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Real Functions in Several Variables Examples of Maximum and Minimum Integration and Vector Analysis..
Real Functions in Several Variables Examples of Maximum and Minimum Integration and Vector Analysis Calculus 2b
Leif Mejlbro
Year:
2006
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english
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167
ISBN 10:
8776812073
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LEIF MEJLBRO REAL FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES ‐ MAXIMUM... DOWNLOAD FREE TEXTBOOKS AT BOOKBOON.COM NO REGISTRATION NEEDED Leif Mejlbro Real Functions in Several Variables Examples of Maximum and Minimum Integration and Vector Analysis Calculus 2b Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com Calculus 2b – Real Functions in Several Variables © 2006 Leif Mejlbro & Ventus Publishing ApS ISBN 8776812073 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com Real Functions in Several Variables Contents Contents 1. Preface 6 2. The range of a function in several variables 2.1 Maximum and minimum 2.2 Extremum 7 7 29 3. The plane integral 3.1 Rectangular coordinates 3.2 Polar coordinates 37 37 44 4. The space integral 4.1 Rectangular coordinates 4.2 Semipolar coordinates 4.3 Spherical coordinates 51 51 54 58 5. The line integral 66 6. The surface integral 72 7. Transformation theorems 84 Please click the advert what‘s missing in this equation? You could be one of our future talents MAERSK INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE PROGRAMME Are you about to graduate as an engineer or geoscientist? Or have you already graduated? If so, there may be an exciting future for you with A.P. Moller  Maersk. www.maersk.com/mitas Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 4 Real Functions in Several Variables Contents 8. Improper integrals 95 111 111 118 142 151 A Formulæ A.1 Squares etc. A.2 Powers etc. A.3 Differentiation A.4 Special derivatives A.5 Integration A.6 Special antiderivatives A.7 Trigonometric formulæ A.8 Hyperbolic formulæ A.9 Complex transformation formulæ A.10 Taylor expansions A.11 Magnitudes of functions 155 155 155 156 157 158 160 162 164 166 166 167 Please click the advert 9. Vector analysis 9.1 Tangential line integral; gradient ﬁeld 9.2 Flux and divergence of a vector ﬁeld; Gauss’s theorem 9.3 Rotation of a vector ﬁeld; Stokes’s theorem 9.4 Potentials Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 5 Real Functions in Several Variables 1 Preface Preface The purpose of this volume is to present some worked out examples from the theory of Functions in Several Variables in the following topics: 1) Maximum and minimum of a function. 2) Integration in the plane and in the space. 3) Vector analysis. As an experiment I shall here use the following generic diagram for solving problems: A. For Awareness. What is the problem? Try to formulate the problem in your own words, thereby identifying it. D. For Decision. What are we going to do with it? Are there any reasonable solution procedure available? If so, which one should be chosen? I. For Implementation. Here we do all the necessary calculations for solving the task after the choice of the previous D. At high school one usually starts here, but the problems may now be so complex that we need the previous analysis as well. C. For Control. Whenever it is possible, one should check the solution. Note, however, that this is not always possible, so in many cases we have to skip this point. Notice that A, D, I can always be eﬀectuated, no matter whether the problem is a mathematical exercise, or construction of some building, or any other problem which should be solved. The model is in this sense generic. It was ﬁrst presented for me in Telecommunication for over 15 years ago, where I added C, the control of the solution. I hope that these simple guidelines will help the students as much as it has helped me. Notice also that if one during the I, Implementation, comes across a new and unforeseen problem, then one may iterate this simple model. The intension is not to write a textbook, but only instead to give some hints of how to solve problems in this ﬁeld. It therefore cannot replace any given textbook, but it may be used as a supplement to such a book on Functions in Several Variables. The chapters are only consisting of examples without any further mathematical theory, which one must get from an ordinary textbook. On the other hand, it should be possible to copy the methods given here in similar exercises. In Appendix A the reader will ﬁnd a collection of formulæ which otherwise tacitly are assumed to be known from high school. It is highly recommended that the student learns these by heart during the course, because they form the backbone of the elementary part of Calculus, which should be mastered, before one may proceed to more advanced parts of Mathematics. The text is a continuation of Studentensupport: Calculus 1, Real Functions in One Variable and of Studentensupport: Calculus 2a, Real Functions in Several Variables, Methods of Solution. The text is based on my experiences in my teaching of students in this course. I realized that there was absolutely a need for a practical description of how to solve explicit problems. Leif Mejlbro Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 6 Real Functions in Several Variables 2 The range of a function in several variables The range of a function in several variables 2.1 Maximum and minimum Example 2.1 A Let A be a closed and bounded (i.e. compact) subset of the plane where the boundary ∂A is a closed curve of the parametric representation 1 2 2 1 t ∈ [0, 1]. r(t) = 4t 3 (1 − t) 3 , 4t 3 (1 − t) 3 , Find the maximum and minimum in A for the C ∞ function f (x, y) = x3 + y 3 − 3xy, (x, t) ∈ A. 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Figure 1: The closed and bounded domain A. D Standard procedure: 1) Sketch the domain A and apply the second main theorem for continuous functions, from which we conclude the existence of a maximum and a minimum. 2) Identify the exceptional points in A◦ , if any, and calculate the values f (x, y) in these points. 3) Set up the equations for the stationary points; ﬁnd these – which quite often is a fairly diﬃcult task, because the system of equations is usually nonlinear. Finally, compute the values f (x, y) in all stationary points. 4) Examine the function on the boundary, i.e. restrict the function f (x, y) to the boundary and repeat the investigation above to a set which is of lower dimension. Then ﬁnd the maximum and minimum on the boundary. 5) Collect all the candidates for a maximum and a minimum found previously in 2)–4). Then the maximum S and the minimum M are found by a simple numerical comparison. Remark 2.1 Note that by using this method there is no need to use the complicated (r, s, t)method, which only should be applied when we shall ﬁnd local extrema in the plane. Here we are dealing with global maxima and minima in a set A. ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 7 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Remark 2.2 Sometimes it is alternatively easy to identify the level curves f (x, y) = c for the function f . In such a case, sketch a convenient number of the level curves, from which it may be easy to ﬁnd the largest and the smallest constant c, for which the corresponding level curve has points in common with the set A. Then these values of c are automatically the maximum S, resp. the minimum M for f on A. Notice, however, that this alternative method is demanding some experience before one can use it as a standard method of solution. It was once used with success by a brilliant student at an examination, summer 2000. ♦ I The level curves f (x, y) = x3 + y 3 − 3xy = c do not look to promising, so we stick to the standard procedure. 1) The domain A has already been sketched. Since A is closed and bounded, and f (x, y) is continuous on A, it follows from the second main theorem for continuous functions that the function f has a maximum and a minimum on the set A. 2) Since f is of class C ∞ in A◦ , there are no exceptional points. 1 0.5 –1 –0.5 0 0.5 1 –0.5 –1 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 8 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Figure 2: The stationary points are the intersections between the curves y = x 2 and x = y 2 . 3) The stationary points satisfy the two equations ∂f ∂x = 3x2 − 3y = 0, i.e. y = x2 , ∂f = 3y 2 − 3x = 0, i.e. x = y 2 . ∂y When we look at the graph we obtain the two solutions: (0, 0) ∈ ∂A and (1, 1) ∈ A◦ . Alternatively one inserts y = x2 into the second equation 0 = y 2 − x = x4 − x = x(x3 − 1) = x(x − 1)(x2 + x + 1). Here x2 + x + 1 has only complex roots, hence the only real roots are x = 0 (with y = x 2 = 0) and x = 1 (with y = x2 = 1), corresponding to (0, 0) ∈ ∂A and (1, 1) ∈ A◦ . Since (0, 0) is a boundary point, we see that (1, 1) ∈ A◦ is the only stationary point for f in A◦ . We transfer the value f (1, 1) = 1 + 1 − 3 = −1. to the collection of all values in 5) below. 4) The Boundary. When we apply the parametric representation (x, y) = r(t), t ∈ [0, 1], we get the restriction to the boundary 1 2 2 1 g(t) = f (r(t)) = f 4t 3 (1 − t) 3 , 4t 3 (1 − t) 3 1 2 2 1 = 64t(1 − t)2 + 64t2 (1 − t) − 3 · 4t 3 (1 − t) 3 · 4t 3 (1 − t) 3 = 64 t(1 − t)2 + 64 t2 (1 − t) − 48 t(1 − t) = 16 t(1 − t){4(1 − t) + 4t − 3} = 16 t(1 − t), t ∈ [0, 1]. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 9 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables We have now reduced the problem to a problem known from high school g (t) = 12(2t − 1) = 0 for t = 1 , 2 corresponding to 1 2 2 1 1 g = f 4 · 2− 3 · 2− 3 , 4 · 2− 3 · 2− 3 = f (2, 2) = 4. 2 At the end points of the interval, t = 0 and t = 1, we get g(0) = g(1) = f (0, 0) = 0. 