Main Timelines of History: The Ultimate Visual Guide To The Events That Shaped The World
Timelines of History: The Ultimate Visual Guide To The Events That Shaped The WorldDK, Smithsonian
Beginning with the emergence of our earliest African ancestors and taking readers through the history of cultures and nations around the world to arrive at the present day, "Timelines of History" caters to readers who want a broad overview, a good story to read, or the nitty-gritty of historical events.
With easily accessible cross-references that build bite-size pieces of information into a narrative that leads readers back and forth through time, "Timelines of History" makes the past accessible to all families, students, and the general reader.
With easily accessible cross-references that build bite-size pieces of information into a narrative that leads readers back and forth through time, "Timelines of History" makes the past accessible to all families, students, and the general reader.
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smithsonian smithsonian LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI DORLING KINDERSLEY Senior Art Editor Ina Stradins Project Art Editors Paul Drislane, Alison Gardner, Anna Hall, Francis Wong Designers Riccie Janus, Fiona Macdonald, Duncan Turner Production Editor Ben Marcus Senior Production Controller Mandy Inness Creative Technical Support Adam Brackenbury Jacket Designers Mark Cavanagh Cartographer Encompass Graphics Limited Senior Editors Angeles Gavira Guerrero, Peter Frances, Janet Mohun Project Editors Lara Maiklem, Ruth O’Rourke-Jones, Peter Preston, David Summers Editors Corinne Masciocchi, Lizzie Munsey, Martyn Page, Laura Palosuo, Gill Pitts, Steve Setford, Nikki Simms, Alison Sturgeon, Miezan van Zyl, Laura Wheadon, Victoria Wiggins Editorial Assistant Sam Priddy Indexer Hilary Bird Picture Researchers Ria Jones, Liz Moore Managing Art Editor Michelle Baxter Managing Editor Sarah Larter Art Director Phil Ormerod Publisher Jonathan Metcalf DK INDIA Design Manager Arunesh Talapatra Senior Designers Sudakshina Basu, Balwant Singh Designers Anjana Nair, Mini Dhawan, Pallavi Narain Assistant Designers Showmik Chakraborty, Arushi Nayar, Neha Sharma Production Manager Pankaj Sharma Senior DTP Designers Dheeraj Arora, Jagtar Singh Managing Editor Rohan Sinha Senior Editor Soma B. Chowdhury Editor Rahul Ganguly Assistant Editors Sudeshna Dasgupta, Himanshi Sharma DTP Manager Balwant Singh DTP Designers Arjinder Singh, Rajesh Singh Adhikari, Tanveer Abbas Zaidi, Shankar Prasad SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Project Co-ordinator Ellen Nanney First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Dorling Kindersley Limited 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. A Penguin Company Colour reproduction by Alta Images, London Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley Limited Printed and bound in China by Hung Hing ISBN: 978 1 4053 6712 7 2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the copyright owner. Discover more at www.dk.com CONTRIBUTORS HUMAN ORIGINS Dr. Fiona Coward TRADE AND INVENTION Joel Levy TECHNOLOGY AND SUPERPOWERS R.G. Grant Research Fellow at Royal Holloway University of London; contributed to DK’s Prehistoric. Additional text by Dr. Jane McIntosh Writer specializing in history and scientific history; books include Lost Cities and Lost Histories. History writer who has published more than 20 books, including Battle, Soldier, Flight, and History for DK. EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Dr. Jen Green REFORMATION AND EXPLORATION Thomas Cussans Sally Regan Author of over 250 books on a range of subjects from history to nature. Additional text by Dr. Jane McIntosh Author and contributor to The Times newspaper; previous titles for DK include Timelines of World History and History. Additional text by Frank Ritter THE CLASSICAL AGE Philip Parker Historian and writer; books include The Empire Stops Here and DK Eyewitness Companion to World History. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION Dr. Carrie Gibson Writer who has contributed to The Guardian and Observer newspapers; gained a doctorate in 18th- and 19th-century history from the University of Cambridge, UK. Contributor to several books for DK including History, World War II, and Science; awardwinning documentary maker whose ﬁlms include Shell Shock and Bomber Command for the UK’s Channel 4. GLOSSARY Richard Beatty SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Smithsonian contributors include historians and museum specialists from: CONSULTANTS National Air and Space Museum Dr. Jane McIntosh Dr. David Parrott 8MYA–700BCE Senior Research Associate, Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Cambridge, UK 1450–1749 Fellow in History and University Lecturer, New College, University of Oxford, UK Professor Neville Morley Dr. Michael Broers 700BCE–599CE Professor of Ancient History, School of Humanities, University of Bristol, UK 1750–1913 Fellow and Tutor, Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford, UK Dr. Roger Collins Professor Richard Overy 600–1449 Honorary Fellow, School of History, Classics, and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, UK 1914–present Professor of History, University of Exeter, UK The Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum is one of the world’s most popular museums. Its mission is to educate and inspire visitors by preserving and displaying aeronautical and space ﬂight artifacts. National Museum of American History The Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History dedicates its collections and scholarship to inspiring a broader understanding of the American nation and its many peoples. National Museum of Natural History The Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History is the most visited natural history museum in the world and the most visited museum in the Smithsonian complex. 1 2 3 4 8MYA–3000BCE 3000–700BCE 700BCE–599CE 600–1449 010 HUMAN ORIGINS 022 EARLY CIVILIZATIONS 042 THE CLASSICAL AGE 106 TRADE & INVENTION Features Features Features Features 014 Colonizing the Planet 028 The Story of Writing 048 Ancient Greece 122 The Vikings 020 Prehistoric Peoples 032 Ancient Empires 054 The Story of Metalworking 134 The Islamic World 038 Ancient Egypt 064 The Story of Money 144 The Aztecs, Incas, and Maya 074 The Rise of the Roman Empire 154 The Story of Printing 084 Ancient Rome 096 Classical Trade CONTENTS 5 6 7 8 164 REFORMATION & EXPLORATION 254 THE AGE OF REVOLUTION 338 TECHNOLOGY & SUPERPOWERS 468 DIRECTORY Features Features Features Categories 172 Voyages of Exploration 262 European Nation States 344 The Great War 476 Rulers and Leaders 182 The Story of Astronomy 274 The Story of Steam Power 350 Soviet Propaganda 478 History in Figures 190 Edo Period 282 The Story of Medicine 354 World War I 480 Wars 198 Mughal Empire 290 American Indians 364 The Story of Flight 480 Explorers 204 The Renaissance 298 The Story of Electricity 216 The Story of Arms and Armor 310 American Civil War 374 The Story of Communication 482 Inventions and Discoveries 388 War in Europe 483 Philosophy and Religion 324 The Imperial World 394 War in the Pacific 485 Culture and Learning 332 The Story of the Car 402 World War II 488 Disasters 230 The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire 238 The Story of Navigation 250 The Story of Agriculture 316 The Qing Dynasty 412 The Space Race 422 End of Empire 428 The Story of Genetics 442 Collapse of the USSR 490 Glossary 452 The European Union 494 Index 466 Global Economy 510 Acknowledgments Forewor d Like many people, my early enthusiasm for history focused on particular dates and events: 1588 and the defeat of the Spanish Armada; the battle of Waterloo in 1815; the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Some had personal connections: July 1, 1916, when my grandfather, serving as an artilleryman, lost several of his closest friends on the ﬁrst day of the Somme offensive. From the earliest times, history was cast as a grand chronicle of events and actions, the work of often larger-than-life protagonists, and was intended to enthrall and capture the imagination in the same way as a great novel. But during the 20th century, academic historians grew skeptical about the “history of the event.” Most often the events were battles, treaties, and political struggles, a narrative that excluded the lives of the great majority of men, women, and children. In reaction to this, historians focused on cultural, social, and economic continuities, looking for their evidence in everyday objects, trading records, accounts of childhood and old age. The result was certainly a richer and more diverse account of human experience, but one that often left little sense of change over time. As the present book shows, history constructed on a timeline does not have to be a narrow account of war and conquest, treaties and treason. All of these feature here, but so do the dates of intellectual and technological innovations, the creation of key works of art, crucial shifts in patterns of agriculture, exploration, and commerce. This is an exhilarating and comprehensive account of human creativity as much as its destructiveness, of discovery and understanding as well as natural disasters and human folly. Spectacularly illustrated and succinctly explained, key events in history from the ﬁrst beginnings of agriculture to the most recent astrophysical discoveries are laid out along what is probably the most comprehensive timeline ever assembled. No less exciting for me in helping to compose this book and to choose from all facets of human history to build up the timeline, is the contribution that History Year by Year makes to an understanding of global history. Throughout the book, events, discoveries, and achievements occurring in Europe and North America are set against the equally momentous and signiﬁcant events in the Mideast and East Asia, India, Africa, or South America and the Paciﬁc Rim. This is a history that stimulates awareness of a wider world by placing events from across that world side by side and reminding us that progress and discovery, feats of social organization, and challenges to a political status quo are no monopoly of the Western world, but as likely to originate in India or Egypt as in France and Spain. The design of this book offers a unique opportunity to appreciate a global history of mankind in all its facets. I hope that you enjoy reading History Year by Year and using it as a reference as much as we enjoyed planning and writing it. DAVID PARROTT University of Oxford Lost city of the Incas Perched 7,970 ft (2,430 m) above sea level, in the Peruvian Andes, the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu was probably constructed in the 15th century, and abandoned in the 16th. 1 HUMAN ORIGINS 8 MYA–3000 BCE Our earliest ancestors lived in Africa almost eight million years ago. Over seven million years later, we appeared and developed the skills—including sophisticated toolmaking and agriculture—that allowed us to colonize the world. 8–4.5 MYA 4.5–2 MYA 1.8–1.6 MYA 2 –1.8 MYA Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania is a site of great archaeological signiﬁcance and is sometimes referred to as the “Cradle of Mankind.” At least two species of early hominins are associated with this area. