language: There are a