5) We collect all the candidates: exceptional points: None, [from 2)] Stationary point: f (1, 1) = −1, [from 3)] Boundary points: f (0, 0) = 0 and f (2, 2) = 4, [from 4)]. By a numerical comparison we get • The minimum is f (1, 1) = −1 (a stationary point), • The maximum is f (2, 2) = 4 (a boundary point). 6) A typical addition: Since A is connected, and f is continuous, it also follows from the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions, that the range is an interval (i.e. connected), hence f (A) = [M, S] = [−1, 4]. ♦ Example 2.2 A. Find maximum and minimum of the C ∞ function f (x, y) = x4 + 4x2 y 2 + y 4 − 4x3 − 4y 3 in the set A given by x2 + y 2 ≤ 4 = 22 . 2 y 1 –2 –1 0 2 1 x –1 –2 Figure 3: The domain A. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 10 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 50 40 30 20 –2 2 10 –1 1 –10 –1 1 2 –2 Figure 4: The graph of f (x, y) over A. Notice that a consideration of the graph does not give any hint. D. Even if the rewriting of the function f (x, y) = (x2 + y 2 )2 + 2x2 y 2 − 4(x3 + y 3 ) looks reasonably nice it is still not tempting to apply an analysis of the level curves f (x, y) = c, so we shall again use the standard method as described in the previous example, to which we refer for the description. Please click the advert I. 1) The domain A has been sketched already. Since A is closed and bounded, and f (x, y) is continuous on A, it follows from the second main theorem for continuous functions that f (x, y) has a maximum and a minimum on A. www.job.oticon.dk Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 11 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables While we are dealing with theoretical considerations we may aside mention that since A is obviously connected, it follows from the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions that the range is connected, i.e. an interval, which necessarily is given by f (A) = [M, S]. 2) Since f (x, y) is of class C ∞ , there is no exceptional point. 3) The stationary points (if any) satisﬁes the system of equations 0 = ∂f = 4x3 + 8xy 2 − 12x2 = 4x(x2 + 2y 2 − 3x), ∂x 0 = ∂f = 8x2 y + 4y 3 − 12y 2 = 4y(2x2 + y 2 − 3y). ∂y Note that it is extremely important to factorize the expressions as much as possible in order to solve the system. In fact, when this is done, we can reduce the system to ∂f =0: ∂x x=0 or x2 + 2y 2 − 3x = 0, ∂f =0: ∂y y=0 or 2x2 + y 2 − 3y = 0. These conditions are now paired in 2 · 2 = 4 ways which are handled one by one. a) When x = 0 and y = 0, we get (0, 0) ∈ A◦ , i.e. (0, 0) is a stationary point with the value of the function f (0, 0) = 0. b) When x = 0 and 2x2 + y 2 − 3y = 0, we get 0 + y 2 − 3y = y(y − 3) = 0, hence y = 0 or y = 3. Thus, we have two possibilities: (0, 0) ∈ A◦ , which has already been found previously, and (0, 3) ∈ / A, so this point does not participate in the competition. We therefore do not get further points in this case. c) When y = 0 and x2 + 2y 2 − 3x = 0, we get by an interchange of letters (x, y) → (y, x) that / A. Hence we get no further the candidates are (0, 0) ∈ A◦ [found previously] and (3, 0) ∈ point in this case. 3 2 1 –1 0 1 2 3 –1 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 12 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Figure 5: The ellipses x2 + 2y 2 − 3x = 0 and 2x2 + y 2 − 3y = 0 and the line of symmetry y = x. d) It still remains the last possibility x2 + 2y 2 − 3x = 0 and 2x2 + y 2 − 3y = 0. From the rewriting (cf. e.g. Linear Algebra) 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 + 2y = and 2x + y − x− 2 2 2 2 = 3 2 2 it is seen that the stationary points are the intersections of the two ellipses. It follows from the symmetry that the points must lie on the line y = x. By eliminating y we get 0 = x2 + 2y 2 − 3x = 3x2 − 3x = 3x(x − 1). Hence we get either x = 0, corresponding to (0, 0) ∈ A◦ [found previously] or x = 1 corresponding to (1, 1) ∈ A◦ , which is a new candidate with the value f (1, 1) = 1 + 4 + 1 − 4 − 4 = −2. Summarizing we get the stationary points (0, 0) and (1, 1) with the corresponding values of the function f (0, 0) = 0 og f (1, 1) = −2. 4) The boundary. The simplest version is the following alternative to the standard procedure: A parametric representation of the boundary curve is (x, y) = r(ϕ) = (2 cos ϕ, 2 sin ϕ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π], (evt. ϕ ∈ R), where we note that dx dy , (1) = r (ϕ) = (−2 sin ϕ, 2 cos ϕ) = (−y, x). dϕ dϕ If we put g(ϕ) = f (r(ϕ)), where f (x, y) = x4 + 4x2 y 2 + y 4 − 4x3 − 4y 3 , then we get by the chain rule, that the maximum and the minimum on the boundary should be searched among the points on the boundary x2 + y 2 = 4, for which (apply (1)), Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 13 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 2 1 –3 –2 –1 1 2 0 –1 –2 –3 Figure 6: The intersections of the circle and the lines x = 0, y = 0, y = x and x + y + 3 = 0. ∂f dx ∂f dy · + · 0 = g (ϕ) = ∂x dϕ ∂y dϕ 3 = 4x +8xy 2 −12x2 · (−y) + 8x2 y+4y 3 −12y 2 x = 4x x2 + 2y 2 − 3x (−y) + 4y 2x2 + y 2 − 3y x = 4xy −x2 − 2y 2 + 3x + 2x2 + y 2 − 3y = 4xy x2 − y 2 + 3(x − y) Please click the advert = 4xy(x − y){3 + x + y}. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 14 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Hence we shall ﬁnd the intersections between the circle x2 + y 2 = 4 = 22 and the lines x = 0, y = 0, y = x and x + y + 3 = 0. It follows immediately that these intersections are √ √ √ √ (2, 0), ( 2, 2), (0, 2), (−2, 0), (− 2, − 2), (0, −2). We take a note of the values f (2, 0) = f (0, 2) = 16 − 32 = −16, f (−2, 0) = f (0, −2) = 16 + 32 = 48, √ √ √ √ f ( 2, 2) = 6 · 4 − 2 · 4 · 2 2 = 24 − 16 2, √ √ √ f (− 2, − 2) = 24 + 16 2. 5) Summarizing we shall compare numerically exceptional points: none, stationary points: f (0, 0) = 0, boundary points: f (2, 0) = f (0, 2) = −16, f (1, 1) = −2, f (−2, 0) = f (0, −2) = 48, √ √ √ f ( 2, 2) = 24 − 16 2, √ √ √ f (− 2, − 2) = 24 + 16 2. √ 3 Since 16 2 < 16 · = 24, it follows that 2 the minimum is M = f (2, 0) = f (0, 2) = −16, the maximum is S = f (−2, 0) = f (0, −2) = 48, and that both the minimum and the maximum are lying on the boundary. 6) Finally, we get from 1) that due to the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions the range is the interval f (A) = [M, S] = [−16, 48]. ♦ Example 2.3 A. Find maximum and minimum for the function f (x, y) = x2 + 16y 2 − y 4 in the set A = {(x, y)  x2 + 36y 2 ≤ 81}. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 15 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables D. In this case one might ﬁnd the level curves f (x, y) = c, which by using that a2 − b2 = (a + b)(a − b) can be rewritten as x2 = y 4 + c 2 − 16y 2 = y 4 + 4y + c y 4 − 4y + c . This expression still looks too diﬃcult to analyze, so we shall again stick to the standard procedure as described in the ﬁrst example. 2 y –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 1 0 2 6 4 8 10 –1 x –2 Figure 7: The closed and bounded domain A. I. 1) Using some Linear Algebra, the set A is written as x 2 y 2 + 3 ≤ 1, 9 2 which shows that at A is a closed ellipsoidal disc, cf. the ﬁgure. Since the set A is closed and bounded, and even connected, and f (x, y) is continuous on A, it follows from the second main theorem for continuous functions that f has a minimum M and a maximum S on A. It follows furthermore from the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions that the range is connected, i.e. an interval, which necessarily is f (A) = [M, S]. 2) Since the square root is not diﬀerentiable at 0, it follows that (0, 0) is an exceptional point! We make a note for 5) of the value f (0, 0) = 0. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 16 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 3) The stationary points in A◦ \ {(0, 0)}, if any, must satisfy the system of equations ∂f = ∂x x x2 + 16y 2 = 0 and ∂f = ∂y 16y x2 + 16y 2 − 4y 3 = 0. The ﬁrst equation is only fulﬁlled for x = 0. Thus any stationary point must lie on the yaxis. Since (0, 0) is an exceptional point, we must have y = 0 for any stationary point. When we put x = 0 into the second equation, we get (NB: y 2 = y) 1 16y y − y2 = 4 − 4y 3 = 4y 0= 1 − y3 . y y 16y 2 Since y = 0, we must have y = 1, i.e. y = ±1. Hence the stationary points are (0, 1) and (0, −1). We make a note for 5) of the value √ f (0, 1) = f (0, −1) = 16 − 1 = 3. Turning a challenge into a learning curve. Just another day at the office for a high performer. Please click the advert Accenture Boot Camp – your toughest test yet Choose Accenture for a career where the variety of opportunities and challenges allows you to make a difference every day. A place where you can develop your potential and grow professionally, working alongside talented colleagues. The only place where you can learn from our unrivalled experience, while helping our global clients achieve high performance. If this is your idea of a typical working day, then Accenture is the place to be. It all starts at Boot Camp. It’s 48 hours that will stimulate your mind and enhance your career prospects. You’ll spend time with other students, top Accenture Consultants and special guests. An inspirational two days packed with intellectual challenges and activities designed to let you discover what it really means to be a high performer in business. We can’t tell you everything about Boot Camp, but expect a fastpaced, exhilarating and intense learning experience. It could be your toughest test yet, which is exactly what will make it your biggest opportunity. Find out more and apply online. Visit accenture.com/bootcamp Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 17 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 4) The boundary. On the boundary we get x2 + 36y 2 = 81, i.e. x2 = 81 − 36y 2 . Since f (x, y) only contains x in the form x2 , we can use this equation to eliminate x2 when we write down the restriction, f (y) x2 + 16y 2 − y 4 = = 81 − = 20y 2 −y 81 − 36y 2 + 16y 2 − y 4 3 3 y∈ − , . 