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HUMANS AND OTHER APES DNA SEVERAL DIFFERENT AUSTRALOPITHECINE species and blood proteins suggest that our lineage separated from that of the chimpanzees between 8 and 6 million years ago (MYA). Only a few fossil specimens date to this time: Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7–6 MYA), Orrorin lived in Africa between 4.2 and 2 MYA. Although they walked on two legs most of the time, they were rather small and apelike 7 MYA THE TIME WHEN THE FIRST HUMAN ANCESTOR APPEARS tugenensis (6.1–5 MYA), and two species of Ardipithecus, kadabba (5.8–5.2 MYA) and ramidus (4.4 MYA). While all of these species seem to have walked on two legs like us, it is not certain whether any were actual ancestors of humans. Because species are constantly evolving, and individuals of those species can vary, it is difﬁcult to tell from isolated and often poorly preserved fossils which species they should be assigned to, or how these are related to one another. However, these fossils do tell us a great deal about what the last common ancestor we shared with chimpanzees was like. s n pu e ini zee ro om pan rge th edat H n r la YA im ive he y p ee 7 M d ch es d Sa ma anz t to A p s h Y an eag i 6 M ns him ug lin 7– ade in/c s tho h i tc min ut ht ho lit, b prig sp lk u wa A MY YA 4M s .2 4 . e cu s –5 ecu y th ”) is i p 5.7 ipith sibl f di rdi e, s o d Ar (“A -lik ly Ar a, po iant us e te s du ze ni ht bb ar id mi an eﬁ ig da a v am r a imp ut d upr ka nly A. r o b lks ch wa 12 and still lived partially in trees. Their brains were about the size of those of modern chimpanzees, but some australopithecines seem to have used tools. The earliest stone tools come from Ethiopia and date to 2.6 MYA , but bones with cut marks made by stone tools have been found associated with Australopithecus afarensis nearby, and date to 3.4 MYA. The australopithecines’ descendants followed two distinct modes of life: members of the genus Paranthropus had huge jaws and big teeth for eating tough vegetable foods; meanwhile, Homo rudolfensis and H. habilis seem to have eaten more protein, using tools to get at the protein-rich marrow inside long-bones by scavenging from carnivore kills. ULTIMATELY, THE PARANTHROPINES’ WAY OF LIFE was unsuccessful and they became extinct after about 1.2 MYA , while their cousins Homo habilis and H. rudolfensis survived. These early Homo species were not very different from australopithecines. It was with Homo ergaster (1.8 MYA) that our ancestors started to look much more familiar. H. ergaster was tall and slender, and may have been the ﬁrst hominin (a term used to describe humans and their ancestors) without much body hair. Their brains were larger than those of their ancestors, and they lost the last of their adaptations to tree-climbing to become fully adapted to walking and running. ACHEULEAN TOOL TOOLS Many animal species use natural objects as tools, but the manufacture of stone tools is unique to hominins. The earliest are simply sharp ﬂakes broken off stone cobbles by striking them with a “hammerstone.” These are known as “Oldowan” tools, after Olduvai Gorge, where they were ﬁrst found. Later tools, such as Acheulean handaxes, required more skill. Our manufacture of tools might be one explanation for the evolution of the human brain. t us ks no f ec ar on us in ith rly m p ec bra at o still s o t h st l l a it th ; a cu oo a lie tr a t e ed –2 alop has han ees s st ne t iopi ar e a, us ﬁrs ntiﬁ 1 e . z i r t E A e l h t s o 4 s si er n n t r e de t A an e YA i M Y , th Ea by s a, E sto Go Au ren arg imp bs tr 6M A s be k l –2 2 . own rom MY ed Diki .5 canu to afa ch n ch clim 3 c f . 3 n u i k ols ia 3 odu at in m der ally afr min o to hiop pr nes m bitu ho o Et b a h A MY A MY 6 3. rints tp nic oo lca i in f n i vo tol ia in m d in ae an Ho rve at L anz T e es ash pr ” cy, Lu cus “ 3 YA he 8 M pit e; 1 f 3.1 tr alo aliv es o t , l s s a rs Au ensi fem “ﬁ of r p m d a r u af s an s fo gro ssils ale age ily” is fo m ng s fam ren ryi va af a . A Swanscombe Mauer Steinheim Atapuerca Tautavel 1.2 MYA Ceprano Isernia la Pineta EUROPE Petralona Dmanisi Kocabas Ubeidiya 1.7 MYA PROBABLY MORE THAN 1.8 MYA Bodo AFRICA Lake Turkana Olduvai Gorge Konso-Gardula Koobi Fora Olorgesailie NOT LONG AFTER THE APPEARANCE of Homo ergaster, OLDOWAN TOOL Lucy This unusually complete skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis, discovered in Kenya in 1974, was named after the Beatles’ song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.” Boxgrove 0.95 MYA s ,” i, ha an ) m oise and r mo n” 2 1. cke us b eeth Ho y ma – A a t p 5 d h MY 2 . utcr hro ing an wit .6 t “N r an rind aws .9–1 s (“h ted d j i n g a a l i 1 l a nes P ge fu c bi ha asso tools d bo hu wer e s o i p ne rk sto t-ma cu A MY YA 1M s 2– o p u t hr ﬁrs t n r a us, e to Pa ust pin red b ro ve o r th o c n ra dis pa be mo Ho uch m re 8 1. er is mo its d n t n s a ha rs ga er aller er t esto t nd nc a sle A MY hominins expanded their range beyond Africa for the ﬁrst time. A species called H. georgicus appeared in Dmanisi, Georgia, by 1.7 MYA . Another close relative of Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, lived in China and Indonesia perhaps not long afterward. Some archaeologists believe that earlier groups of hominins may also have left Africa, as some of the skulls from Dmanisi and from the much later site of Liang Bua in Flores, Indonesia, (currently known as Homo ﬂoresiensis) resemble those of Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis. Living farther north would have required a different way of life t es rli in sia Ea min ura , ho m E us) 1.7 own fro rgic in kn sils geo nisi fos omo ma (H m D a i fro org Ge A MY n lea eu r – ch pea k a A p r A MY s a ma step 65 xe y 1. nda ma cant man e ha they niﬁ n hu enc sig rd i llig wa inte for 1.6–0.35 MYA 350,000–160,000 YA ,, ,, ALL LIVING HUMANS DESCENDED FROM COMMON ANCESTORS WHO LIVED IN AFRICA LESS THAN 200,000 YEARS AGO. Stephen Jay Gould, American paleontologist, from I Have Landed: The End of a Beginning in Natural History, 2002 Zhoukoudian 1.6–1.3 MYA Hexian ASIA Nanjing Yunxian Lantian Narmada 1.5–1 MYA Trinil Sangiran Mojokerto Ngandong KEY Site of fossil ﬁnds More likely route Less likely route Hominins beyond Africa Our earliest ancestors evolved in Africa. Possible dispersal routes from Africa are shown on this map, with dates referring to the earliest fossils known from each region. to life in the African savanna. The climate was cooler and environments were more seasonal, with signiﬁcant variation in food resources over the course of a year. Fewer edible plants meant that hominins would have had to rely more on harder-to-ﬁnd and ﬁercely competed-for animal protein for food. They needed to move over greater distances and work together to share resources and information to survive in these regions. s ind s oa d t but 1 r e t 5 – o e da a, 1.6 Hom ava 5 my date a of m J s 1. y to my fro rly a ikel nd 1 ea re l rou o m m a fro A F tus MY ec wn no a t k Chin n s e e in rli be s Ea acts ave ectu A h r M Y rtif o o e from e 6 a t tt s 1. gh Hom ssil y da ya u l o th e by gh fo rent .8 m 0 u ur ad m ltho n c only a gio to re ACHEULEAN HANDAXES made by Homo ergaster and H. erectus were produced across most of Africa and Eurasia, and demonstrate the ability to learn complex skills from one another and pass them down over generations. To make these tools, knappers had to think several steps ahead in order to select a suitable stone and to prepare and place each strike. Handaxes were used for a wide range of activities, including butchery, but they might also have been important for personal or group identity, demonstrating their makers’ strength and skill. While Homo Erectus continued to thrive in Asia, Homo antecessor had appeared as far west as northern Spain and Italy by 1.2 MYA. Marks on their bones at the site of Atapuerca in Spain suggest they practiced cannibalism. However, these early colonists may not have thrived in these unfamiliar landscapes, as very few sites are known. By 600,000 years ago, a new hominin species, Homo heidelbergensis, had spread much more widely across Europe. H. heidelbergensis seems to have been a good hunter, or at least a proﬁcient scavenger. BY AROUND 350,000 YEARS AGO, Homo heidelbergensis 73 cubic inches (1,204 cubic cm) Australopithecines 28 cubic inches (461 cubic cm) Paranthropines 32 cubic inches (517 cubic cm) Homo neanderthalensis 87 cubic inches (1,426 cubic cm) Homo habilis Homo rudolfensis 40 cubic inches (648 cubic cm) Homo erectus Homo ergaster 59 cubic inches (969 cubic cm) Homo sapiens 90 cubic inches (1,478 cubic cm) HOMININ BRAIN SIZES Humans have a disproportionately large brain for a primate of their size, but archaeologists disagree about how and why this expansion happened. Switching to fatty and caloriﬁc foods such as bone marrow and meat may have “powered” brain growth, and also demanded more complex tools and effective hunting and foraging skills. Social skills were also a part of this process, as increasing group cooperation and pair-bonding were necessary to sustain the longer periods of childhood that infants needed for their larger brains to develop. na t ka ur mos ton mo T l o ia a A“ le MY an ske nt H an 1.5 y” is ete sce Tanz e l bo mp dol om co an a er fr of gast er ce en n vid tes i y E i a A ts m l MY . 4 e a ut ra of –1 f ﬁr ca, b natu ce o 5 o fri be an om r 1. r a H hA pe – sso ut Ap ans ece A So e ant MY p o 2 1. Eur st ﬁr e st Fir denc re A y i fﬁ Y v tic rit M e 9 o e ot ne la l 0.7 liabl tro Ben ag t po m l n n re co her rae ’s re rth cur for Ges v, Is Ea es A at ’aqo Y m 8 M ssu Ya 0.7 ld a e ﬁ mo Ho sis n d e e g a 6 tiv y 0. lber spre nc e e d sti tom e id id i e ne a p D h ww de use YA l an uro r o M a E n a h 4 in 0. erth ross e- rs c Fir pea d s YA an rs a M e en 4 N pea 0. ood ap w A MY while Homo erectus continued to hold sway over eastern Asia, Homo heidelbergensis in Europe and Western Asia had evolved into Homo neanderthalensis. Neanderthals were stockier and stronger than modern humans, and their brains were as large or even larger, although shaped slightly differently. Neanderthals were almost certainly very accomplished hunters. They were also highly skilled at making stone tools and heavy thrusting spears with which they tackled even large and dangerous animal prey, such as horses and bison. However, despite burying their dead—which may have indicated ceremonial practices or belief in an afterlife—Neanderthals do not seem to have created more than the most limited art or used any symbols, as all modern humans do. Whether or not they spoke in a similar way to modern humans is also difﬁcult to establish. Although ce en es vid cor E nt d YA ne re e 3 M epa ak po . 0 pr o m om of ed t le-c us ltip u m ols to Burying the dead Neanderthals often disposed of their dead with care. Some were buried in graves, as here at Kebara Cave in Israel, which dates to 60,000 BCE. their throat and voice-box anatomy suggests that a Neanderthal language may have been limited compared to that of humans, they must have communicated in some fashion, perhaps by combining a less complex form of vocalization with expressive miming. 200,000 THE NUMBER OF YEARS THE NEANDERTHAL DOMINATED EUROPE AND WESTERN ASIA t d ha ise erek be c In B ld A u M Y rom co f l 28 0. bble srae I pe m, rt Ra st a ﬁr e YA ag 7 M eng ting 2 1 . n ls – 0 ha hu 86 ert nal 0.1 and mu kills Ne com ass in d m an ns n ial er pie e dr od etal sa som t on mon M o h l s e in bu m s YA toc om an for sk ar o Ho ll ha res, tive 3M Mi st c um A ce nts Y A 0. man ppe om s c u u h h n Y a t l e a e 6 M ; sk ea tin wit all 2M e hu its an H ensi vid m 0. is th r of 0.1 altu ive f s dis tics ans t e l pig tra fric erg t s id imi are ris um e to A lb Fir tura h Ev ces pr sh acte ern YA ide a an 8 M of n he ar d 2 ch mo 0. se u 13 8 MYA —3 0 0 0 BCE HUMAN ORIGINS COLONIZING THE E PLANET M A H THE SPREAD OF MODERN HUMANS ACROSS THE WORLD T Clovis NORTH AMERICA 22,000 YEARS AGO Meadowcroft Buttermilk Creek Cactus Hill AT L A N T I C OCEAN T H S O U Homo sapiens’ colonization of the globe involved many stops, starts, and sometimes retreats, as well as waves of different groups of people in some areas. Homo sapiens may have moved into Eurasia via the Mediterranean coast of western Asia, spreading into Western Europe by 35,000 years ago (YA). Archaeological evidence suggests that people may also have taken a “southern route” across Arabia into southern Asia. There may also have been movement eastward, perhaps much earlier, as stone tools have been found in India from 77,000 YA and Malaysia from 70,000 YA. Some possible Homo sapiens ﬁnds from southern China are dated to 68,000 YA (Liujiang), and even 100,000 YA (Zhirendong). However, these ﬁnds remain controversial, and most scholars favor later dates here. In Australia, widespread colonization probably did not occur until 45,000 YA, though some sites have been dated to as early as 60,000 YA. Farther north, Homo sapiens ﬁrst spread across northern Eurasia around 35,000YA. However, they may have retreated during the last Ice Age, and not recolonized the region until after 14,000–13,000 YA. Genetically, the North American colonists are likely to have originated in East Asia. They probably traveled across the plain of “Beringia”— now beneath the Bering Straits between Siberia and Alaska, but exposed by low sea levels at the height of the last Ice Age. Distinctive “Clovis” spear points (ﬂaked on both sides) are found across North America around 12,000 YA, so modern humans were widespread at that point, but earlier sites are also known, including South American sites such as Monte Verde (15,500–15,000 YA). 