2 2 4 9 It follows immediately that g(y) is decreasing in the new variable t = y 2 ∈ 0, , hence the 4 maximum on the boundary is g(0) = f (−9, 0) = f (9, 0) = 9, and the minimum on the boundary is 3 g ± 2 =f 3 0, 2 =f 3 0, − 2 = 16 · 9 81 81 15 − =6− = . 4 16 16 16 5) A numerical comparison of exceptional point: f (0, 0) = 0, stationary points: f (0, 1) = f (0, −1) = 3, boundary points: f 3 0, 2 =f 0, − 3 2 = 15 , 16 f (−9, 0) = f (9, 0) = 9, gives maximum: f (−9, 0) = f (9, 0) = 9, (boundary points), minimum: f (0, 0) = 0, (exceptional point). 6) According to 1) the range is given by f (A) = [M, S] = [0, 9], where we have used the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions. ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 18 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Example 2.4 A. Consider the function f (x, y) = x + 3y − 2 ln(1 + 4xy) deﬁned on the triangle A with its vertices (1, 0), (4, 0) and (1, 1). Find the maximum and minimum of f (x, y) on A. 1.4 1.2 1 y 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 3 2 4 –0.2 x Figure 8: The closed and bounded domain A. D. Here it is totally out of question to ﬁnd the level curves, so we apply the standard procedure as described in Example 2.1. I. 1) We ﬁrst sketch A. Since f (x, y) is continuous on the closed and bounded triangle A (note in particular that 1 + 4xy > 0), it follows from the second main theorem for continuous functions that f (x, y) has both a maximum S and a minimum M on A. Since A is also connected, it follows from the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions that the range is connected, i.e. an interval, and we have necessarily f (A) = [M, S]. 2) Since f everywhere in A◦ is of class C ∞ , it follows that f (x, y) has no exceptional point. 3) The stationary points, if any, must satisfy the equations ∂f 8y =1− = 0 and ∂x 1 + 4xy ∂f 8x =3− = 0, ∂y 1 + 4xy i.e. 8y = 1 + 4xy and 8x = 3(1 + 4xy). When 1 + 4xy > 0 is eliminated we get 8x = 3 · 8y, from which x = 3y, which is a condition that the stationary points necessarily must satisfy. By insertion of x = 3y we get 8y = 1 + 4xy = 1 + 12y 2 , Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 19 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables which is rewritten as 1 0 = 12y 2 − 8y + 1 = 12 y − 6 From this we either get y = y− 1 2 . 1 1 1 , corresponding to x = 3 · = , i.e. 6 6 2 1 1 , 2 6 ∈ / A, or y = 1 , 2 corresponding to 3 1 , ∈ A◦ . 2 2 We only ﬁnd one stationary point f 3 1 , 2 2 3 1 , . We make a note of the value for 5) below, 2 2 3 3 3 = + − 2 ln 1 + 4 · · 12 2 2 2 = 3 − 2 ln 4 = 3 − 4 ln 2. 4) The investigation of the boundary is divided into three cases: a) On the line x = 1, y ∈ [0, 1], we get the restriction g1 (y) = 1 + 3y − 2 ln(1 + 4y), where g1 (y) = 3 − Please click the advert 8 8 5 = 0 for 1 + 4y = , i.e. y = ∈ [0, 1], 1 + 4y 3 12 In Paris or Online International programs taught by professors and professionals from all over the world BBA in Global Business MBA in International Management / International Marketing DBA in International Business / International Management MA in International Education MA in CrossCultural Communication MA in Foreign Languages Innovative – Practical – Flexible – Affordable Visit: www.HorizonsUniversity.org Write: Admissions@horizonsuniversity.org Call: 01.42.77.20.66 www.HorizonsUniversity.org Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 20 Real Functions in Several Variables corresponding to 5 5 f 1, = g1 12 12 The range of a function in several variables =1+ 5 5 − 2 ln 1 + 4 3 = 9 − 2 ln 4 8 3 . NB: We must not forget the endpoints of the line: f (1, 0) = g1 (0) = 1 + 0 − 2 ln(1 + 4 · 0) = 1, f (1, 1) = g1 (1) = 1 + 3 − 2 ln(1 + 4 · 1) = 4 − 2 ln 5. b) On the line y = 0, x ∈ [1, 4], we get the restriction g2 (x) = x − 2 ln(1 + 4 · x · 0) = x, which obviously is increasing. Therefore we shall only make a note on the values at the endpoints, f (1, 0) = 1 and f (4, 0) = 4. c) On the line x + 3y = 4, i.e. x = 4 − 3y, y ∈ [0, 1], the restriction is given by g3 (y) = 4 − 2 ln(1 + 4(4 − 3y)y) = 4 − 2 ln(1 + 16y − 12y 2 ). Here we get 2 ∈ [0, 1], 3 2 2 corresponding to x = 4 − 3 · = 2. The interesting point is 2, 3 3 2 2 4 2 = 4 − 2 ln 1 + 16 · − 12 · f 2, = g3 3 3 9 3 32 16 19 = 4 − 2 ln 1 + − = 4 − 2 ln . 3 3 3 We have already treated the two endpoints earlier. g3 (y) = − 2 (16−24y) = 0 1+16y−12y 2 for y = ∈ ∂A with the value 5) Finally we shall compare numerically exceptional points: none, 3 1 , 2 2 stationary point: f boundary a): 5 f 1, 12 = 3 − 4 ln 2 ≈ 0, 23, 9 = − 2 ln 4 8 3 ≈ 0, 29, f (1, 1) = 4 − 2 ln 5 ≈ 0, 79, f (1, 0) = 1, boundary b): f (4, 0) = 4, boundary c): 2 f 2, 3 = 4 − 2 ln 19 ≈ 0, 31. 3 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 21 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables By a comparison we see that the maximum is S = f (0, 4) = 4, the minimum is M =f 3 1 , 2 2 (boundary point), = 3 − 4 ln 2, (stationary point). Remark 2.3 Note that the comparison is made approximatively, while the result is given in an exact form. ♦ 6) According to 1) we ﬁnally get by the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions that the range is f (A) = [M, S] = [3 − 4 ln 2, 4]. ♦ Example 2.5 A nasty example which usually is not given in any textbook, is given by the following. It illustrates that the usual division of cases in the textbooks is not exhaustive. Let A = K(0; 1) be the open unit disc, and consider the function 1 , x2 + y 2 < 1. f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 cos 1 − x2 − y 2 Then f (x, y) is bounded on A, f (x, y) ≤ x2 + y 2 < 1 for (x, y) ∈ A, and we see that f (x, y) has no continuous extension to any point on the boundary. 1 y 0.5 –1 –0.5 0 0.5 1 x –0.5 –1 Figure 9: The set A is the open unit disc. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 22 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Then note that 1) f (x, y) = 1 − 1 1 for x2 + y 2 = 1 − , p ∈ N, 2pπ 2pπ 2) f (x, y) = −1 + 1 1 for x2 + y 2 = 1 − , (2p + 1)π (2p + 1)π p ∈ N, from which we conclude that f has neither a maximum nor a minimum in the open set A. However, since f (x, y) is continuous on the connected set A, it follows from the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions that f (A) also is connected, i.e. an interval. According to 1) the function f (x, y) attains values smaller than 1, though we can get as close to 1 as we wish. According to 2) the function f (x, y) attains values bigger than −1, though we can get as close to −1 as we wish. Hence we conclude that the range is given by f (A) = ] − 1, 1[. ♦ it’s an interesting world Please click the advert Get under the skin of it. 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Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 23 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Example 2.6 Let A be the open triangle A = {(x, y)  0 < x < 1, −x < y < 4x}, and let the function f (x, y) on A be given by f (x, y) = 2xy + 3 ln(1 − x), (x, y) ∈ A. Find the range f (A). A. 4 3 y 2 1 0 0.2 0.6 11.2 x –1 Figure 10: The open and bounded domain A. D. Here it is possible to ﬁnd the level curves. In fact, since x > 0 in A, we get that f (x, y) = 2xy + 3 ln(1 − x) = c, (x, y) ∈ A, is equivalent to y = ϕc (x) = c 3 ln(1 − x) − · . 2x 2 x Although the expression looks very complicated, it is actually possible to analyze these level curves. The reader is referred to section I 2 which, however, may be considered a bit advanced for a common use. We therefore start with the standard procedure in section I 1 with some necessary modiﬁcations. First we exploit the theoretical main theorems as much as possible. Then we extend f to the parts of the boundary where it is possible, and we discuss what happens at the boundary points where such a continuous extension of f is not possible. We see that both methods have a common theoretical start, which we here call section I. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 24 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables I. Since f (x, y) is continuous on the connected set A, it follows from the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions that the range f (A) is connected, i.e. an interval. Since A is bounded, though not closed, we cannot apply the second main theorem for continuous functions. We shall ﬁrst ﬁnd out whether f (x, y) has a continuous extension to (parts of) the boundary of A. It follows immediately that f (x, y) can be continuously extended to the lines y = 4x and y = −x, x ∈ [0, 1[, with the same formal expression of the function, i.e. the extension is given by f (x, y) = 2xy + 3 ln(1 − x) for 0 ≤ x < 1, −x ≤ y ≤ 4x. On the other hand, we cannot extend to the vertical line x = 1, because lim f (x, y) = 2y + 3 lim ln(1 − x) = −∞. x→1− x→1− However, we see that the lower bound is −∞, so f (A) must be a semiinﬁnite, i.e. either ] − ∞, a[ or ] − ∞, a], because the theorems do not assure that the upper bound a actually belongs to f (A). This question can only be decided by an explicit analysis. It follows that we shall only search the maximum in B = {(x, y)  0 ≤ x < 1, −x ≤ y ≤ 4x}. Since we also have f (x, y) → −∞ for x → 1−, in B, there exists an ε ∈ ]0, 1[, such that f (x, y) < S for (x, y) ∈ B and 1 − ε ≤ x < 1. The maximum S is therefore attained in the closed and bounded and truncated domain Bε = {(x, y)  0 ≤ x ≤ 1 − ε, −x ≤ y ≤ 4x}, where we of course assume that S exists and S < +∞. This follows, however, from the second main theorem for continuous functions, applied on B ε . Since we only want to ﬁnd the maximum, the standard procedure is hereafter the same as for closed and bounded domains. The only modiﬁcation is that we shall not go through an investigation of the boundary on the line x = 1 − ε. I 1. Standard procedure. 