12,000 YEARS AGO N Skeletal and DNA evidence suggests that our species, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa and then spread across the globe. The first traces of modern humans beyond Africa come from fossils in Israel and possibly from stone tools found in Arabia. They date to before 100,000 years ago. O R ASIA R I PA C I F I C OCEAN A 3000 BCE Philippine Islands 2500 BCE Pedra Furada M Hawaiian Islands 500 BCE –1 CE E 500 BCE Borneo New Guinea R 1500 BCE 400–1200 CE 1400–750 BCE A I C Samoan Islands Fiji AUSTRALIA 1250 CE NEW ZEALAND LATE ARRIVALS The islands of Oceania were some of the last parts of the globe to be colonized, via the Philippines, by Austronesian-speaking early farmers from Taiwan. The more remote northern and eastern islands of Micronesia and Polynesia remained uninhabited until after 700 CE, and New Zealand was populated as late as 1250 CE. 14 PA C I F I C OCEAN Tracking language The spread of languages can often be tracked to reﬂect the movement of people. This map shows the spread of Austronesian speakers across Oceania. Earlier settlers were already present in some western areas. Monte Verde 15,000–11,000 YEARS AGO C A 13,000 YEARS AGO Bering Straits C O LO N I Z I N G T H E P L A N E T 14,000 YEARS AGO Swan Point Ushki Lake Blueﬁsh Caves Tuluaq Hill (SluicewayTuluaq complex) KEY General direction of Homo sapiens around the world Berelekh Yana Ust-Mil Site of early Homo sapiens Diuktai 35,000 YEARS AGO Kara-Bom 31,000 YEARS AGO E Yamashita-Cho Kostienki A 45,000 YEARS AGO S I A Bacho Kiro Temnata Uçagizli Magara Cave Ksar Akil Skhul Qafzeh 77,000–45,000 YEARS AGO Liujiang C Zhirendong OC Cova Beneito Jebel Irhoud P FI 40,000 YEARS AGO O CI El Pendo R Istállöskö Pestera cu Oase Le Piage Riparo Mochi Abríc Romaní Gorham's Cave U 32,000 YEARS AGO PA Arcy-sur-Cure Saint Césaire El Castillo Cueva Morín Gato Preto E Trou Magrite Höhlenstein-Stadel Vindija Cave Korolevo I Paviland Cave Kent's Cavern Tianyuan 42,000 YEARS AGO EA N 100,000 YEARS AGO Jebel Faya Matenkupkum, Balof 2, and Panakiwuk Jwalapuram A F R I C A Niah Caves Kota Tampan 160,000 YEARS AGO Herto Huon Peninsula INDIAN OCEAN Omo Kibish 1.7 MYA Temperate grassland, mediterranean shrubland Malakunanja Nawalabila I Riwi and Carpenter's Gap A Ngarrabulgan TIME L I Puritjarra 40,000 YA Changing environments The ancient ancestors of modern humans evolved in the African tropics. Over time, as human species evolved larger brains and developed more advanced skills and behavior, they became better equipped to deal with the challenges of new environments. Devil's Lair Allen's Cave Cuddie Springs Lake Mungo A Going global Skeletal and genetic evidence suggests that modern humans originated in Africa and spread across the globe from there, as reﬂected on this map. This is called the “Out of Africa” theory. An alternative “multiregional” theory suggests that Homo sapiens evolved simultaneously in many different parts of the world, from ancestors who had left Africa much earlier. A R Upper Swan dry broadleaf forest, savanna T 7 MYA Tropical and subtropical S Klasies River Mouth U Blombos Cave 45,000 YEARS AGO Temperate forest, boreal forest, tundra Kow Swamp Willandra Lakes 15 45,000–35,000 YA 35,000–28,000 YA These cave paintings from Lascaux, France, date to around 17,000 years ago. Most cave paintings are from a similar period, though some were created by the earliest Homo sapiens to arrive in western Europe, around 32,000 years ago. IN AFRICA, HOMININ FOSSILS HUMANS SPREAD RAPIDLY gradually began to reveal the characteristic skeletal traits of Homo sapiens from around 400,000 YA: smaller brow ridges, higher and rounder skulls, and chins. DNA analysis of living humans suggests that the common ancestor of all living humans (known as Mitochondrial Eve) lived in Africa around 200,000 YA. An Ethiopian fossil across Europe and Asia. In Europe, modern humans appeared in Turkey from 40,000 YA, and in western Europe shortly afterward. In Asia, fossils of Homo sapiens in Indonesia and China date to at least 42,000 YA, and the sea crossing to Australia occurred before 45,000 YA. These dates suggest that the earliest modern humans in Asia may have encountered groups of Homo erectus, who survived in China until at least 40,000 years ago. In Indonesia the picture was even more complicated. Fossils found on the island of 250,000 YEARS AGO Prepared core and ﬂake Neanderthals and other hominins prepared a stone core before striking off a sharp ﬂake to use. In Europe this technology is known as the “Mousterian.” skull from 160,000 YA is almost modern in shape; this has been identiﬁed as a subspecies of modern humans, Homo sapiens idaltu. Humans moved north into Western Asia some time before 100,000 YA, but they do not seem to have stayed there for long. It is debated whether uniquely human behaviors such as language and the ability to use symbols evolved before or after modern human anatomy. One theory is that such behaviors became vital only after 74,000 YA, when the massive eruption of Mount Toba in Indonesia triggered a global “volcanic winter.” DNA analysis suggests that many human groups died out at this time and, in such harsh conditions, complex modern language and symbolism would have allowed groups to exchange resources and information with one another, which could have made the difference between survival and extinction. However, others argue that the impact of the eruption of Mount Toba has been exaggerated, and that archaeology in Africa suggests complex hunting practices and the development of symbolism even before this. It is not clear when modern humans ﬁrst spread into Eurasia. Some researchers argue they left Arabia before 74,000 YA. Others say the major migration occurred later, 50,000 YA, and via western Asia, after developing a new form of stone-tool technology that involved producing long, thin ﬂint “blades,” which probably formed part of composite tools. WHEN HOMO SAPIENS FIRST APPEARED d YA an 00 h es ,0 f ﬁs t sit 5 o 1 a –1 use als 00 ,0 sing amm 0 a 13 rea e m fric Inc rin th A a m Sou in st lie ar rial E u A 0Y l b 00 ha 0, dert 2 1 an e eN l b i ss po 16 ll rly he Ea t A ed , s at n nc gies her ca 0 Y eva a 0 i v o c L f ,0 Ad nol ed o Afr 90 in so A h YA sil ar 0 – iens 0 Y tech cis out s 0 0 0 o n 0 p 0 i ” ,0 ,S ,0 n f ppe ia 0, sa 75 lade and ave 46 der s a n As 11 mo , o an er “b ads os C Ho M m th be omb hu sou l B in f no tio ses p ru au re e e a c tu Th atr pera m YA m 00 Su te ,5 in in 73 oba rop .T ld Mt oba gl ad re sp ralia e d t Wi Aus mo YA Ho hes f YA 00 on o c pe 0 0 a , i o 00 re 45 izat 5, ens Eur n 4 i o n l p er o a c s st ea Flores date to less than 38,000 years ago, and seem to represent specialized, extremely small forms of Homo erectus, or perhaps even the descendants of earlier hominins. More evidence comes from Denisova Cave in Russia—DNA analysis of bones found here reveals genetic material distinct from that of both modern humans and Neanderthals, dated to around 40,000 YA. It seems increasingly likely that several groups descended from hominins who left Africa before Homo sapiens may have coexisted in Eurasia at this time. ,, 160,000–45,000 YA THE NEANDERTHALS WERE NOT APE-MEN… THEY WERE AS HUMAN AS US, BUT THEY REPRESENTED A DIFFERENT BRAND OF HUMANITY. ,, Chris Stringer and Clive Gamble, from In Search of the Neanderthals, 1993 IN EUROPE, MODERN HUMANS HOMO SAPIENS NEANDERTHAL MODERN HUMANS AND NEANDERTHALS Neanderthal skulls (right) were about the same size as anatomically modern human skulls (left), but they had lower, more sloping foreheads and a double arch of bone over their eyes that created heavy brow ridges. Their lower faces jutted out and they did not have chins. Overall, Neanderthal skeletons reveal that they were much more muscular than modern humans, as well as being extremely physically active and well-adapted to cold climates. n tio a niz olo C a YA ne 00 Gui ,0 40 New of te La mo YA o ina 0 H 0 ,0 ng Ch 40 rvivi s in su ectu er mo Ho ina YA Ch 00 ,0 s in 4 0 ien p sa n lls nia fa pa ash pe m ; Ca taly uro I fE YA 00 n in h o 0 , c o 37 upti mu er ross ac In A 0 Y es 00 logi nd , 28 no l a n a io 0 – ch 00 e te erth ract , 36 om and nte i e ,s pe t N an ro es um Eu ugg h s overlapped with Neanderthals, who survived until at least 30,000 years ago. How and why Neanderthals died out is one of the most intensely debated topics in archaeology. There is little evidence of violent interactions between the species, and comparison of DNA increasingly suggests that there may have been some exchange of mating partners between the groups. Early humans may have outcompeted their relatives for food and raw materials in the rapidly changing environmental conditions. Environments at the time were highly unstable, so even a slight increase in competition could have been signiﬁcant. However, populations were small and spread out, and coexisted for up to 10,000 years in Europe, and more than 30,000 llA 0 Y an we s 00 naci ies cros , 35 rig log d a ing e Au chno ishe clud ston te tabl , in stic es rope teri rt Eu arac nd a ch ls a too H st lie ar pan E a J YA 00 in ,0 ns 32 apie os om 28,000–21,000 YA 21,000–18,000 YA 18,000–12,000 YA AT L A N T I C O C E A N in Indonesia. Alternatively, the exchange of resources and information allowed by modern humans’ language and symbol use, and their planned and ﬂexible technologies made Homo sapiens better able to withstand climatic downturns than Neanderthals. Others believe that these behaviors were not unique to modern humans. Hominins would have needed to use rafts or boats to reach the island of Flores in Indonesia by 800,000 YA . Some late Neanderthal sites also contain elements of technologies normally associated with Homo sapiens, although it is possible that Neanderthals may have copied, traded with, or even stolen from modern humans. A combination of environmental unrest and increased competition is currently considered to be the most likely explanation for Neanderthal extinction. EURO P E AT L A N T I C OCEAN Me KEY dit er ra ne an Se a Neanderthal sites PAC I F I C O C E A N I N D I A N O C E A N THE MAXIMUM EXTENT OF THE LAST ICE AGE European climates after 23,000 BCE grew steadily cooler, and during the “Last Glacial Maximum” (21,000–18,000 YA), ice caps covered most of northern Europe. Farther south, huge areas of grassland with few trees offered good hunting for groups of humans able to survive the cold. THE “GRAVETTIAN” CULTURE OF AT THE HEIGHT OF THE GLACIAL Europe and Russia (28,000– 21,000 YA) is known for its elaborate sites, which often have complex structures and burials, as well as large amounts of shell jewelry, and sculpted bone and antler. Also found at Gravettian sites are some of the earliest known clay objects, including some of the famous “Venus” ﬁgurines. These may have been fertility or religious charms, or part of a system of exchange between social networks across the region as the Ice Age intensiﬁed. Maximum, when the ice caps were at their maximum extent, people living in more northerly and mountainous areas retreated to “refuge” areas such as—in Europe—northern Spain and southwest France, where this period is known as the “Solutrean.” Globally, many groups probably died out, but some held on in more sheltered regions. To survive the harsh conditions, much time and effort was invested in hunting. Weapons include beautifully worked points known as “leafpoints.” Although little evidence survives beyond ﬁnely worked bone needles, people probably developed sophisticated clothing to keep them warm. Perhaps more importantly, hunters would have worked hard to predict and intercept the movements of herds of large animals, ensuring the hunting success that was the difference between life and death. “Venus” statuette This ﬁgurine from Willendorf, Austria depicts a stylized pregnant or obese female ﬁgure. Modern human sites Neanderthal and human ranges Modern humans and Neanderthals coexisted for several thousand years. Sites appear to show evidence of interaction between the groups. ve ca et v au e Ch anc A 0 Y s, Fr 0 g ,0 32 intin pa t es ng s ou site Y YA YA hal t 00 re 00 ,0 der 1,0 ultu 2 28 ean – c 28 ian nN t ow et v n a k Gr exaggerated belly he ian ft len r e o mo n, t a a a o D l H ime gd pe A Ma ap 0 Y rsia spec 0 YA ies ,0 ve s 00 log 18 ntro ensi it” ,0 18 chno co resi obb te ﬂo e h “th YA r re 00 ,0 ex the 27 mpl -ga e Co nter n th ains l hu es o n p sit ssia Ru YA 00 an ,0 21 lutre ies So olog ear hn app tec st La m YA u 0 m 0 ,0 axi 18 l m – 21 acia gl wn no t k from e s , e er anc rli Ea hrow , Fr YA t re 00 ear- nie ,0 u 17 r sp Sa , o be atl m atl Co IN EUROPE, SOPHISTICATED BONE and antler points, needles, and harpoons characterize the “Magdalenian” technologies that were used to hunt a wide range of species, especially reindeer. The Magdalenian (18,000– 12,000 YA) is famous for its beautiful art objects, engravings, and cave paintings. There are many theories about what these mean and why they were produced. As most depict animals that were hunted, the paintings may represent a magical means of ensuring hunting success, or show information about the best ways to hunt different species. Paintings of imaginary half-human, half-animal creatures and the inaccessibility of some cave art suggest that painting may have been a magical or ritual activity, perhaps practiced by shamans or during initiation or religious ceremonies. Alternatively, paintings and art objects may have helped establish group identities and territories, as the number of archaeological sites in this period suggests that populations were growing, and competition for rich and localized resources may have been intensifying. A rise in temperature led to the retreat of the ice sheets that had covered northern Europe, and these areas were rapidly recolonized, with groups expanding as far north as Siberia by around 14,000–13,000 YA. Some groups later moved on into Alaska and the Americas. Farther east, in China and in the Jomon culture of Japan, some of the ﬁrst pots manufactured from clay appeared between 18,000 and 15,000 YA. Altamira cave paintings This Paleolithic cave painting of bison was discovered at the Altamira cave site in Spain. YA 00 of of ,0 15 ing tion ern d – ve ca 16 ginn niza rth one tic ux Be colo of no and lima a sc e re eas e ab st c La anc YA ar rop wor Fr 0 , 0 u s g E rin ions 7,0 ting t u 1 i d nd in pa co st lie ar dog E YA ed 00 at ,0 stic 4 e 1 m do , ile Ch th e, e wi s d er sit date eV n nt rica arly o e M m ly e YA A al 00 uth ersi 0 , o 15 a S trov n co 17 10,000–3000 BCE Megalithic (large stone) architecture was used for monumental tombs in Neolithic Europe. Developments around 3300 CE included the construction of stone circles, such as this example at Castlerigg in northern England. 67006400 BCE 75006700 BCE 85007500 BCE 96008500 BCE 13,0009600 BCE Population density The population in western Asia grew rapidly from 13,000 to 6400 BCE. AS STEEPLY RISING TEMPERATURES between 12,700 and 10,800 BCE melted the northern ice sheets, global sea levels rose, lakes formed, and rainfall increased, promoting the spread of forests and grasslands and providing new opportunities for hunter-gatherer communities. Coastal areas drowned by rising sea levels were rich sources of aquatic foods, as were lakes and rivers. Grasslands sustained large herds of animals, while forest margins provided abundant plant foods and game. Most hunter-gatherers moved seasonally to exploit the resources of different areas, but particularly favored places such as river estuaries could support people year round. One such region was coastal Peru and Chile, where the cold Humboldt current provides especially rich ﬁsheries. pid Ra ing 0 he us 00 of t ple 9 o n e – 00 tio p s ,5 za by ol 11 loni cas e to i co er ston Am ovis Cl E BC 18 er ng y ou abl Y E ob ce BC pr ing i in 00 d, 96 erio melt rise CE – 00 ld p by apid 00 B ,8 6 d 10 s co use ery r er 9 a y ca s; v aft r D s t ee re sh ratu pe tem Settled communities lived here by 7000 BCE, including the Chinchorro, who created the world’s ﬁrst mummies (see panel, opposite). Another area with favorable conditions was West Asia. Here, vegetation included wild cereals that could be stored, sustaining communities throughout the year when supplemented by other wild foods such as gazelle. A period of cold, arid conditions from 10,800 to 9600 BCE led to a steep productivity. Farming was therefore a choice that people made, increasing local productivity, often at the cost of increasing work and risk. Their reasons for farming may have included extending their period of residence in a settled village, providing extra food for feasting or to support a growing population, and boosting the supply of preferred or declining foodstuffs. Cereals were common staples of early agriculture. Wheat and barley were domesticated in West Asia, spreading into North Africa, Europe, and Central and South Asia. Broomcorn and foxtail millet decline in the availability of wild cereals. This prompted some West Asian villagers to turn to cultivation, planting cereals. Agriculture began in many parts of the world at different times, using local resources. Domesticated plants and animals spread by trade between neighboring groups and when farming communities colonized new areas. Agriculture was not a discovery: hunter-gatherers had a deep knowledge of the plants and animals on which they depended, and often took actions to increase st s: lie al ar ere and E c d at CE 0 B ate he 50 stic ia: w BCE , 10 me Syr 000 do in by 8 rye rley ba on cti e tru hrin y s e n s Co s of Turk E , BC rer e 0 p 00 the Te –8 ga kli 00 ter- öbe 5 9 un t G h a by only the Andes had animals suitable for domestication: guineapigs, llamas, and alpacas. Birds, particularly chickens, ducks, and turkeys, were also kept bone and antler lightened by scraping Star Carr deer cap This skull cap from a huntergatherer site in England may have been used in hunting rituals. n es Sit st ge d g 0 su lan n 00 –7 prus he is atio , 0 t t 0 y ts 90 in C n of spor goa gs o an p, i pi t iza tr hee and lon d the of s tle, o t c n at a bo ca by Lepinski Vir "ﬁsh god" Abundant ﬁsh supported a settled hunter-gatherer village on the Danube in Serbia. Its inhabitants carved ﬁsh-human sculptures, probably representing gods. holes bored into skull i t als es rli anim a E ed E BC at 00 tic 90 mes sia A do st We E BC were domesticated in the Yellow River valley and rice in the Yangzi valley in China, from where they spread through East and Southeast Asia. In Africa, other millets and African rice were domesticated after 3000 BCE. In the Americas, corn was the principal cereal. However, although it was cultivated by 6000 BCE, it was not until 2000 BCE that corn was sufﬁciently productive to support permanently settled villages. Legumes and vegetables were grown alongside cereals in many parts of the world. Tubers, such as manioc and yams, and treecrops were cultivated in moist tropical regions, beginning at an early date in the New Guinea highlands and the rainforests of Central America and northern South America. Domestic sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle were raised across Eurasia and Africa, initially just for meat. However, in the Americas es s uc nd od , r E p es ssla BC all k ra 0 a f l 00 ain ”: dg –3 d r ra an 00 se ha s, a 90 rea n Sa rshe fric Inc ree ma rth A “G rs, No e riv ross ac in a, t es es in rli llag , Ch a E l vi ley E BC ra val 00 ltu r 80 ricu Rive illet ag llow g m Ye owin gr e n on di s St rge te a l el, ca ean r i t d 0 a es nd b ado 30 un sr se m u –7 aro o, I en t do sh a n Ec 00 uilt rich def , no h a i 5 s u 8 l b Je for ing are a d q e u s l t d rf y Sq ca; ticat wa ge a abl ﬂoo wa CE s ri ob t la 0 B me me 0 vil pr ains 80 esoa do ag M E BC , rh e ed tle ga at at s at ehr ultiv s c tic itie s c e M u e un t b o m Ze ed a n, t egum do mm l CE t ta tle r co a 0 B tica akis and t 0 Ca she har 70 mes n P ley, E -ﬁ Sa BC do ster , bar 00 nter en e t 0 w ea u Gre 7 h wh by the of n nd tio l ,a iga ntra ro New s r a t r i ce ins , n d na d i an ple e in beg na vate ighl m i r a S ltu mia B lti a h E CE a cu ine BC 0 B ricu pot 0 m 0 u 0 ya G 65 ag eso 70 M ,, THE NEOLITHIC WAS… A POINT IN A CONTINUOUS STORY OF GREATER ECONOMIC CONTROL OVER RESOURCES... FROM SCAVENGING TO... FARMING. by Old and New World farmers. By 5000 BCE cattle, sheep, and goats were raised for milk as well as meat, while cattle were used to pull plows, enabling people to cultivate much larger areas. Wool-bearing sheep were bred in West Asia in the 4th millennium BCE, and rapidly spread into Europe and Central Asia. The use of pack animals such as llamas and donkeys allowed longdistance transport. Agriculture was more productive than foraging and could support larger communities. Settled life also encouraged population growth. Many early farming villages in West Asia grew to a considerable size. Most remarkable was Çatalhöyük in Turkey, occupied around 7400– 6200 BCE, which housed as many as 8,000 people. Its tightly packed houses were entered from the roof by ladders, and were decorated with paintings and ,, Clive Gamble, from Origins and revolutions: human identity in earliest prehistory, 2007 modeled animal heads. After 7000 BCE farmers spread from Turkey into southeast and central Europe, while Mediterranean hunter-gatherers gradually turned to agriculture, using imported West Asian crops and animals. By 3500 BCE most of Europe had adopted farming. Megaliths—stone chambered tombs of which a wide variety were built, often with earthen mounds— were constructed in western and northern Europe from the early 5th millennium BCE. Most housed the bones of a number of individuals. ASIA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE 2500 BCE 4500 BCE 9000 BCE 8000 BCE 7000 BCE 7000 BCE 8000 BCE 9000 BCE 6500 BCE 6000 BCE 6500 BCE 2500 BCE 6000 BCE 7000 BCE 6000 BCE 5000 BCE 4000 BCE AFRICA SOUTH AMERICA 7000 BCE AUSTRALASIA KEY Livestock Other Cereals Areas with agriculture The spread of agriculture Humans began to cultivate plants and manage animals independently, in different areas at different times, across the world. in ng nt ini ing d n de per ns m m lishe ther i , n r z r e a a g a e i e t f ab ou ep cop alk an ric pp ar irs est of s s Ind t of e B nY w Co Bulg E F ies y n th s i gro cken CE CE e , e e B l r BC B t l i , hi 00 pm in lag sh 00 na 00 un va Vil a) ﬁ nd c 55 velo urgy 51 Aibu 62 mm ates ia E a e all t BC hin d a s co phr otam t ig e 00 (C m Eu sop 60 lley ise p a a Me v dr an CE tic es m rom o f D s in E BC lop nte o 00 ve osi xic 60 n de d te Me l r co wi CE Native (naturally occurring pure) copper and gold were being shaped into small objects by cold hammering before 8000 BCE in West Asia. Around 7000 BCE, ores were smelted here to extract metal and by 6000 BCE copper and lead were also cast. Metals were initially made into small personal objects that could enhance prestige and status. Later, however, copper began to be used for tools, and by 4200 BCE copper ores containing arsenic were deliberately selected to produce a harder metal. The addition of tin created a stronger alloy, bronze, which was in use in West Asia by 3200 BCE. The development of watercontrol techniques enabled West Asian farmers to colonize the southern Mesopotamian plains, where agriculture depended entirely on irrigation but was highly productive. By the mid 4th millennium BCE, this region was densely populated, and villages were developing into towns, with craft specialists. There was a growing demand for raw materials, including metal ores, which often came from distant sources. A trading nd tic k a es mil ll as m r e Do t fo s w ia, e s p a CE p 0 B ls ke ws, st A uro 0 e 50 ima plo n W nd E g i an llin at, ca, a pu me Afri for rth No B 0B y 00 nd 00 tr 50 a, a s; –1 ndus on e c 0 a i d 0 nd s, lp 50 ajor base ered , a the A Ande al n a i m m k ic s lam in in op st , a twor ham she ion i re d l pig own d tr thea ca e tu e ne old- our reg rica t a n r l a e g t, a nor eri , c , ﬂ es e Cu ad tic in s es y gu crop coas s of h Am er d tr ined pper Lak Am p m l t d op an ly m co reat orth Do bab e of ean lan Sou dC o g d al tive G of N Ol pr ran An low loc na CE CHINCHORRO MUMMIES The earliest mummies come not from Egypt, but from coastal northern Chile, an arid region where natural mummies occur from 7000 BCE. After 5000 BCE the Chinchorro began artiﬁcial mummiﬁcation. They removed the ﬂesh, reassembled and reinforced the skeleton, stuffed the skin with plant material, coated it in clay, and painted it with black manganese or red ocher. Only some individuals, particularly children, were mummiﬁed. network developed that stretched from Egypt through West Asia to the mountainous borderlands of South Asia, with towns controlling sources of materials and strategic points along the routes. Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) was at the forefront of this development, but social, religious, economic, and political complexity was also emerging in Elam (southwest Iran) and Egypt. Before 3000 BCE all three regions developed writing systems, used to record and manage economic transactions and the ownership of property. The earliest known pictographic writing, around 3300 BCE, comes from Uruk in Sumer, a huge and complex settlement that is deservedly known as the world’s ﬁrst city. Copper ax heads Gold and copper were the ﬁrst metals to be worked. They became widespread in Europe around 2500 BCE. ice ed, t-r ow in We in pl elds E BC n yﬁ 00 tio dd 40 ltiva d pa ns i cu ode beg ﬂo ina Ch ls t ea es p s in W e m iv a d uk St use trat oses Ur E is rp CE as e BC n B i b m pu 00 to 00 es 35 gin r ad mic 32 erg ty be ia fo ono em st ci As d ec ﬁr an B t 00 on or 40 cati nd in sp h i an roug rt t ed a r s t n nt mia e ine er o h e d t p m a v t in pot ele ly ns es Do of v eas ean he pid tra os n ing so n W s ra cal urp e i erra rit Me E p o v C l d i W rn B y a r ol edit e CE 00 re fo itar M 0 B uth 35 s, sp sed mil 30 so u d e 3 g ia— an r e s em ura E g E ipt in BC cr rit 00 ite s ge w 9 A he –2 m 00 Ela ze s t 31 oto- Bron ros c Pr rly ) a teau (ea stem pla sy nian Ira ing inn ng eg riti y B w E rg BC an e llu a 00 ypti ta Chin nz d 2 e o 3 Eg M rn br ure CE e t st ia of 0 B est Fir ufac t As 0 w E 0 s n e s 3 BC a e h 00 m in W ac 32 re 19 8 MYA –3 0 0 0 BCE colorful geometric design HUMAN ORIGINS minerals deﬁne facial features hole for cord reed framework coated in thick plaster geometric, abstract pattern ﬁnely detailed engraving Pottery shard Human ﬁgurine Schist plaque Engraved bone 4000 BCE • ROMANIA Different cultures can be identiﬁed by their unique ways of decorating objects—this shard is typical of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture. 6750–6500 BCE • JORDAN This large statue from Ain Ghazal is one of several from sites in the Near East that may have represented ancestors or gods. 4000 BCE • PORTUGAL It is unclear what Neolithic engraved plaques, like this one from Alentejo, symbolized, but they seem to have been made for burial with the dead. 13,000–8000 BCE • FRANCE Paleolithic artists often carved as well as painted their depictions of animals, as with this scene of a bison being chased, from Laugerie-Basse. PREHISTORIC PEOPLES EARLY HUMANS ARE DEFINED BY THE RAW MATERIALS THEY USED TO FASHION TOOLS, WEAPONS, AND ORNAMENTS Prehistory is traditionally divided into the Stone, Bronze, and Iron ages, but many other kinds of raw materials such as wood, hide, and plant fibers were also used in early technologies. Little evidence of these survives. carefully sharpened tip leather or sinew binding In addition to being functional aids to survival and subsistence, the objects made by prehistoric peoples would also have been important in their social lives. Different groups develop their own ways of manufacturing and decorating objects, and distinctive designs may become badges of identity or status symbols. The trade and exchange of objects is another vital way in which individuals and groups establish social relationships and hierarchies. scars where blades chipped from core carved antler setting ﬂint head set into wooden sleeve long, thin blade remains of ﬂaked cobble reproduced wooden handle Oldowan tool Blades and core 2.6–1.7 MYA • AFRICA The earliest stone tools were simple, sharp-edged ﬂakes of stone, made by striking a stone cobble with a hard “hammerstone.” 100,000 BCE ONWARDS • WIDESPREAD Early modern humans produced uniform, narrow blades that would have been ﬁtted to wooden and antler handles or held in the hand, as tools for many different purposes. thick base is easy to hold Antler harpoon 8000 BCE • UK This harpoon head is attached to a long handle for spearing ﬁsh—a key source of food when sea levels rose as the last Ice Age ended. 20 barbed head made from antler Flint hand-ax Digging tools with adze heads 200,000 BCE • UK Hand-axes, such as this one from Swanscombe, were skillfully made and used for a wide range of activities, including woodworking and butchery. 11,660–4000 BCE • EUROPE These Mesolithic adzes were used for digging up edible roots or cutting wood in the forests that spread across Europe after the last Ice Age ended. P R E H I S TO R I C P E O P L E S Clay burial chest 4000 BCE • NEAR EAST One Chalcolithic (“copper age”) burial practice involved leaving the dead out to decay, then collecting the bones and placing them in clay chests like this one. excavation damage Carved spear-thrower 10,500 BCE • FRANCE Spear-throwers, such as this one from Montastruc, were often carved into animal shapes—here, a woolly mammoth made from antler. They enabled hunters to throw spears farther and with greater force. exaggerated features Lespugue Venus Neolithic ﬂint blade set in reproduction handle 24,000–22,000 BCE • FRANCE This ivory ﬁgurine from Lespugue in the Pyrenees is one of many “Venus” ﬁgurines—depicting women who are pregnant or obese, or whose female features are greatly exaggerated. Mummiﬁed head 7000–3000 BCE • PERU In very dry climates, bodies can become mummiﬁed. Some of the earliest mummies have been found in Peruvian deserts. Bronze Age sickle Gold jewelry gold easily worked into decorative animal shapes 4700–4200 BCE • BULGARIA At the cemetery of Varna in Bulgaria, more than 3,000 pieces of some of the earliest gold jewelry have been found, mainly buried with elite males. loom weight bone shuttle soft clay was baked to preserve design iron sickle blade Neolithic seal Agricultural tools 9500 BCE–1834 CE • WIDESPREAD First wild and later domesticated cereals were harvested using sickles like these, until they were superseded in most places by the invention of the combine harvester. 7500–5700 BCE • ANATOLIA Seals such as this one from the settlement of Çatal Höyük were used during the Neolithic to stamp decorative designs on to skin or cloth. Cloth-making tools 6500 BCE • ORIGIN UNKNOWN From the mid-Neolithic, weaving became common. Loom weights held vertical threads taut; bone shuttles were used to weave horizontal threads in and out. 21 2 EARLY CIVILIZATIONS 3000–700 BCE This period saw the emergence of complex civilizations. Communities flourished and trade developed in the fertile valleys of Egypt, India, western Asia, and China. Europe and Central and South America also flourished during this time. 3000–2700 BCE Stonehenge in western Britain was a ceremonial site from around 3100 BCE . An early earth enclosure and a circle of wooden posts were later replaced by the outer circle of stones seen here. 50 DURING THE LAST HALF OF THE FOURTH MILLENNIUM BCE, the r au us M o t un ain smiths began manufacturing bronze. The plow had been in use since about 5000 BCE, wheeled carts from around 3500 BCE, and such advances made farming more productive. The resulting food surplus freed some people from the farming life, allowing specialization into professions such as priesthood, crafts, trade, and administration. The world’s ﬁrst tiered society developed, headed by kings sometimes known as lugals. In Egypt, one of the world’s most complex ancient civilizations was forming along the banks of the Nile River by 3100 BCE. The Nile formed a narrow strip of cultivatable land, ﬂoodplain, as the s M es op Zagr ota m i a Nippur E lam Uruk t di os M o un t ai Ur Persian Gulf Eridu Arabian Peninsula Ancient cities of Mesopotamia Sumer in southern Mesopotamia was the location of the world’s ﬁrst urban civilization from c. 2900 BCE as agricultural success led to a complex society. KEY Extent of Early Dynastic city-states Ancient coastline CE E d— 00 io 26 per nal lley – o Va 00 us gi 32 nd re us c. rly I and Ind Ea ns s in e tow ltur cu BC 0B 89 –2 sty 0 a 0 31 yn c c. st d pt. sti Fir Egy yna ins D g f o rly be BCE) Ea riod 686 Pe c. 2 (to BC E 00 ge 30 A c. nze ay in o ia Br derw As – n un ster 3200 E) C we (c. 00 B 12 c. 24 ns Umma Kish Shuruppak Lagash Syrian Desert e Se rra a ne Me THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF URUK c. 2800 BCE Tigris s Euphrate an T world’s ﬁrst civilizations arose, ﬁrst in Western Asia, then North Africa and South Asia. Civilization also appeared in China in the early second millennium BCE. By 3000 BCE, the world’s ﬁrst urban culture had begun to develop in southern Mesopotamia, in what is now Iraq. The lower Euphrates river plains had been farmed from c. 6200 BCE, after the development of irrigation systems—the Greek word mesopotamia means “land between the rivers.” By 3500 BCE, farming communities were growing into towns and then cities such as Ur, Uruk, and Eridu. Over the next 300 years, each city came to dominate its surrounding area, forming a group of city-states in the land called Sumer in southeast Mesopotamia. Metalworking had begun in Mesopotamia around 6000 BCE. Around 3200 BCE, Sumerian THOUSAND river’s annual ﬂood (known as the inundation) spread black silt along its banks. The Egyptian farming year began in the fall when the inundation subsided, and farmers cultivated wheat, barley, beans, and lentils in the fertile soil. By the end of the 4th millennium BCE, farming communities had evolved into two kingdoms: Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north. King Narmer united the two kingdoms c. 3100 BCE. After Narmer came Menes, although historians are unsure whether Menes was Narmer’s successor or a different name for Narmer himself. Menes is credited with founding the Egyptian capital at Memphis and Egypt’s ﬁrst dynasty. As in Mesopotamia, efﬁcient agriculture produced prosperity and specialism, allowing arts, crafts, engineering, and early medicine to develop. The Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100–2686 BCE) was already characterized by many of the celebrated aspects of Egyptian culture: hieroglyphic writing, a sophisticated religion (including belief in an afterlife), and preserving the dead using mummiﬁcation. A complex hierarchical society developed, with the king at the apex accorded semi-divine status. Egyptian kings—later known as pharaohs—ruled with the help of a chief minister, or vizier, regional governors (nomarchs), and a huge staff of lesser ofﬁcials including priests, tax collectors, and scribes. In China, civilization originated in the valleys of eastern rivers such as the Huang He (Yellow River), where the rich loess soil Narmer Palette This carved piece of green siltstone records the triumph of the legendary King Narmer of Upper Egypt over his enemies. s re ne pt n) ltu ina CE Me Egy ther t 0 B n cu Ch CE) g 0 d p u n in 0 B 30 ha Ki nite (so Egy c. ngs ping 300 r CE ) u 0 B r a ppe ern Lo velo 0–c. 0 30 ve f U rth de 320 c. les o up o (no (c. ru de wer a m d Lo an ce en vid ing E k E or nce BC 00 r-w ra 30 ppe rn F . c co the of sou in BC E 34 in 23 od s 0 – Peri tate 0 nd 30 ic -s c. ast City uk, a ish n ; r r y D ia , U ou er rly am Ur u ﬂ um Ea opot as Erid in S s ch Me su BC E 00 w 25 gro , 0 – ers inoa s 0 30 m qu ca c. far nd lpa as n a a ea oes ise llam d An otat d ra and n p a f no aw tion D a E z rete BC ili 00 civ on C 0 n 3 c. inoa M made the land fertile. As early as 8000 BCE, millet had been cultivated in the area around Yangshao in Henan Province. Around c. 2400 BCE, the neighboring Dawenkou culture developed into the Longshan culture of Shangdong Province. Longshan farmers grew rice after developing irrigation systems. As in other early civilizations, agricultural success allowed the development of an elaborate society. Chinese craftsmen were making bronze tools c. 3000 BCE, jade vessels c. 2700 BCE, and silk weaving had begun by 3500 BCE. The Bronze Age was underway in western Asia by 3000 BCE, and possibly considerably earlier. The Bronze Age in Europe seems to have developed separately from around 2500 BCE, using ore sources from the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. This era also saw the beginnings of the Minoan civilization on the Greek island of Crete around 2000 BCE, with trading links to the nearby Cyclades Islands and the wider Mediterranean. In Western Europe, the earlier tradition of megalithic tomb building and a growing interest in astronomical observation gave rise to a new megalithic tradition of erecting stone circles, stone rows, standing stones, and tombs including astronomical features. These include Newgrange in Ireland, Stonehenge in England, and Carnac in France. s er a, E nt BC ce eric 0 l 70 ia m –2 on h A 00 rem out eru 8 S P e 2 c. st c p in t of Fir velo coas de ng alo m or eif un in ia C s m E BC lop ta 00 ve po 29 t de eso . c rip , M sc mer Su CE B 00 en 24 ood ilt – 00 W s bu ge 29 n re c. tu he ial uc one on ex r t t s S rem pl at ce com CE 6B y 68 st –2 dyna ypt 0 g 9 28 nd of E c. eco S st Fir ts E BC ifac a 0 t 5 ar hin C 27 c. nze d in o br oun f 2700–2500 BCE The three pyramids at Giza were built for the pharaohs Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura between 2575 and 2465 BCE . They are guarded by the statue of the Sphinx, which may bear the features of King Khafra. Standard of Ur This boxlike object has two side panels—one depicting war, the other (shown here) times of peace. SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA was a patchwork of over 40 city-states, among which Ur, Uruk, Nippur, and Kish were the most important. Trade ﬂourished using a network of rivers and canals, and trade