1) We have already sketched a ﬁgure and quoted and applied the second main theorem. 2) Since f (x, y) belongs to the class C ∞ in A, there is no exceptional point. 3) The stationary points in A, if any, must satisfy the equations ∂f 3 = 2y − = 0 amd ∂x 1−x ∂f = 2x = 0. ∂y It follows from the latter equation that x = 0; but since x > 0 in A, we see that we have no stationary point in A for the function f . Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 25 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 4) Modiﬁed investigation of the boundary. a) For y = 4x we get the restriction g1 (x) = 8x2 + 3 ln(1 − x), for x ∈ [0, 1[, where g1 (x) = 16x − 3 . 1−x Hence, g1 (x) = 0 for 0 = 16x2 − 16x + 3 = (4x − 3)(4x − 1), i.e. for x = 1 3 or x = . 4 4 By applying high school calculus it is seen that the maximum is either attained for x = 0, 3 corresponding to g1 (0) = f (0, 0) =, or for x = , corresponding to 4 3 3 8·9 3 9 ,3 = + 3 ln 1 − g1 = f = − 6 ln 2 4 4 16 4 2 ≥ 4, 5 − 6 · 0, 7 = 0, 3 > 0. Brain power Please click the advert By 2020, wind could provide onetenth of our planet’s electricity needs. Already today, SKF’s innovative knowhow is crucial to running a large proportion of the world’s wind turbines. Up to 25 % of the generating costs relate to maintenance. These can be reduced dramatically thanks to our systems for online condition monitoring and automatic lubrication. We help make it more economical to create cleaner, cheaper energy out of thin air. By sharing our experience, expertise, and creativity, industries can boost performance beyond expectations. Therefore we need the best employees who can meet this challenge! The Power of Knowledge Engineering Plug into The Power of Knowledge Engineering. Visit us at www.skf.com/knowledge Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 26 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables b) For y = −x we get the restriction g2 (x) = −2x2 + 3 ln(1 − x), for x ∈ [0, 1[, where g2 (x) = −4x − 3 < 0. 1−x Hence, g2 (x) is decreasing. The maximum on this line is therefore g2 (0, 0) = f (0, 0) = 0. c) Numerical comparison. When we compare the values of the candidates above it follows that the maximum in B is 3 9 , 3 = − 6 ln 2 > 0. f 4 2 3 , 3 , so This value is only attained at the boundary point 4 9 • f (B) = −∞, − 6 ln 2 , 2 and 9 • f (A) = −∞, − 6 ln 2 , 2 because A is obtained by removing all boundary points from B. 4 3 y 2 1 0 0.2 0.6 11.2 x –1 Figure 11: The level curves for c = 1 (below) and c = 1 (above). 2 I 2. The method of level curves. The level curve y = ϕc (x) = c 3 ln(1 − x) − · 2x 2 x is deﬁned in the strip 0 < x < 1 as the graph of a function. If c = 0, then both x = 0 and x = 1 are asymptotes. It follows that lim ϕc (x) = +∞ x→1− for all c ∈ R, Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 27 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables and that lim ϕc (x) = +∞ for c > 0, lim ϕc (x) = −∞ for c < 0. x→0+ and x→0+ The curves are characterized by f (x, y) being constant c along y = ϕc (x). We have sketched two level curves on the ﬁgure (where c > 0), from which it is seen that the curved “move upwards”, when c increases. Hence we are looking for the biggest c, for which y = ϕc (x) just is contacting the boundary of B without intersecting B. This is not possible for c < 0, and at the same time we get the line y = −x excluded. Thus the maximum can only lie on the line y = 4x. Since y = ϕc (x) only touches this line, the following two conditions must be fulﬁlled: 1) The curves must go through the same point, i.e. y = 4x = ϕc (x), or 4x = − 1 {−c + 3 ln(1 − x)}, 2x from which −c + 3 ln(1 − x) = −8x2 . 2) The curves must have the same slope at this point, i.e. 1 3x 4 = ϕc (x) = 2 −c + 3 ln(1 − x) + . 2x 1−x The ugly terms −c + 3 ln(1 − x) in 2) can be eliminated by applying 1), hence 8x2 = −8x2 + 3x , 1−x which is rewritten as 0 = 16x2 (1 − x) − 3x = x{16x − 16x2 − 3} = −x(4x − 1)(4x − 3). 1 3 From this we get the solutions x = 0, x = and x = , and since y = 4x, we ﬁnally get the 4 4 candidates 3 1 ,3 , ,1 , (0, 0), 4 4 with the corresponding function values for the extended function, 3 9 1 1 4 , 3 = − 6 ln 2. , 1 = − 3 ln , f f (0, 0) = 0, f 2 4 2 3 4 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 28 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables By a numerical comparison we get that the maximum is attained at the point 3 , 3 . Hence we 4 conclude that 9 f (B) = − −∞, − 6 ln 2 . 2 Finally, when we remove the boundary points from B, we obtains as previously that 9 f (A) = −∞, − 6 ln 2 . ♦ 2 2.2 Extremum Example 2.7 In this example we produce some functions in R2 , which all have (0, 0) as a stationary point and value zero. We supply the investigation with sketches of the graphs and discussions of the sign of the function in the neighbourhood whenever this is necessary. Concerning the graphs the reader is also referred to Linear Algebra. Trust and responsibility Please click the advert NNE and Pharmaplan have joined forces to create NNE Pharmaplan, the world’s leading engineering and consultancy company focused entirely on the pharma and biotech industries. – You have to be proactive and openminded as a newcomer and make it clear to your colleagues what you are able to cope. The pharmaceutical field is new to me. But busy as they are, most of my colleagues find the time to teach me, and they also trust me. Even though it was a bit hard at first, I can feel over time that I am beginning to be taken seriously and that my contribution is appreciated. Inés Aréizaga Esteva (Spain), 25 years old Education: Chemical Engineer NNE Pharmaplan is the world’s leading engineering and consultancy company focused entirely on the pharma and biotech industries. We employ more than 1500 people worldwide and offer global reach and local knowledge along with our allencompassing list of services. nnepharmaplan.com Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 29 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 1 –1 –1 0.5 –0.5 –0.5 0 0.5 0.5 1 1 Figure 12: The graph of z = x2 + y 2 . 1) z = f1 (x, y) = x2 + y 2 . The graph of f1 is a paraboloid of revolution. Since f1 (x, y) > 0 = f (0, 0) for (x, y) = (0, 0), the function f1 has a true minimum at (0, 0). It is easily seen that this is also the global minimum of the function. 2) z = f2 (x, y) = x2 − 4xy + 4y 2 = (x − 2y)2 . The graph of f2 is a parabolic cylinder. It follows immediately that f2 (x, y) ≥ 0 = f (0, 0); 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 –0.4 –0.4 0.05 –0.2 –0.2 t 0.2 0.4 0.2 s 0.4 Figure 13: The graph of z = (x − 2y)2 . Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 30 Real Functions in Several Variables but since x f x, = 0 = f (0, 0) 2 The range of a function in several variables for alle x, we see that (0, 0) is a weak local minimum. However, we also have in this case that 0 is a global minimum. 1 –1 –1 0.5 –0.5 –0.5 –0.5 0.5 0.5 1 1 –1 Figure 14: The graph of z = x3 + y 3 sketched in MAPLE does not give the best picture. 3) z = f3 (x, y) = x3 + y 3 = (x + y)(x2 − xy + y 2 ). Since x3 + y 3 is of odd degree 3, we take e.g. the restriction of f3 to the xaxis, f3 (x, 0) = x3 (is both > and < 0), in a neighbourhood of x = 0, so f3 has no extremum at (0, 0). This can also be seen by analyzing the sign of the function. In fact, x2 − xy + y 2 ≥ 0 for all (x, y), thus x3 + y 3 is everywhere of the same sign as x + y. 1 0.5 –1 –0.5 0.5 1 –0.5 –1 Figure 15: The restriction to the xaxis gives a better picture. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 31 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 4 –2 –1 2 2 1 –1 –2 1 –2 2 –4 Figure 16: The graph of z = x2 − y 2 . 4) z = f4 (x, y) = x2 − y 2 = (x + y)(x − y). The graph is a hyperbolic paraboloid. There is no extremum at (0, 0). An analysis of the sign shows that f4 (x, y) is 0 on the lines x + y = 0 and x − y = 0, and that f4 (x, y) attains both positive and negative values in any neighbourhood of (0, 0). It is ﬁnally also possible to consider the restrictions x − axis: y − axis: f4 (x, 0) = x2 > 0 f5 (0, y) = −y 2 < 0 for x = 0, for y = 0, Please click the advert from which we arrive to the same conclusion. ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 32 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Example 2.8 A. Examine whether the function f (x, y, z) = exp xy + z 2 has local extrema. D. Here we shall not use the standard procedure but instead we suggest an alternative method. In fact, since exp is strictly increasing, the functions ϕ(x, y, z) = xy + z 2 and f (x, y, z) = exp(ϕ(x, y, z)) must have the same stationary points and extrema. We therefore examine the simpler function ϕ(x, y, z). I. The equations for the stationary points for ϕ(x, y, z) are ∂ϕ = y = 0, ∂x ∂ϕ = x = 0, ∂y ∂ϕ = 2z. ∂z Hence it follows immediately that (0, 0, 0) is the only stationary point. 2) For the other candidates the (r, s, t)method is easier, because it is the essence of the determination of the approximative polynomial of at most degree two. One often forgets in the applications that this is the general idea behind the (r, s, t)method. Note that we in 1) had to expand to the third degree, which is the reason why the (r, s, t)method fails for (0, 0). There is, however, also an alternative method for the other points. This will here be illustrated on the point (1, 1). a) First we reset, the problem, i.e. put (x, y) = (1 + h, 1 + k), so (h, k) = (0, 0) corresponds to the point (x, y) = (1, 1) under examination. b) Insert this in the expression for f (x, y) and write dots for terms of degree > 2: f (x, y) = (1 + h)4 + 4(1 + h)2 (1 + k)2 + (1 + k)4 − 4(1 + h)3 − 4(1 + k)3 = 1 + 4h + 6h2 + · · · + 4(1 + 2h + h2 )(1 + 2k + k 2 ) +1 + 4k + 6k 2 + · · · − 4(1 + 3h + 3h2 + · · · ) −4(1 + 3k + 3k 2 + · · · ) = (1 + 4h + 6h2 ) + 4 1 + 2h + h2 + 2k + 4hk + k 2 + · · · +(1 + 4k + 6k 2 ) − 4(1 + 3h + 3h2 ) − 4(1 + 3k + 3k 2 ) + · · · = −2 − 2h2 + 16hk − 2k 2 + · · · , i.e. P2 (h, k) = −2 − 2(h2 − 8hk + k 2 ) = −2 − 2 (h − 4k)2 − 15k 2 . Since P2 (h, k) + 2 attains both negative values (for k = 0 and h = 0) and positive values (for h = 4k) in any neighbourhood of (h, k) = (0, 0), we conclude that (x, y) = (1, 1) is not an extremum. ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 33 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables Example 2.10 A. Examine whether the function f (x, y) = 1 − 4x2 − 4y 2 + x2 y 2 , (x, y) ∈ R2 . has any extremum. Find the range f (R2 ). D. When we apply the standard procedure we are guided through the usual examination of the exceptional points (there are none) and of the stationary points. It is, however, here possible to make a shortcut by noticing that f (x, y) only is a function in u = x2 and v = y 2 , i.e. f (x, y)1 − 4x2 − 4y 2 + x2 y 2 = g(u, v) = 1 − 4u − 4v + uv, u, v ≥ 0. I. The stationary points for f (x, y), if any, must fulﬁl the equations ∂f = −2x(4 − y 2 ) = 0 and ∂x ∂f = −2y(4 − x2 ) = 0. ∂y This system is split into x = 0 or y = 2 or y = −2, and y = 0 or x = 2 or x = −2. Formally we get 3 · 3 possibilities, but four of them are not possible (e.g. x cannot at the same time be 0 and 2 or −2). We therefore get ﬁve stationary points, (0, 0), (2, 2), (−2, −2), (2, −2). (−2, 2), 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 –0.4 –0.4 0.2 –0.2 0 0.2 0.4 –0.2 0.2 0.4 Figure 17: The graph of z = 1 − 4x2 − 4y 2 . Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 34 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables 1) In (0, 0) we get f (x, y) ≈ P2 (x, y) = 1 − 4x2 − 4y 2 . The graph of z = P2 (x, y) is an elliptic paraboloid of revolution. Obviously we have a proper local maximum at (0, 0). 2) We take a shortcut by considering u = x2 , g(u, v) = 1 − 4u − 4v + uv, v = y2 , instead. First, all four stationary points for f are seen to correspond to the only point (u, v) = (4, 4). It is therefore suﬃcient to examine g(u, v) in the neighbourhood of (4, 4). The approximating polynomial for g(u, v) expanded from (4, 4) of at most degree 2 is found by using: g(u, v) = 1 − 4u − 4v + uv, g(4, 4) = −15, ∂g = −4 + v, ∂u gu (4, 4) = 0, ∂g = −4 + u, ∂v gv (4, 4) = 0, ∂2g ∂v = 1, ∂u , Please click the advert ∂2g ∂2g = = 0, ∂u2 ∂v 2 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 35 Real Functions in Several Variables The range of a function in several variables –3 –3 –2 –2 –1 10 –1 1 2 3 1 –10 2 3 –20 –30 Figure 18: The graph of f (x, y) = 1 − 4x2 − 4y 2 + x2 + y 2 . hence P3 (u, v) = −15 + 1 · (u − 4)(v − 4) = −15 + (u − 4)(v − 4). 2 It follows that P2 (u, v) in the neighbourhood of (4, 4) attains values which are both > −15 and < −15. Thus g(u, v) does not have an extremum at (4, 4). This implies that f (x, y) does not have an extremum at (±2, ±2) (all four possible combinations of the sign). 3) The function f (x, y) has only one local maximum, f (0, 0) = 1. However, this value is not the global maximum. In fact, by rewriting f (x, y) = 1 − 4x2 − 4y 2 + x2 y 2 = (x2 − 4)(y 2 − 4) − 15, we see that the restriction to the line y = x gives f (x, x) = x2 − 4 2 − 15 → +∞ for x → ±∞. 4) Note also that f (x, 0) = 1 − 4x2 → −∞ for x → ±∞. Thus, since f is continuous on the connected set R2 , it follows from the ﬁrst main theorem for continuous functions that the range is f (R2 ) = R. ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 36 Real Functions in Several Variables 3 The plane integral The plane integral 3.1 Rectangular coordinates Example 3.1 A. Calculate B xy dS, where B is given on the ﬁgure. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 1 –0.2 1.5 2 x Figure 19: The domain B is the upper triangle. D. We have two possibilities for the reduction: D1. We ﬁrst integrate horizontally. D2. We ﬁrst integrate vertically. We shall treat both possibilities so we can compare the calculations in the two cases. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 –0.2 0.5 1 1.5 2 x Figure 20: The domain B with the vertical integration line from y = 1 − 1 2 x to y = 1. D 1. We ﬁrst integrate vertically. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 37 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral I 1. In this case we write the domain in the form B = {(x, y) ∈ R2  0 ≤ x ≤ 2, 1 − 1 x ≤ y ≤ 1}. 2 Notice that the outer variable x must always lie between two constants, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2. Then we use the ﬁgure for any ﬁxed x to ﬁnd the integration interval for the inner variable of integration y, 1 i.e. in this particular case 1 − x ≤ y ≤ 1. 2 Then write down the double integral: 2 (2) xy dS = B 0 1 1− 12 x xy dy dx = 2 x 0 Calculate the inner integral, 1 1 1 2 1 1 y y dy = = 1− 1− x 1 2 2 2 1 1− 2 x 1− x 1 1− 12 x 2 y dy = 1− 1 2 x 4 = 1 1 x − x2 . 2 8 Please click the advert 2 1 2 dx. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 38 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral By insertion in (2), we get 2 1 1 1 2 1 3 x − x2 dx = x − x dx 2 8 2 8 0 0 2 1 3 1 4 8 1 5 x − = x = − = . 6 32 6 2 6 0 xy dS B = 2 x 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 1 –0.2 1.5 2 x Figure 21: The domain B with the horizontal line of integration from x = 2 − 2y to x = 2. D 2. Here we ﬁrst integrate horizontally. I 2. The domain is written B = {(x, y) ∈ R2  0 ≤ y ≤ 1, 2 − 2y ≤ x ≤ 2}, because y ∈ [0, 1] is now the outer variable of integration (lying between two constants), and where 2 − 2y ≤ x ≤ 2 for the inner variable of integration x for any ﬁxed y. The double integral becomes here 1 2 xy dS = xy dx dy = (3) 0 B 2−2y 1 2 x dx dy. 0 2−2y Let us ﬁrst calculate the inner integral, 2 x dx = 2(1−y) 1 2 x 2 2 = 2(1−y) 2 1 2 2 · 2 1 − (1 − y)2 = 2(2y − y 2 ) 2 = 4y − 2y . When this result is put into (3), we get by another calculation xy dS 1 = B = 0 2 y(4y − 2y ) dy = 4 3 1 4 y − y 3 2 1 0 5 = . 6 0 1 (4y 2 − 2y 3 ) dy ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 39 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral Example 3.2 A. Calculate B x exp y 3 dS, where B is given on the ﬁgure for a = 1. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 –0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 x –0.2 Figure 22: The domain B for a = 1. D. We shall again examine the two possibilities of the order of integrations. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 –0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 x –0.2 Figure 23: The domain B for a = 1 with a vertical line of integration from y = x to y = 1. D 1. Let us ﬁrst try to integrate vertically for ﬁxed x, just to see what happens. I 1. Here the domain is written (note the order of x and y): B = {(x, y) ∈ R2  0 ≤ x ≤ a, x ≤ y ≤ a}. Then we can write down the double integral: a a x exp y 3 dS = x exp y 3 dy dx = B 0 x 0 a a x exp y 3 dy dx. x The inner integral, a exp y 3 dy, x Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 40 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral does not just look impossible to calculate; it is impossible to calculate with our arsenal of functions! Therefore we give up this variant. Instead we examine, if we shall be more successful by interchanging the order of integration. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 –0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 x –0.2 Figure 24: The domain B for a = 1 with a horizontal line of integration from x = 0 to x = y where y is kept ﬁxed. D 2. The domain is here written (note again the order of x and y): B = {(x, y) ∈ R2  0 ≤ y ≤ a, 0 ≤ x ≤ y}. Sharp Minds  Bright Ideas! Please click the advert Employees at FOSS Analytical A/S are living proof of the company value  First  using new inventions to make dedicated solutions for our customers. 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Dedicated Analytical Solutions FOSS Slangerupgade 69 3400 Hillerød Tel. +45 70103370 www.foss.dk Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 41 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral Then we turn to the double integral, a y 3 3 x exp y dS = x exp y dx dy = (4) 0 B 0 0 a exp y 3 y x dx dy. 0 The inner integral is calculated in the following way: y y 1 2 1 x x dx = = y2 . 2 2 0 0 By insertion in (4) followed by the substitution t = y 3 and dt = 3y 2 dy, where y 2 dy already can be found in the integrand, we get x exp y 3 dS = B = a3 1 2 1 1 exp y · y dy = exp(t) · · dt 2 2 3 0 0 1 t a3 1 e 0 = exp a3 − 1 . 6 6 a 3 Remark 3.1 In this case one of the two variants cannot be calculated, while the second one is easy to perform. ♦ Example 3.3 A. Find the value of y E = Lz dS, 2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 (x B where B = [0, a] × [0, b] and z > 0. D. Here we can expect a quite a few diﬃculties, no matter which version we are choosing. In fact, the integrand is suited for the polar coordinates, while the domain B in the (x, y)plane is best described in rectangular coordinates. By experience, such a mixture of polar and rectangular coordinates will always give computational problems. Then we notice that if we start by ﬁrst integrating after x, then we shall immediately run into troubles with this ﬁrst integral dx . 2 (x + y 2 + z 2 )2 It is possible to go through with the calculations, but they are far from elementary. On the other 1 hand, if we ﬁrst integrate with respect to y, we shall beneﬁt from the fact that y dy = d y 2 , 2 where y 2 already can be found in the integrand. For that reason we choose ﬁrst to integrate with respect to y. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 42 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral I. The double integral is here (5) E = Lz B y dS = Lz (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 0 a 0 b y dy (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 dx. By the calculations of the inner integral we put for convenience c = x2 + z 2 = equal a constant, and we apply the substitution t = y 2 where dt = 2y dy, and where y dy already is a factor in the 1 integrand, i.e. y dy = dt. Thus, 2 0 b y dy (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 = = b 1 y dy = 2 + c)2 y 0 1 1 1 − = 2 c b2 + c b2 2 dt 1 b 1 1 = − 2 0 (t + c)2 2 t + c t=0 1 1 1 − 2 . x + b2 + z 2 2 x2 + z 2 The result of this calculation is then inserted into (5), by which 1 1 Lz a − 2 dx. (6) E = 2 2 x +z x + b2 + z 2 2 0 Notice here that it is not a good idea to put everything in the same fraction with a common denominator, so we keep the form above. A new calculation shows that if k 2 > 0, then we get by the change of variable t = dx 2 x + k2 = = x that k 1 1 dt 1 x 2 dx = k k 1 + t2 1+ k x 1 1 Arctan t = Arctan . k k k 1 k The trick in this type of calculation is by division to get the constant 1 in the denominator plus some square. When this calculation is applied with k1 = z and k2 = b2 + z 2 , we get by insertion into (6) that E = = = a x x Lz 1 1 Arctan Arctan − k1 k2 0 2 k1 k2 a Lz 1 a 1 Arctan −√ Arctan √ 2 z z b2 + z 2 b2 + z 2 a L a z Arctan √ . Arctan −√ 2 z b2 + z 2 b2 + z 2 ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 43 Real Functions in Several Variables 3.2 The plane integral Polar coordinates Example 3.4 A. Calculate I = (x2 + y 2 ) dS, b where B is described in polar coordinates by ϕ A = (, ϕ) a ≤ ≤ 2a, ≤ϕ≤ . 2a a Please click the advert Note that B has a “weird” form in (x, y)plane, while the parameter domain A in the (, ϕ)plane is “straightened out”, so one can apply the rectangular version in the (.ϕ)plane. The price for this is that one must add the weight function to the integrand. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 44 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral 2 1.5 y 1 0.5 0 –0.5 –1 0.5 1 1.5 x Figure 25: The domain B in the (x, y)plane. 2 1.5 y 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x Figure 26: The parameter domain A in the (, ϕ)plane. D. Apply the reduction formula in the second version, i.e. where the ϕintegral is the inner integral. This means that we ﬁrst integrate vertically in the parameter domain. I. By the reduction formula in its second version we get with the weight function 2a a 2a a 2 2 2 3 (x + y ) dS = dϕ d = dϕ d. 2a a B 2a a First calculate the inner integral, a dϕ = − = , a 2a 2a 2a which is seen to be the length of the ϕinterval. Then by insertion, (x2 + y 2 ) dS 2a 2a 1 1 1 5 d = 4 d = 2a 2a a 2a 5 a 1 31 4 1 1 5 5 5 5 32 a − a = a . (2a) − a = 10a 10 10a = B = 2a 3 · ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 45 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral Example 3.5 A. Calculate I= (x + y) dS, B where B is described in polar coordinate (for a > 0) by π π A = (, ϕ) − ≤ ϕ ≤ , 0 ≤ ≤ a , 2 4 i.e. A is a rectangle in the (, ϕ)plane. D. Here we can apply both reduction formulæ, so we give two solutions. D 1. Apply the ﬁrst reduction formula; do not forget the weight function . I 1. From x = cos ϕ and y = sin ϕ, we get in the ﬁrst version, where we start by integrating horizontally after , that π4 a I= (x + y) dS = ( cos ϕ + sin ϕ) d dϕ. B −π 2 0 Then calculate the inner integral, a ( cos ϕ + sin ϕ) d = (cos ϕ + sin ϕ) 0 a 2 d = 0 a3 (cos ϕ + sin ϕ). 3 By insertion of this result we ﬁnally get π4 3 π a3 a a3 I= (cos ϕ + sin ϕ) dϕ = [sin ϕ − cos ϕ]−4 π = . 2 3 3 3 −π 2 1 y 0.5 0.2 –0.2 0.4 x 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 –0.5 –1 Figure 27: The domain B for a = 1 in the (x, y)plane. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 46 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral 0.5 x 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 –0.2 1 1.2 –0.5 y –1 –1.5 Figure 28: The parametric domain A for a = 1 in the (, ϕ)plane. D 2. Apply the second reduction formula. Again, do not forget the weight function . I 2. In the second version we just interchange the order of integration. Since the bounds are constants, and the variables can be separated in the integrand, we can split the integral into a product of two integrals. Then I a = 0 π 4 −π 2 0 = a 2 d · ( cos ϕ + sin ϕ) dϕ d −π 2 Student Discounts Please click the advert π 4 (cos ϕ + sin ϕ) dϕ = + Student Events π a3 a3 · [sin ϕ − cos ϕ]−4 π = . 2 3 3 + Money Saving Advice = ♦ Happy Days! 2009 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 47 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral Example 3.6 A. Calculate I = B x dS, where B = K a ,0 ; , a > 0. 2 2 a 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.8 1 –0.2 –0.4 √ √ Figure 29: The domain B for a = 1, i.e. − x − x2 ≤ y ≤ x − x2 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. D. In this case it is possible to calculate the integral by using either rectangular or polar coordinates. D 1. In rectangular coordinates the domain B is described by B = {(x, y)  0 ≤ 0 ≤ a, − ax − x2 ≤ y ≤ ax − x2 }. I 1. The rectangular double integral is given by a √ax−x2 x dS = x dy dx = 2a I= √ 0 B − ax−x2 a ax − x2 dx. The trick in problems of this type is to call the “ugly” part something diﬀerent. We put t = ax − x2 , dt = (a − 2x) dx. Then by adding the right term and subtract it again we get a a 2x ax − x2 dx = − (a − 2x − a) ax − x2 dx I = 0 0 a a = − ax − x2 · (a − 2x) dx + a ax − x2 dx 0 0 a a √ t dt + a = − ax − x2 dx x=0 0 a a a 3 2 2 2 2 ax − x = − +a ax − x dx = 0 + a ax − x2 dx. 3 0 0 0 a√ The integral 0 ax − x2 dx does not look nice; but the geometrical interpretation helps a lot: The integral is the area of the domain between the xaxis and the curve y=+ ax − x2 , Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 48 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral i.e. (cf. the ﬁgure) the area of a halfdisc of radius a 2 1 ·π 2 2 I =a· = a . Therefore, 2 πa3 . 8 D 2. The polar version; do not forget the weight function . I 2. When we put x = cos ϕ and y = sin ϕ, the equation of the boundary curve becomes 0 = x2 + y 2 − ax = 2 − a cos ϕ = ( − a cos ϕ). Since = 0 corresponds to the point (0, 0), it follows that the boundary curve is described by med − = a cos ϕ π π ≤ϕ≤ . 2 2 The parametric A = (, ϕ) domain A corresponding to B is therefore π π − ≤ ϕ ≤ , 0 ≤ ≤ a cos ϕ . 2 2 When we use the ﬁrst version of the reduction formula we get 1.5 y 1 0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 x –0.5 –1 –1.5 Figure 30: The parametric domain A in the (, ϕ)plane. x dS = B π 2 −π 2 0 a cos ϕ cos ϕ · d dϕ = π 2 −π 2 cos ϕ a cos ϕ 2 d dϕ. 0 When we calculate the inner integral we get a cos ϕ a cos ϕ 1 3 a3 2 cos3 ϕ. d = = 3 3 0 0 Then by insertion π2 π2 a3 a3 x dS = cos4 dϕ = 2 · cos4 ϕ dϕ, π 3 3 B −2 0 where we use that the even function cos4 ϕ is integrated over a symmetric interval. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 49 Real Functions in Several Variables The plane integral When we shall calculate a trigonometric integral, where the integrand is of even order, we change variables to the double angle: 2 2 2 1 1 4 cos x = (1 + cos 2x) = 1 + 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x cos x = 2 4 1 1 = 1 + 2 cos 2x + (1 + cos 4x) 4 2 3 1 1 = + cos 2x + cos 4x. 8 2 8 Finally, by insertion, π2 2 x dS = a3 3 B 0 3 1 1 2 3 π πa3 + cos 2x + cos 4x dx = a3 · . +0+0= 8 2 8 3 8 8 2 ♦ Please click the advert what‘s missing in this equation? You could be one of our future talents MAERSK INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE PROGRAMME Are you about to graduate as an engineer or geoscientist? Or have you already graduated? If so, there may be an exciting future for you with A.P. Moller  Maersk. www.maersk.com/mitas Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 50 Real Functions in Several Variables 4 The space integral The space integral 4.1 Rectangular coordinates Example 4.1 A. Calculate the space integral I = (3 + y − z) x dΩ, A where A = {(x, y, z) ∈ R3  (x, y) ∈ B, 0 ≤ z ≤ 2y}, and B is the upper triangle shown on the ﬁgure. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 –0.2 1 1.5 2 x Figure 31: The domain B, i.e. the projection of the domain A onto the (x, y)plane. D Apply the ﬁrst rectangular reduction theorem in 3 dimensions. We have according to the ﬁrst rectangular reduction theorem that 2y (3 + y − z) dz dS. (7) I = (3 + y − z)x dΩ = A B 0 Considering x and y as constants, we calculate the inner and concrete integral, 0 2y 2y 1 2 = x (3 + y − z = dz = x (3 + y)z − z 2 0 z=0 2 = x (3 + y) · 2y − 2y = x · 2y{3 + y − y} = 6xy. (3 + y − z)x dz 2y When this result is inserted into (7), it is reduced to an abstract plane integral over B, i.e. of a lower dimension, I= 6xy dS = 6 xy dS. B B Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 51 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral 2.5 2 1.5 1 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Figure 32: The domain A. We have already calculated the abstract plane integral in Example 3.1, 5 xy dS = , 6 B hence I= A (3 + y − z)x dΩ = 6 B xy dS = 6 · 5 = 5. 6 ♦ Example 4.2 A. Calculate the space integral (x + 2y + z) exp z 4 dΩ, A where A = {(x, y, z)  z ∈ [2, 0], (x, y) ∈ B(z)} with a cut at the height z, z B(z) = [0, z] × 0, , 2 z ∈ ]0, 2]. D. Apply the second reduction theorem in 3 dimensions. I. When we insert into the second reduction theorem, we get (8) I = (x + 2y + z) exp z 4 dΩ A 2 = 0 exp z 4 (x + 2y + z) dS dz. B(z) Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 52 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral For every ﬁxed z we reduce the inner abstract plane integral, (x + 2y + z) dS = x dS + 2y dy + z dS B(z) z = 0 2 x dx · B(z) z 2 z dy + 0 0 dx · z2 1 z z · +z· +z· z· z 2 2 4 2 = 0 B(z) z 2 B(z) 2y dy + z · areal B(z) = z3. By insertion of this result into (8), using the substitution t = z4, dt = 4z 3 dz, dvs. z 3 dz = 1 dt, 4 we ﬁnally get I= exp z 4 · z 3 dz = 0 24 et · 1 16 1 dt = e −1 . 