links extended to Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), Iran, and Afghanistan, with grain, minerals, lumber, tools, and vessels traded. The Sumerian population was unique in being predominantly urban. In Ur, Uruk, and other centers, people lived in clustered mud-brick houses. At the heart of the city, the ziggurat—a terraced temple mound—provided the focus for religious ceremonies, and grain was kept in storerooms within the temple precincts. From around 2500 BCE, some citizens of Ur were buried in tombs along with treasures such as the Standard of Ur. The purpose of its intricate CE 3B f 61 y o –2 ast ith 6 n 8 dy s w ht t 26 c. hird star anak T pt S y ing g E K side panels is still a mystery; they may have formed the soundbox of a lyre. Arising from the need to keep economic and administrative records, the ﬁrst pictographic writing developed in Sumer (c. 3300 BCE). Pictographs (pictorial writing representing a word or phrase) evolved into a script called cuneiform c. 2900 BCE, in which scribes pressed sharpened reeds into soft clay to leave wedge-shaped impressions. Southern Mesopotamia became densely populated, putting pressure on natural Cuneiform tablet Over time, the inventory of signs regularly used in cuneiform script was greatly reduced. d Ol od, l t CE u ri 6 B pe erf Egyp E) 8 BC 26 om ow n c. ngd of p ins i 181 Ki era beg c. 2 l an gs, unti kin sts a (l ep St a, r q 0 q a er 65 t Sa jos E) 2 D C – a 67 uilt ing 648 B K 26 c. id b , for 67–2 m t 26 ra yp Py Eg (r. BC E 2.3 t; yp Eg d, f 4 i o 9 fu 24 sty am hu 3 – yna pyr hs K ra 1 d e u o 26 c. urth es th hara enka Fo lud g p d M inc ildin , an bu afra Kh E BC THE NUMBER OF BLOCKS USED TO BUILD THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA resources. This led to conﬂicts over land and water, and alliances between cities were forged and broken. The ﬁrst signs of civilization in the Americas appeared along the coast of Peru and in the Andes c. 2800 BCE. Andean farmers grew potatoes and the cereal quinoa, and raised alpacas and llamas. There were ﬁshing communities on the coast, while inland towns became ceremonial centers, built around mud-brick temple platforms. An exceptional example is Caral, about 125 miles (200 km) from Lima and dating from c. 2600 BCE. Another, Aspero, had six platform mounds topped by temples. Cotton was grown in the region, and corn was cultivated from around 2700 BCE. ied ur E BC , r b s; 0 U nd esh 0 f e 26 rs o rav lege am . g c le l g to il Ru roya ing ng G er in cord f Ki Sum ac ign o k in re Uru of ial on as em ch in r Ce , su uilt u r CE rs b 0 B nte ral, l Pe 0 6 ce Ca sta 2 a c. co MILLION ow Pl e 00 th 26 in ey c. use Vall in us d In BC E n tio uc ids r t ns am pt Co pyr , Egy CE) E C B ee za 4 B 89 thr Gi 50 25 of s at c. 2 . c d gin te be ple m o (c The Indus Valley civilization began to emerge in South Asia in the fourth millennium BCE, as ﬂood control technology developed. By 2600 BCE, the Indus Plain contained dozens of towns and cities. Of these, Mohenjo-daro on the Indus River, and Harappa, to the northeast, were preeminent, with populations of around 100,000 and 60,000, respectively. In Egypt, King Sanakht acceded to the throne in the year 2686 BCE, marking the beginning of the Third dynasty and the Old Kingdom era—a time of strong, centralized rule and pyramid-building. These magniﬁcent monuments were built as royal tombs. In Early Dynastic times, kings had been buried beneath rectangular mud-brick platforms called mastabas. Around 2650 BCE, the ﬁrst pyramid, the Step Pyramid of Saqqara, was completed for King Djoser. Designed by the architect Imhotep, it resembled six stone mastabas on top of one another. Straight-sided pyramids appeared soon after, the greatest of which were the three pyramids at Giza. These incredible feats of engineering were constructed not by slaves as was once thought, but by a staff of full-time craftsmen and masons supplemented by farmers performing a type of national service during the Nile ﬂoods. Enormous blocks of stone (lower stones of 6–10 tons; higher ones of 1–2 tons) were cut from local quarries, hauled on site using sleds, and then heaved up ramps, which grew ever higher as construction progressed. cle cir ter d at u O te in E c ita BC re 00 es e , Br 5 2 on nge . c st e of oneh St e Ag ze with n s o , Br ope ifact d E r rt an BC u a l 00 n E ze Po n n 25 s i c. gin t bro ed i e b ies ver l o r c ea dis 25 2500–2350 BCE 2350–2200 BCE The ruined citadel of Mohenjo-daro was made up of various buildings. It was built on a platform to guard against ﬂooding of the Indus River. Silbury Hill in Wiltshire, England, is one of the tallest man-made chalk mounds in Europe. These mounds probably had a social or cultural function. d P gy 0 25 m c. gdo in E s n Ki inue nt co Indu s ya s Banawali Va lle y Rakhighari us Ind Z Mo agr un os ta ins Pe rs i an Chanhu-daro Dholavira Lothal Kuntasi lf Ar a b i a n Sea Indus civilization Excavations suggest that the Indus civilization covered an area far larger than Mesopotamia and Egypt combined. such as pottery, bead-making, and metalworking. Indus cities and towns had the most advanced plumbing system in the ancient world, with enclosed wells and covered drains. Latrines emptied waste into drains, which ran below the streets. These urban centers were also connected by extensive trade links. Merchants supplied craft products from the valleys to er ak n Be ster e l l Be n We urop E i BC ds al E 0 a 0 tr 25 spre Cen . c re d an ltu cu Mohenjo-daro Sutkagen-dor Gu an es sh uc la, ng prod ilk r o Eb s L ajo ing E ina nd CE her nd C m B r a B h , a tu ot a a ge 00 00 n C ze Ur fac 25 nd ri er 25 e i on CE nu c. ri, a in Sy em c. ltur y, br B a a 00 of m M ies vant cu tter 25 cit e Le po c. nter th ce 26 Harappa Kalibangan Nausharo one-piece cart wheel Ol la Ropar Ir anian Plateau Agrarian lives A clay model of a bullock cart found at Mohenjodaro, dating back to c. 2500–1900 BCE, gives an insight into farming life in the Indus civilization. CE iod 0 B er pt ma Indus continued to develop in western Asia, Egypt, and and southern Asia, and complex societies were emerging in China, Europe, and South America. In southern Asia, the Indus civilization (see 2700–2500BCE) emerged in its mature form around 2500BCE, stretching 1,060 miles (1,700 km) from east to west and 800 miles (1,300 km) from north to south. The region’s prosperity was based on farming, mining, crafts, and trade. More than 100 sites have been excavated, including the cities of Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and Dholovira. Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were well-planned cities laid out on a grid system. Each city was protected by brick walls and dominated by a citadel overlooking a “lower town” of public buildings and residential town houses of one or two stories. The residential areas were seemingly divided by industry, Hi Shortughai KEY Zone of urban civilization Urban centers Modern coastline the surrounding regions in return for metal ores, precious stones, and timber. Long-distance trade routes reached as far as Mesopotamia and Afghanistan. By around 2500 BCE, an Indus script of hundreds of signs appeared on seals and pottery. Attempts to decipher the script have failed; hence, many aspects of this culture remain a mystery. In western Asia, Mesopotamia (see 2700–2500BCE) remained a patchwork of small but powerful city-states, each controlling the surrounding farmlands where barley, legumes, and date palms were grown. To the west, citystates were developing in Syria and the Levant. A trade network linking Mesopotamian towns suggests cooperation between states, but there was frequent warfare as well. s gin CE be e re 0 B ge rop tu 0 Ma 25 e A Eu s s E s c. onz tral C du u erge In 0 B nd Br Cen CE ges 50 of I n em B 2 n i r c. ase tio 00 e 25 em ph iliza c. ript v i c sc ial on em nd r Ce a be CE ero to 0 B Asp inue eru 0 25 s, nt l P c. nter , co asta ce tosh co des Ko ilt in e An bu d th an s ne f sto nge um s eo e l t c l e a n A eh x in d E nn ule ide ra a BC ton ple tain Ea sh r mer Ev ce t eric 0 E S m i E 0 ga Su BC at l co Br tan m BC 24 00 f La s of c. cted nia west 00 -dis uth A 4 o 5 2 a o g e 2 e c. er rem outh c. lon in So ar s ce es t u ro A NEW POWER AROSE IN MESOPOTAMIA c. 2334BCE, King BRONZE AGE EUROPE Sargon (c. 2334–2215 BCE) from the northern region of Akkad defeated Lugalzagesi of Umma to become the ruler of Sumer. Through subsequent campaigns to the Levant, Syria, and Anatolia, Sargon carved out the world’s ﬁrst empire—the Akkadian Empire— stretching from the eastern Mediterranean to the Gulf. Sargon’s exploits were recorded in several documents, such as the Sumerian King List. His name means “legitimate king,” which led some scholars to believe that he took power through force. Sargon spoke Akkadian, a Semitic language that replaced Sumerian as the ofﬁcial language of the empire. Bronze-working had begun in West Asia c. 3200BCE (see 10,000–3000BCE). It was developed by the Únětice culture of Bohemia and Poland c. 2500BCE, and 200 years later had spread to Italy and the Balkans. Bronze provided a hard metal for forging armor, weapons, and tools such as this hand ax. The bronze industry also increased trade, making Europe more interconnected than ever before. ,, IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 3RD MILLENNIUM BCE, civilizations grandson, Naram-Sin, extended the empire, but it lasted for only four generations before falling to attacks. Sargon’s rule established a practice of statewide bureaucratic controls and standardization in many aspects of economic life. In Egypt, this period saw a weakening of the power of the Old Kingdom rulers (see 2700–2500BCE), in favor of regional governors called nomarchs, who administered different parts of the Nile valley and delta. To the south of the ﬁrst cataract on the Nile, the kingdom of Nubia also grew more powerful. Nubia was centered around the city of Kerma at the third cataract. By the end of the Sixth dynasty (c. 2184 BCE), UNDER HIM ALL COUNTRIES LAY [CONTENTED] IN THEIR MEADOWS, AND THE LAND REJOICED. ,, Lugalzagesi, king of Sumer, defeated by Sargon c. 2316 BCE Akkadian rule was enforced through regional governors who collected tributes and taxes. The empire’s weakness lay in its lack of defensible borders, and it came under regular attacks from neighboring hill tribes. Sargon’s E BC i s 50 es ite 23 lzag un . c ga ma Lu Um er of Sum all BC E 81 21 y 5 – ast ded 4 23 yn un c. xth d pt fo Si Egy of c of on r rg me s a S Su ld’ E BC ers or ire 16 nqu te w mp 3 a e 2 o 4 – d c cre rst ﬁ 33 ka to . 2 Ak 2200–2000 BCE Relief sculptures in Egyptian tombs represented everyday life and religious rituals. This carving from the Sixth dynasty shows boys with sticks, on the left, and youths wrestling, on the right. the authority of the Egyptian rulers had steadily eroded. In Western Europe, the Bell Beaker culture ﬂourished. Named after the distinctive shape of pottery vessels found in graves, this culture emerged by c. 2600 BCE in France, Spain, and the Netherlands. Over the next three centuries, it spread to Germany and Britain. Around 2300 BCE, bronze technology from Mediterranean regions and from Central Europe started to spread northward along the Rhine and Danube. The increasingly militaristic societies used bronze to create weapons, triggering the appearance of small chiefdoms across Europe. As populations grew, competition over land and resources intensiﬁed. Fields were enclosed, farming expanded, and boundary walls built. Imposing structures such as chalk mounds were constructed in many areas. In South America, societies continued to develop in two distinct regions: the upland valleys and high plains of the Andes, and along the Paciﬁc coast and inland valleys. Andean cultures were based on farming and herding. Coastal settlements such as Aspero (Peru) were unique in their dependence on ﬁshing rather than on agriculture. The coastal people grew cotton for textiles, and gourds, which were used as ﬁshing ﬂoats. Akkadian warrior king This bronze cast of an Akkadian ruler may depict Sargon I or his grandson, Naram-Sin, who extended Sargon’s empire. ign Re ixth t B e S gyp 8 4 th 21 II of in E – 78 py sty 22 f Pe yna d o Empire c. 2150 BCE. Sumerian states such as Kish, Ur, and Lagash took the opportunity to reassert their independence. For the next 80 years, the city-states vied for control in Mesopotamia. In 2112 BCE, Ur under Ur-Nammu (r. 2112– 2095 BCE) gained ascendancy. The armies of Ur overran eastern Mesopotamia and Elam, and regained much of Sargon’s empire. Ur-Nammu founded the Third dynasty of Ur, which witnessed a revival of Sumerian power, as well as an artistic and cultural renaissance. Sumerian scholars devised a method of counting, based on units of 60. This system is reﬂected in our modern division of hours into 60 minutes, minutes into 60 seconds, and a circle into 360 degrees. Ur-Nammu also commissioned the ﬁrst ziggurat in Ur—an imposing stepped platform topped with a temple. The ziggurats later became a characteristic of ancient western Asian architecture. In c. 2181 BCE, Egypt’s Old Kingdom collapsed following a series of natural disasters, including famine. This undermined the authority of the king, who was believed to secure the annual ﬂoods that brought fertility to the Nile valley. The rule of Memphis, the capital city of the Old Kingdom, was overthrown as nomarchs and nobles seized control of the provinces. This ushered in a time of unrest called the First Intermediate Period, the ﬁrst of the three eras of uncertainty in Egyptian history. For 140 years, kingdoms such as Herakleopolis in central Egypt vied for control with Thebes in the south. In c. 2040 BCE, the Theban ruler Nebhepetre Mentuhotep defeated his rivals and united Egypt once more, beginning the start of what came to be known as the Middle Kingdom. In China, the Neolithic Longshan culture (see 3200 BCE) continued to develop along the Yellow River in Shandong province. According to Chinese historical tradition, the ﬁrst dynasty, Xia (Hsia), was founded by Yu the Great. However, no archaeological evidence has 100 THOUSAND THE LIKELY POPULATION OF UR c.2100 sty na dy riod ral h st od t e u Fir eri Six m p nat rity CE te P (to CE gdo ter tho B B f au in t a 81 edia gypt 81 21 21 d K yp en c. d Ol Eg eak c. erm in E t n w i n a ds rs In gins CE) en aste r be 40 B s di rule 20 f o e , Ag pe ze uro on rn E ns r B he ka E l BC out Ba 00 in s the 3 2 ns nd . c gi a be Italy in CE THE MOUNTAIN PEOPLE OF GUTIUM ATTACKED the Akkadian ed nd e ou u th e f sty by Y ines e na v dy hina to Ch o ha 6 a i C X rn ing id t l 176 E rd ; sa nti BC ste 05 ea cco on d u 22 in at, a aditi rule . c e tr Gr at efe of s d tes s n tia ta h a Gu ty-s suc sert CE ; ci ia, as nce B 50 ns am , re de 21 adia pot ash pen . c kk so ag de A Me L in th ian ou a ub es s erm N g tK le CE er Ni 0 B m d a of 15 om e ase act 2 c. gd pt, b atar kin Egy rd C of Thi on Longshan pottery This elegant pottery tripod pitcher has tapering legs and swirling patterns, characteristic of the Longshan culture. been found to conﬁrm the existence of a centralized state in China at this time. By the end of the 3rd millennium, Europe’s ﬁrst civilization was emerging on the Mediterranean island of Crete, which lay at the heart of Mediterranean trade routes. Known as the Minoan civilization, it grew prosperous through trade and farming. Cretan farmlands produced wheat, olives, wine, and wool, which could be easily transported by sea. The Minoans also made bronzework, pottery, and dyes for export. By 2000 BCE, Crete was home to several small kingdoms. p ty te as ho yn ) tu ivals D E n BC CE Me ts r ird y a Th d b 004 0 B re 04 pet defe CE nde to 2 2 B e es t . 2 fou u ( h p c 1 y b b 21 Ur, mm Ne The e Eg f nit of -Na o u Ur to f s nd no fou owy eig ites ; p R T n e ia ls of CE eu ote Itj- dl fal g ce ce uh l at ; Mid ins 5 B Ur r otam ple t n 9 n g a e Ur din r a t his be 0 of op em at l e f g i e 2 n a r o p t r M ca t s – p re e p u E ity s, e of U 12 m Me r’s gu em dom w Em oan , C BC E C ite ty 21 am of s U a zig 40 a ne ar M King 50 Min tion BC lam nas 0 0 -N uch uild as 4 e 2 r a 2 E dy 0 n U m eb c. c. the viliz 20 to r ci 27 3 0 0 0 –7 0 0 BCE E A R LY C I V I L I Z AT I O N S hieroglyphs are picture symbols hieratic script reads from right to left 28 papyrus, made by pressing together layers of strips of reed illustration shows a priest making an offering to the god Osiris Egyptian hieroglyphic and hieratic script This ancient Egyptian papyrus manuscript shows two forms of Egyptian writing: hieratic script (left) and hieroglyphic script (right) above the two ﬁgures. Hieroglyphic is an elaborate script in which signs take a highly pictorial form, while hieratic is a simpliﬁed version of hieroglyphic for ease of speed and writing. Prehistory Pictograms c. 3200 BCE Egyptian hieroglyphs 8th century BCE The Greek alphabet 100 The Roman alphabet Pictures painted on walls of caves up to 25,000 years ago are considered a precursor to writing, recording information that could then be Cave images by Anasazi Indians understood by others. Egyptian writing develops 100 years after cuneiform. This script begins as a form of picture writing, and includes signs for words and also sounds. It remains in use until the 4th century CE. The ﬁrst alphabets, using only consonants, develop in the Levant by c. 1150 BCE. They include the Phoenician alphabet, which spreads to the Greeks through trade, who add vowels. The Romans adapt the Greek script to write Latin. Through the Roman Empire, this alphabet spreads across Europe and is used for personal as well as ofﬁcial correspondence. Greek wax tablet 3300 BCE Cuneiform c. 1900 BCE Chinese writing c. 6th century BCE Parchment The ﬁrst true written script is developed by the Sumerians of Mesopotamia. Writing with a reed stylus creates a wedge-shaped impression on tablets of wet clay, which then dry hard. The ﬁrst surviving Chinese writing appears on oracle bones, used in divination. This ancient script is still in use today. Chinese script involves 50,000 characters that stand for words. Made from dried and processed animal skins, parchment becomes a popular medium for writing around the 6th century BCE, taking over from papyrus, a paper made from reeds. Mesopotamian tablet Chinese paper scroll Chinese parchment scroll T H E S TO R Y O F W R I T I N G THE STORY OF WRITING FROM CAVE PAINTINGS TO THE DIGITAL AGE, WRITING IN ITS VARIOUS FORMS HAS ALWAYS BEEN AN IMPORTANT PART OF OUR CIVILIZATION The development of writing was an amazing breakthrough, as it allowed people to communicate over distance and record information for posterity. Writing evolved separately in different cultures: in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley before 2500 BCE and later in Crete, China, and Mesoamerica. Some scholars think that prehistoric cave paintings featuring images and symbols constitute a form of writing. The ﬁrst true script was developed by the Sumerians of Mesopotamia (now Iraq) around 3300 BCE. Soon, a number of different ancient cultures had developed writing, usually to keep economic records or keep track of time. As writing developed, it was commonly used to reinforce the authority of rulers. Many early texts, including monumental ones in stone, glorify the deeds of kings and attribute their success to divine approval. Writing systems can be divided into three types, according to the function of the signs used: logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic. However, some scripts make use of two types of signs. In logographic scripts, each sign stands for a whole word; Chinese writing is an example, although it also uses syllabic signs. The drawback is that a very large number of symbols are needed (Chinese has 50,000 characters). In syllabic scripts, signs stand for syllables. A smaller but still large number of signs are needed—700 in Babylonian cuneiform. In alphabetic scripts, each sign stands for a sound. Far fewer symbols are needed—usually around 26. The ﬁrst alphabets developed in the Levant between 1450 and 1150 BCE. For years, the spread of writing was limited by the labor involved in hand-copying texts, but this changed with the invention of printing. In the late 20th century, writing became electronic with the invention of word processors. In the 1990s, the spread of information was again revolutionized by the arrival of the Internet. Ancient texts in the digital world Nowadays, ancient texts can be viewed digitally. Here, a student examines a digitized page of the Codex Sinaiticus, handwritten in Greek over 1,600 years ago. Roman mosaic Modern sign PICTOGRAPHIC SYMBOLS Pictograms, or picture signs, are an ancient form of communication. Some scholars do not consider pictograms to be “true” writing, since the symbols do not convey the sounds of words in any language. For example, the pictures above—from a house in Roman Pompeii dating to 79 CE, and a modern sign—convey the same warning. The symbol can be read in any language—for instance, as canis, chien, Hund, or dog. Those words convey the same idea but reproduce the sounds of different languages—Latin, French, German, and English. Pictograms have limited use but remain widespread, appearing, for example, on street signs, maps, and clothes labels. 7th century Arabic script c. 1450 Invention of printing 1884 The fountain pen 1990–present Text messaging The Arabic alphabet is used to write down the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam. Its use spreads with the Islamic faith to become one of the world’s most widely used scripts. In medieval times, the laboriousness of copying by hand limits the spread of writing. The invention of printing using movable type makes writing far more accessible. In 1500, an estimated 35,000 texts are in print. The ﬁrst practical fountain pen is produced by American inventor L. E. Waterman, and quickly replaces the quill pen. Ballpoints, invented by László Bíró, Waterman are in use by the 1940s. fountain pen In the 1990s, the ﬁrst text messages are sent via mobile phones. Texting becomes very popular in the 2000s. In 2009, more than 1.5 trillion text messages Smartphone are sent. Medieval Qur’an 4th century The codex 7th–9th centuries Illuminated manuscripts 1867–1868 The typewriter 1965 Writing enters the digital age The codex, or manuscript in book form, gradually supersedes the roll of parchment. Originally developed by the Romans, the use of codices spreads with the Christian religion. In early medieval times, the use of writing spreads through the copying of Christian texts. Illuminated manuscripts are highly decorative, with ornate capital letters and marginal illustrations. American inventor Christopher Latham Sholes helps to build the ﬁrst practical typewriter. The patent is sold to Remington, which puts the ﬁrst typewriters The Remington on sale in 1874. Model I In the mid-1960s, the ﬁrst electronic messages (emails) are sent from one computer to another. Emails become popular with the spread of personal computers in the 1980s. Book of Durrow 29 1850–1790BCE 2000–1850 BCE Egyptian hieroglyphics involved the use of pictorial signs. This example is from a cofﬁn from the Middle Kingdom period. THE MINOAN CIVILIZATION, named after the legendary King Minos, ﬂourished on the Aegean island of Crete in the early 2nd millennium, reaching its peak between 2000 and 1600 BCE. It is thought that Crete’s prosperity was based on the export of pottery, gold, and bronze, as well as possibly grain, wine, and oil, to Egypt, Cyprus, and Palestine. The Minoans established colonies in many parts of the Aegean, including the islands of Kythera, Thera, Melos, and Rhodes, and at Miletos on the Turkish mainland. The farmlands of Crete were ruled from cities with central palaces that housed workshops, the administration, religious facilities, and state storerooms. Those at Knossos, Phaestos, Mallia, and Zakros were particularly impressive, judging by their remains. Around 1700 BCE, these palaces were burned down, and only Knossos was rebuilt, on a more magniﬁcent scale than before, suggesting its dominance over the entire island. The palace was ﬁve stories high, with rooms opening onto inner courtyards. This mazelike complex is thought to have given rise to the labyrinth in the legend of the Minotaur, a bull-headed monster. Bulls certainly featured in Minoan ceremonies. The deities worshipped in Minoan shrines seem to have been female, with a goddess of nature being the most popular. However, details of Minoan culture remain obscure, since the Minoan scripts, known as Cretan hieroglyphic and Linear A, have yet to be deciphered. In Egypt, King Mentuhotep had reunited the country at the end of the 3rd millennium (see 2350–2000 BCE). Yet the second of Egypt’s eras of strong, centralized rule only began with the reign of Amenemhet I, from about 1985 BCE, during the Middle Kingdom. In 1965 BCE, his successor Senwosret I conquered the land of Nubia to the south, 40 THE NUMBER OF DAYS IT TOOK TO MUMMIFY A BODY extending Egypt’s borders as far as the second cataract of the Nile. Nubia yielded gold, copper, and slaves to swell the ranks of Egypt’s army. Around a century later, Senwosret III also made Levant a vassal state of Egypt. Middle-Kingdom Egypt was more democratic than it was during the Old Kingdom period. Rulers presented themselves as shepherds of the state rather than absolute monarchs. The process of mummiﬁcation, once conﬁned to kings, was now permitted for ordinary citizens. In order to preserve it as a permanent home for the spirit, the body was dried in natron salt, its vital organs were removed, and it was stuffed with linen and wrapped in bandages. Charging bull Minoan rituals included a bull-leaping ceremony, in which athletes grasped the bull’s horns and vaulted over its back.This Knossos fresco dates back to c. 1500 BCE. ty Ci es rn CE com the B 00 be nor 20 ur in a c. Ash ant i m of min ota do sop Me s, an be ated , n h or ultiv ort e N c EC c BC ash ern tan ce 0 t s 0 squ es -di pla 20 w g c. and uth lon es in t so a; in eric e rou Am trad 30 ls s oo tor m 00 CE all T ces fro to 2 c. 50 B Sm , an read ada 17 ctic tion , sp Can Ar pula Inuit oss d n po the acr nla of aska Gree Al ttle se 0– BC E 00 of 16 ion t of 0 – izat eigh 0 l h ing n 20 ivi nd bylo c. n c ches u a Fo Ba no rea CE of Mi ete 4 B asty r 8 C 19 n c. st dy ﬁr gs rin B t I b ing 5 r e 5 19 mh du iod 5 – ne ypt er 98 me Eg m p 1 c. ng A ty to gdo Ki bili Kin sta ddle Mi CE CE tI 0 B re 92 os –1 enw 5 S 6 19 of c. ign pt Re Egy of I et sr d nd wo ia an s sa s n wn dom ia Se ub far a le o E N i T g ol N BC ts as CE kin at 60 fea m on 0 B all An 0 19 t de gdo ract 19 sm ng in yp kin ata c. i c Eg is lop of ds h ond ve e c n d te se ex ty u d cte Ci E str BC con 00 u low 19 to c. Erli Yel a d f o oun Chin ar ver, Ri BC E 0 n 70 tio –1 iza ies 00 ivil ; cit ed 9 c 1 n s c. dus line ndo In dec aba lly ua ad gr Shang bronze This bronze plate was found at Erlitou, and is of the Xia period. It is inlaid with turquoise mosaic, believed to represent a dragon’s scales. IN CHINA, THE SHANG CIVILIZATION developed along the Yellow River by 1850 BCE. According to legend, China’s ﬁrst dynasty was the Xia, but current archaeological evidence points to Shang as the ﬁrst dynasty. At Erlitou in Henan province, archaeologists have uncovered a palace complex built on a 20,000 THE NUMBER OF CLAY TABLETS SO FAR FOUND AT MARI sh of bli , ign uers esta mia e a E R onq ia to pot l c o BC li 81 dad; otam Mes t-En 7 p 1 a 3– hi-A eso pper hub 1 18 ams rn M f U at S Sh rthe m o ital no ngdo cap Ki th its wi 1790–1650 BCE ,, A S I A Area of Shang inﬂuence Yellow River Bo Hai g Taixicun Xingtai Xi’ang Sh Shang capital 1400–1300 BCE n Yellow S ea Anyang Huixian Shang capital 1300–1027 BCE Shang capital 1600–1400 BCE er Riv Huai Henan Panlongcheng Ya Wucheng Long-distance trade routes linked coastal towns with communities in Andean valleys to the east and beyond. This allowed for the spread of pottery from Colombia to Peru by 1800 BCE. Meanwhile, in North America, crops such as sunﬂowers and gourds began to be cultivated in the east. In Western Asia, the fall of the Ur III Empire led to the rise of two states—Assyria in the north and Babylon in the southeast—which were to dominate Mesopotamia for the next 1,500 years. The ﬁrst dynasty of Babylon was established E a st C h ina S ea Erlitou Law Code of Hammurabi, king of Babylon WHEN THE ASSYRIAN KING SHAMSHI-ADAD died in 1781 BCE, Zhengzhou Luoyang platform of compressed earth. They have also unearthed bronze vessels. Evidence suggests that many features that were to characterize Chinese society later, such as a strong bureaucracy and the worship of ancestors, date back to this time. In southern Asia, the Indus civilization, which had thrived during the 3rd millennium (see 2500–2350 BCE), went into a decline by around 1800 BCE. Scholars believe that this was partly caused by the changes in the regimes of the rivers that provided water for irrigation. Cities seem to have been ravaged by diseases such as cholera and malaria. Trade with Mesopotamia also declined. Meanwhile, new crops such as millet and rice were introduced. All these factors seem to have led to a decline in urban culture, characterized by writing and a centralized bureaucracy, in favor of a rural-based culture. In South America, large-scale cultivation was taking place along the Paciﬁc coast by about 1800 BCE. Substantial settlements such as El Paraíso and Sechin Alto in Peru were dominated by massive temple complexes. a o nd iver Shang China The middle course of the Yellow River was the heartland of the Shang civilization c. 1800–1100 BCE. From here, Shang inﬂuence, such as bronze-working, spread elsewhere. ng tze R Shang city ,, IF A MAN PUTS OUT THE EYE OF AN EQUAL, HIS EYE SHALL BE PUT OUT. KEY in c. 1894 BCE. In the north, the city of Ashur became an important trading center in the 20th century BCE. In 1813 BCE, it was taken over by the Amorite king ShamshiAdad, who carved out a kingdom in northern Mesopotamia. This kingdom was a forerunner of the Greater Assyrian Empire of the 9th century BCE (see 900–800 BCE). Clay tablets recovered from Mari in central Mesopotamia hold records of trade and tributes levied by Assyria from vassalstates. Writing from this period included copies of the earliest surviving work of literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh. Sumerian hero Tablets and stone carvings from the Old Babylonian period provide a record of the Epic of Gilgamesh, previously passed down in the oral tradition. he was succeeded by his son Ishme-Dagan. During his reign, Assyria declined, allowing the state of Babylon to come to the fore. During the reign of ShamshiAdad, Babylon was probably a vassal state of Assyria, but as Assyria declined, King Hammurabi of Babylon saw his chance to seize a wider kingdom. From 1760 BCE, Hammurabi embarked on a series of conquests, which made Babylon the region’s foremost state. Between 1763–1762 BCE, he defeated Elam to the east and Larsa, which controlled Sumer, to the south. In 1757–1755 BCE, King Hammurabi conquered much of northern Mesopotamia and took the city of Eshnunna after diverting its water supply. Hammurabi introduced the Babylonian law code in the region under his control. Its 282 laws covered property, family, trade, and business practices. The Law Code of Hammurabi is famous for punitive laws that meted out punishments in the same Set in stone Hammurabi’s code was inscribed on stone pillars called stele. This stele shows the god of justice Shamash (left) dictating laws to the king. bi CE ra es 0 B mu lish 5 7 am tab e in or –1 r ef 92 of H n; es mpi 7 n 1 ig ylo d l cod ire E n Re Bab nian ia a lega emp of bylo otam es a his t Ba sop lgat hou Me omu oug r r h p et us g an Sh gins E BC be 00 tion 18 c. iliza a civ Chin in ial on m rida e r u o Ce a Fl Per E BC of L lt in 0 0 ter bui 18 c. cen measure as the crime committed (“an eye for an eye”). However, it is thought that the law code was more of a moral statement of principle than an enforced judicial system. As such, the code bound the powerful and wealthy as well as ordinary people; the strong were exhorted to refrain from oppressing the weak. l na itio of ng d g i a Tr din y K CE un y b 6 B r fo ast g to 6 17 te fo dyn rdin y da ang cco stor Sh ng, a e hi Ta ines Ch ge ar x E L ple C B m lto 50 co A u 17 nial chin Per . c o Se in m re of ted ce c tru ns co A ar ine to L E in BC es 50 m 17 t co ete . c rip Cr sc e in us in m ; do rest g e n Ki un diat ) E le by dd orn rme 0 BC i M tt te 154 E n p I C . y B Eg cond (to c 25 17 Se riod c. f o Pe rt sta 31 3000–700 BCE E A R LY C I V I L I Z AT I O N S to Central and Northern Europe MYCENAEAN GREECE Sardinia Io nian Sea WILUSA Troy SEHA RIVER MASA LAND Gla Orchomenos Thebes Apasa MIRA ARZAWA Mycenae Sicily Miletus LUKKA Athens Pylos Tiryns Menelaion Knossos Crete Me A F R I C A The importance of trade Trade was essential to supply societies with the raw materials and manufactured goods needed for daily life (such as metals and lumber), for displaying status (such as ﬁne weaponry), or for embellishing religious monuments and royal palaces (such as lapis lazuli). Trade also promoted the spread of knowledge, technology, and ideas. dite rran ean S ea TRADE COMMODITIES gold timber glass silver grain faience objects ivory turquoise Hittite Empire New Kingdom Egypt copper ivory objects murex dye Mitanni Arzawa ﬁne metalwork perfumed oils seashells Assyria Trade routes c.1350 BCE ﬁne pottery olive oil horses textiles wine weapons Kassite Babylonia A tin H Elam A Mycenaean Greece S KEY ANCIENT EMPIRES THE BIRTH OF ADVANCED SOCIETIES In the 3rd millennium BCE, states emerged in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus. Urban society was consolidated in Western Asia in the 2nd millennium, and powerful states vied for control of lands; in contrast, in South Asia, towns disappeared. Complex societies emerged in China and the Americas. The exceptional agricultural productivity of the Nile, Euphrates, Indus (see p.26), and Yellow (see p.31) river valleys undoubtedly played a part in the precocious emergence of civilizations in these regions. So did international trade, which was also important in the development of the ﬁrst New World civilizations. Trade also enabled many neighboring societies to achieve prosperity: through time they developed complex cultures ,, increasingly focused on urban centers, and came into competition for resources and markets. High-level diplomacy was essential to the smooth operation of international trading networks and to success in inter-state power struggles. Royal letters found in the Egyptian capital, Akhetaten (Amarna), provide a fascinating picture of relations between the 14th-century BCE rulers of the rival great states of the eastern Mediterranean. ,, FOR A LONG TIME WE HAVE HAD GOOD RELATIONS BETWEEN US KINGS… Babylonian king Burnaburiash II to Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten, from the Amarna letters, 14th century BCE 32 R A to sub-Saharan Africa THE WORLD PICTURE Urbanism and complex societies became more widespread during the 2nd millennium BCE. While they shared many features such as trade, high agricultural productivity, dense populations, and their managerial needs, urban societies took many different forms. In the Americas, large ceremonial complexes with residential suburbs provided the focus for the communities of the wider region, strongly connected by shared religion and trade. Advanced centers This map shows established and emerging civilizations in the later 2nd millennium BCE. Societies of farmers and hunter-gatherers occupied other regions. KEY Chavín Assyria Olmec Hittites Shang Mitanni Mycenaeans Elam Egypt Babylonia Blac k S ea KASKAS PALA Hattusas UPP ERL HITTITE EMPIRE AND URUADRI (URARTU) ISUWA HAPALLA Sinai EGYPT Eastern Desert Abydos A a DJ UPPER EGYPT Se W ES DE TER N SE RT Elephantine NUBIA S SATJU YAM A N IA NUB ERT DES HA R A to Afghanistan Old Kingdom c. 2686–2181 BCE Rulers exercised centralized control and commanded impressive resources, as shown by the pyramids at Giza. BABYLONIA Babylon Shechem Memphis Giza Saqqara ME Gaza Nile Delta LOWER d Tyre a ne an Sea Capital cities Dur-Kurigalzu Kumida Hazor Sidon diterr Re Labwe Byblos Trade routes ris Simurru KEY Me Tig es at hr NA AT A W S Carchemish TA R H U N T A S KIZZ U Washshukanni MUKISH Harran Nineveh Alalah Arbil Emar MITANNI Ugarit Aleppo ASSYRIA Cyprus Arwad Eu NIYA p (Alashiya) Ashur Tunip Qatna Qadesh Cyprus le Ni KINGDOMS OF ANCIENT EGYPT The Nile Valley's exceptional agricultural fertility promoted the early development of urbanism in Egypt. Settlements clung to the Nile delta and riverbanks, beyond which lay arid desert. The great mineral resources of the ﬂanking desert regions and Nubia, which included gold, were important both for domestic use and to support international trade. TUMMANNA SEALAND ELAM Susa Nippur Jerusalem Lachish Sharuhen Uruk Ur Anshan Memphis Cyprus Me Pe LOWER ia EGYPT Gu Itjtawy Eastern Desert capital c.1985–1650 BCE Se a EGYPT capital c.2055–1985 BCE and c.1650–1550 BCE S d Waset (Thebes) W ES Karnak DE TERN SE UPPER RT Re le Re ea dS A r abian Pe n in s u l a capital c.1650–1550 BCE Ni lf le Ni DILMUN Thebes Sinai Memphis n EGYPT a ne an Sea Avaris (Tell el-Dab’a) Liyan rs Akhetaten diterr NUBIA WAWAT N IA NUB ERT DES AH AR A KUSH Middle Kingdom c. 2040–1640 BCE Decorated tombs record prosperous life under the stable 12th dynasty, but the state disintegrated under later rulers. to Punt Cyprus S i b e r i a Me Hattusas Mycenae ATLANTIC OCEAN Babylon Memphis dite rr an e an Sea Per-Ramesse (Qantir) Anyang Ashur Susa LOWER EGYPT Xi’ang Zhengzhou PACIFIC OCEAN Sinai Memphis Eastern Akhetaten (Amarna) Desert S A H A R A le Ni Se a PACIFIC OCEAN d Chavín de Huántar Re W ES Waset (Thebes) DE TER UPPER N SE RT EGYPT San Lorenzo NUBIA ATLANTIC OCEAN INDIAN OCEAN S A HA R A N IA N UB ERT S DE KUSH