4 4 ♦ Please click the advert 0 2 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 53 Real Functions in Several Variables 4.2 The space integral Semipolar coordinates Example 4.3 A. Calculate the space integral I= x2 yz dΩ, A where A = {(x, y, z) ∈ R3  x2 + y 2 ≤ a2 , y ≥ 0, 0 ≤ z ≤ h}. 1.5 1 –1 0.5 –0.5 0 0.5 –0.5 1 0.5 1 Figure 33: The domain A for a = h = 1 with a cut B(ϕ). 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 –1 –0.5 0 0.5 –0.2 1 x Figure 34: The projection of A onto the (x, y)plane (a = 1). D. It is here possible to go through with the rectangular calculations, but we end up with the same problems as in Example 3.6. We therefore here choose the semipolar representation, where we must not forget to add the weight function as a factor. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 54 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral When we use semipolar coordinates. the domain A is represented by the parametric domain Ã = {(, ϕ, z)  0 ≤ ≤ a, 0 ≤ ϕ ≤ π, 0 ≤ z ≤ h}. Then we get at least two possibilities for the reduction. I 1. For ﬁxed ϕ the domain A is cut into B(ϕ) = [0, a] × [0, h]. In this case we get the following reduction where ϕ is kept in the outer integral, I π z · 2 cos2 ϕ · sin ϕ · d dϕ = 0 B(ϕ) π = 0 − = 2 cos ϕ sin ϕ dϕ · π 1 2 z · 2 0 1 cos3 ϕ 3 h 0 h 0 z dz · · 1 5 5 a 4 d 0 a = 0 2 1 2 1 5 1 2 5 · h · a = h a . 3 2 5 15 I 2. If we instead integrate ﬁrst after z, then we get where we use that B is a half disc, I = B x2 y h z dz dS 0 h π a 1 2 z · 2 cos2 ϕ · sin ϕ · d dϕ 2 0 0 a 0 1 2 π h cos2 ϕ sin ϕ dϕ · 4 d 2 0 0 π 5 1 2 5 1 2 a 1 = h a . h − cos3 ϕ · 5 15 2 3 0 = = = C. Weak control (considerations of the dimension). Since x ∼ a, y ∼ a, z ∼ h, · · · dΩ = · · · dx dy dz ∼ a · a · h = a2 h we get I= A x2 y 2 z dΩ ∼ a2 · a2 · h · (a2 h) = h2 a5 , hence the result must be of the form constant·h2 a5 . If this is not the case, we have made an error. On the other hand, even if we get a result like c · h2 a2 , the constant c may still be calculated wrongly, explaining why the method is only giving a weak control. ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 55 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral Example 4.4 A. Calculate the space integral I= xy 2 z dΩ, A where A = {(x, y, z) ∈ R3  x2 + y 2 ≤ a2 , x ≥ 0, x2 + y 2 ≤ z ≤ a}. By considering the dimensions we get x, y, z ∼ a and I= xy 2 z dΩ ∼ ·a2 · a · a3 = a7 . · · · dΩ ∼ a3 , so A Therefore, the result must be of the form constant·a7 . Please click the advert D. The shape of A (as a part of a body of revolution) is an invitation to use semipolar coordinates (it cannot be said too often: Do not forget the weight function ! ), where A is represented by π π Ã = (, ϕ, z) 0 ≤ ≤ a, − ≤ ϕ ≤ , ≤ z ≤ a . 2 2 www.job.oticon.dk Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 56 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 0.2 0.4 –0.5 0.6 0.8 1 –1 Figure 35: The domain A for a = 1. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 x –0.2 Figure 36: The cut in the meridian halfplane for a = 1. I. The cut B(ϕ), which is revolved around the zaxis, must be independent of ϕ, so have in the meridian half plane B(ϕ) = {(, z)  0 ≤ z ≤ a, 0 ≤ ≤ z}. Then we get by the reduction theorem that the ϕintegral can be factored out, π I 2 = −π 2 = = = π 2 −π 2 B(ϕ) cos ϕ · 2 sin2 ϕ · z · d dz sin2 ϕ · cos ϕ dϕ · dϕ 4 z d dz B(ϕ) π2 a z a 1 2 1 sin3 ϕ · z 4 d dz = · z · z 5 dz 3 3 0 5 0 0 −π 2 a 2 2 1 7 2 7 z 6 dz = · a = a . 15 0 15 7 105 C. It is seen as a weak control that the result is of the form constant·a7 as mentioned in A. ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 57 Real Functions in Several Variables 4.3 The space integral Spherical coordinates Example 4.5 A. Let A be an upper half sphere of radius 2a, from which we have removed a cylinder of radius a and then halved the resulting domain by the plane x + y = 0. We shall only consider that part for which x + y ≥ 0. Calculate the space integral xz dΩ. A 2 –2 –2 1 –1 –1 0 1 1 2 2 Figure 37: The domain A for a = 1 in the (x, y, z)space. 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 y 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x Figure 38: The cut in the meridian halfplane for a = 1, i.e. in the (, z)halfplane. When we consider the dimensions (i.e. a rough overview) we get · · · dΩ ∼ a3 , x ∼ a, y ∼ a, z ∼ a, A Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 58 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral 2 y –2 1 –1 2 1 x –1 –2 Figure 39: The projection of A onto the (x, y)plane for a = 1. from which A xz dΩ ∼ a5 , and thus xz dΩ = constant · a5 . A Please click the advert D. The geometrical structure of revolution and the sphere indicate that one either should apply I 1. semipolar coordinates or I 2. spherical coordinates. We shall in the following go through both possibilities for comparison. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 59 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral I 1. In semipolar coordinates the domain A is represented by 3π π , 0 ≤ z ≤ 4a2 − 2 . Ã = (, ϕ, z) a ≤ ≤ 2a, − ≤ ϕ ≤ 4 4 Hence by the reduction theorem (where the weight function is ), 3π 4 xz dΩ = I = −π 4 A = 3π 4 −π 4 cos ϕ dϕ · = = = 2a 2 √ 2 2 4a − 0 cos ϕ · z dz √ 2 2 4a − a d dϕ z dz d 0 √4a2 −2 √ 1 2a 2 2· 4a2 − 2 d 2 a a 0 √ 2a √ 2a 2 2 4 2 3 1 5 2 2 4 4a − d = a − 2 a 2 3 5 a √ 4 2 3 1 5 2 4 2 32 5 a ·a − a 3 a · 8a3 − a − 3 2 4 5 5 √ 2 5 32 32 4 1 − − + a 5 3 5 3 2 √ √ 28 31 2 5 47 2 a5 − a · . = 3 5 2 30 = [sin ϕ] = a 2a 3π 4 −π 4 · 2a 2 1 2 z 2 d = I 2. If we instead choose spherical coordinates then x = r sin θ cos ϕ, y = r sin θ sin ϕ, z = r cos θ, where θ is measured from the zaxis (and not from the (x, y)plane, which one might expect), and the weight function is r 2 sin θ, and the domain A is represented by the parametric space π 3π π π a , ≤θ≤ , ≤ r ≤ 2a , Â = (r, ϕ, θ) − ≤ ϕ ≤ 4 4 6 2 sin θ where the vertical bounding line for B0 is described by r sin θ = a, so the lower bound for r is a ≤ r. sin θ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 60 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral Then we get by the reduction theorem π 3π 2a 2 4 xz dΩ = r sin θ cos ϕ · r cos θ r 2 sin θ dr dθ dϕ π 6 −π 4 A = 3π 4 −π 4 3π 4 = = = = cos ϕ dϕ · = [sin ϕ]−4 π · = a sin θ √ 2·5 π 2 π 6 π 2 π 6 π 2 π 6 2 sin θ cos θ sin2 θ · cos θ a sin θ 1 5 r 5 sin2 θ cos θ · 32 a5 − 2a 4 r dr dθ 2a dθ a sin θ a5 sin5 θ dθ √ π 1 2 5 2 32 sin2 θ − cos θ dθ a π 5 sin3 θ 6 √ π π2 1 1 2 5 32 sin3 θ + a 2 3 2 sin θ 6 5 √ 32 1 32 1 1 2 5 + · + ·4 a − 3 2 3 8 2 5 √ √ 2 5 32 1 4 47 2 5 a + − −2 = a . 5 3 2 3 60 C. We see in both variants that the result is ∼ a5 , so we get a weak control, cf. the examination of the dimensions in A. ♦ Example 4.6 A. Let A be the spindle formed domain on the ﬁgure, which is obtained by revolving the ﬁgure in the meridian halfplane around the zaxis. Calculate the space integral I = A z dΩ. 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 –0.3 –0.2 –0.1 0.3 0.2 –0.3 –0.2 0 –0.1 0.10.1 0.2 0.3 Figure 40: The domain A for a = 1 in the (x, y, z)space. An examination of the dimensions gives z ∼ a and I= z dΩ = c · a · a3 = c · a4 , A · · · dΩ ∼ a3 , hence A Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 61 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral 1 0.8 0.6 y 0.4 0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x Figure 41: The meridian halfplane with the curve r = the distance from (0, 0) to a point on the curve. √ cos 2θ for a = 1 given spherically, i.e. r is where the task now is to ﬁnd c. D. Since A is a domain of revolution it is natural either to choose spherical or semipolar coordinates. In this particular case is the variant I 1. Spherical coordinates the easiest one to apply. We have for comparison added I 2, so one can see what may happen if one only chooses to apply one method on all problems. I 1. We have in spherical coordinates that x = r sin θ cos ϕ, y = r sin θ sin ϕ, z = r cos θ, represent A by the parametric domain (cf. the ﬁgure over the meridian halfplane) Turning a challenge into a learning curve. Just another day at the office for a high performer. Please click the advert Accenture Boot Camp – your toughest test yet Choose Accenture for a career where the variety of opportunities and challenges allows you to make a difference every day. A place where you can develop your potential and grow professionally, working alongside talented colleagues. The only place where you can learn from our unrivalled experience, while helping our global clients achieve high performance. If this is your idea of a typical working day, then Accenture is the place to be. 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Visit accenture.com/bootcamp Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 62 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral √ π , 0 ≤ r ≤ a cos 2θ}. 4 Ã = {(r, ϕ, θ)  0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π, 0 ≤ θ ≤ Since neither the bounds for θ or r, the weight function r 2 sin θ or z = r cos θ contain the variable ϕ, we can factorize the integrations 2π 1 dϕ = 2π, 0 hence we get by the reduction theorem, I π 4 = 2π 0 0 π 4 = 2π √ a cos 2θ 2 r cos θ · r sin θ dr √ a cos 2θ cos θ sin θ dθ 3 r dr dθ. 0 0 We ﬁrst calculate the inner integral, where θ is considered as a constant, √ a cos 2θ 0 1 4 r r3 dr = 4 a√cos 2θ = 0 a4 cos2 2θ. 4 Then by insertion, I = 2π 0 π 4 cos θ sin θ · a4 cos2 2θ dθ 4 π4 π4 πa4 1 πa4 2 2 cos 2θ sin 2θ dθ = cos 2θ − = 4 0 4 θ=0 2 4 4 4 πa 1 π πa πa cos3 2θ {1 − 0} = . = = − 8 3 24 24 0 4 d cos 2θ I 2. Let us now turn to the semipolar variant. √ The problem with this is to ﬁnd = P (z) as a function of z for the boundary curve r = a cos 2θ for the domain in the meridian halfplane. When we express by means of r and θ we get (cf. e.g. the meridianhalfplane) hence r 2 = 2 + z 2 . √ Then the task is to eliminate r and θ from r = a cos 2θ. By squaring this equation we get = r sin θ and z = r cos θ. r2 = a2 cos 2θ = a2 cos2 θ − sin2 θ . Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 63 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral It follows from the expressions of and z that we can get rid of cos2 θ and sin2 θ by multiplying by r2 , i.e. r2 2 = 2 + z 2 2 = a2 r2 cos2 θ − r2 sin2 θ = a2 z 2 − a2 2 . Since r ≥ 0 and ≥ 0, these two operations are “equivalent”, i.e. we have not obtained some further “false solutions”. When the equation above is rearranged we get an equation of second order in 2 , 2 2 + 2z 2 + a2 2 + z 4 − a2 z 2 = 0. This is solved in high school manner, where we just put + in front of the square root, because 2 > 0, 2 = = = 1 −(2z 2 + a2 ) + (2z 2 + a2 )2 − 4z 4 + 4z 2 a2 2 1 4z 4 + 4z 2 a2 + a4 − 4z 4 + 4z 2 a2 − 2z 2 + a2 2 1 a 8z 2 + a2 − (2z 2 + a2 ) . 2 A test shows that 2 = 0 for z = 0 and z = a, which is in harmony with the situation in the meridian halfplane. Formally A is therefore in semipolar coordinates represented by the parametric space 1 a 8z 2 + a2 − (2z 2 + a2 ) Â = (, ϕ, z) ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π, 0 ≤ z ≤ a, 0 ≤ ≤ , 2 which does not look too nice. However, it is not as bad as it seems to be, because the integrand only depends on z. By using the “slice method”, we get by a reduction that a z dΩ = I= A a z 0 dS B(z) dz = 0 z · areal B(z) dz, where B(z) is the disc of radius 1 a 8z 2 + a2 − (2z 2 + a2 ) . = P (z) = 2 Then area B(z) = π {P (z)}2 = π a 8z 2 + a2 − (2z 2 + a2 ) , 2 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 64 Real Functions in Several Variables The space integral from which a I = z dΩ = z · area B(z) dz 0 A π a = a 8z 2 + a2 − 2z 2 − a2 z dz (substitute: t = z 2 , dt = 2z dz) 2 0 2 π a = a 8t + a2 − 2t − a2 dt 4 0 a2 a2 π 2 π t + a2 t 0 8t + a2 dt − = a 4 4 0 a2 3 π 1 2 π = · 8t + a2 2 − a4 a 8 3 2 0 π 1 π π 4 π 4 = a· {27a3 − a3 } − a4 = a (13 − 12) = a . 4 12 2 24 24 C. Weak control. We see in both cases that the result is of the form c · a4 , as already deduced in A. Remark 4.1 We see that this problem could be calculated in both spherical and semipolar coordinates, though the variant of the semipolar coordinates was far more diﬃcult than the spherical version. Occasionally one may ﬁnd similar problems in examinations sets, where the composer of the problem thought that it was obvious to use the spherical coordinates, while the students unfortunately preferred the semipolar coordinates instead. This has through the years caused a lot of frustration. Therefore, try also to learn the spherical method as well as the semipolar version, and examine the role of the geometry in the choice of method. ♦ Please click the advert In Paris or Online International programs taught by professors and professionals from all over the world BBA in Global Business MBA in International Management / International Marketing DBA in International Business / International Management MA in International Education MA in CrossCultural Communication MA in Foreign Languages Innovative – Practical – Flexible – Affordable Visit: www.HorizonsUniversity.org Write: Admissions@horizonsuniversity.org Call: 01.42.77.20.66 www.HorizonsUniversity.org Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 65 Real Functions in Several Variables 5 The line integral The line integral Example 5.1 A. Find the curve length from (0, 0) of any ﬁnite piece (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ α) of the Archimedes’s spiral, given in polar coordinates by = a ϕ, 0 ≤ ϕ < +∞, hvor a > 0, i.e. calculate the line integral α = ds. ϕ=0 8 6 4 2 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 –2 –4 –6 Figure 42: A piece of the Archimedes’s spiral for a = 1. D. First ﬁnd the line element ds expressed by means of ϕ and dϕ. We shall here meet a very unpleasant integral, which we shall calculate in three diﬀerent ways: 1) by a substitution, 2) by using partial integration, 3) by using a pocket calculator. I. Since = P (ϕ) = a ϕ, and since we have a description of the curve in polar coordinates, the line element is ds = {P (ϕ)}2 + {P (ϕ)}2 dϕ = (a ϕ)2 + a2 dϕ = a Then by a reduction, α α = ds = a 1 + ϕ2 dϕ = a ϕ=0 0 α 1 + ϕ2 dϕ. 1 + ϕ2 dϕ. 0 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 66 Real Functions in Several Variables The line integral 1) Since 1 + sinh2 t = cosh2 t, we have 1 + sinh2 t = + cosh t, because both sides of the equation sign must be positive. Thus we can remove the square root of the integrand by using the monotonous substitution, ϕ = sinh t, dϕ = cosh t dt, t = Arsinh ϕ = ln ϕ + 1 + ϕ2 . Since t can be expressed uniquely by ϕ, the substitution must be monotonous. Then α = a 0 α = a ϕ=0 = = = = a 2 a 2 a 2 a 2 α 1 + ϕ2 dϕ = a cosh2 t dt = a · α 1 2 ϕ=0 α ϕ=0 1 + sinh2 t · cosh t dt {cosh 2t + 1} dt a α [(t + sinh t · cos t)]ϕ=0 2 ϕ=0 α t + sinh t · 1 + sinh2 t ϕ=sinh t=0 α ln ϕ + 1 + ϕ2 + ϕ · 1 + ϕ2 0 2 2 . α 1 + α + ln α + 1 + α 1 sinh 2t + t 2 = 2) If we instead apply partial integration, then α α 2 = a 1 + ϕ dϕ = a 1 · 1 + ϕ2 dϕ 0 0 α α ϕ 2 −a ϕ· dϕ = a ϕ 1+ϕ 0 1 + ϕ2 0 α 2 ϕ +1 −1 2 dϕ = a α 1+α − 1 + ϕ2 0 α α dϕ 2 2 = a α 1+α − 1 + ϕ dϕ + 1 + ϕ2 0 0 α = −a 1 + ϕ2 dϕ + a α 1 + α2 + ln α + 1 + α2 . 0 α The ﬁrst term is −a 0 1 + ϕ2 dϕ = − , so we get by adding a = α 1 + α2 + ln α + 1 + α2 . 2 and dividing by 2 that 3) This is an example where a pocket calculator will give an equivalent, though diﬀerent answer, so it is easy to see for the teacher, whether a pocket calculator has been applied or not. It is here illustrated by the use of a TI89, where the command is given by a ( (1 + t^2), t, 0, b), because neither ϕ nor α are natural. Then the answer of the pocket calculator is √ √ ln( b2 + 1 + b) b b2 + 1 + , (9) a · 2 2 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 67 Real Functions in Several Variables The line integral followed by writing α again instead of b. However, if one does not apply a pocket calculator, but instead uses the standard methods of integration, one would never state the result in the form (9). The reason for this discrepancy is that the programs of the pocket calculator are created from specialists in Algebra, and they do not always speak the same mathematical language as the specialists in Calculus or Mathematical Analysis. In Calculus the priority of the terms would be (b = α) a α 1 + α2 + ln α + 1 + α2 , 2 because one would try to put as many factors as possible outside the parentheses and then order the rest of the terms, such that the simplest is also the ﬁrst one. Obviously, this is not the structure of (9). The phenomenon was discovered at an examination where pocket calculators were only allowed if one also wrote down the applied command and the type of the pocket calculator. Many students did not do it, and yet it was discovered that they had used a pocket calculator. The morale of this story is that even if a pocket calculator may give the right result, this result does not have to be put in a practical form. It is even worse by applications of e.g. MAPLE it’s an interesting world Please click the advert Get under the skin of it. Graduate opportunities Cheltenham  £24,945 + benefits One of the UK’s intelligence services, GCHQ’s role is twofold: to gather and analyse intelligence which helps shape Britain’s response to global events, and, to provide technical advice for the protection of Government communication and information systems. In doing so, our specialists – in IT, internet, engineering, languages, information assurance, mathematics and intelligence – get well beneath the surface of global affairs. If you thought the world was an interesting place, you really ought to explore our world of work. www.careersinbritishintelligence.co.uk TOP GOVERNMENT EMPLOYER Applicants must be British citizens. GCHQ values diversity and welcomes applicants from all sections of the community. We want our workforce to reflect the diversity of our work. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 68 Real Functions in Several Variables The line integral where the result is sometimes given in a form using functions which are not known by students of Calculus. √ Note also that pocket calculators in general do not like the operations  ·  and ·, and cases where we have got two parameters. The latter is not even one of the favorites of MAPLE either, and it is in fact possible to obtain some very strange results by using MAPLE on even problems from this part of Calculus. I shall therefore warn the students: Do not use pocket calculators and computer programs like MAPLE or Mathematica uncritically! Since they exist, they should of course be applied, but do it with care. ♦ Example 5.2 A. Find the value of the line integral I = by = P (ϕ) = a(1 + cos ϕ), K y ds, where K is the cardioid given in polar coordinates −π ≤ ϕ ≤ π. 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 –0.5 –1 Figure 43: The cardioid for a = 1; (καδια = heart). Examination of dimensions: Since ∼ a, We get be of the form c · a · a = c · a2 . K · · · ds ∼ a, and since y ∼ a, The result must Due to the numerical sign in the integrand we must be very careful. In particular, a pocket calculator will be in big trouble here, if one does not give it a hand from time to time during the calculations. D. First ﬁnd the line element ds. I. The line element is seen to be {P (ϕ)}2 + {P (ϕ)}2 dϕ = {a(1 + cos ϕ)}2 + (−a sin ϕ)2 dϕ √ = a (1 + 2 cos ϕ + cos2 ϕ) + sin2 ϕ dϕ = a 2 · 1 + cos ϕ dϕ. ds = Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 69 Real Functions in Several Variables The line integral 2 1.5 3 1 2.5 2 0.5 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Figure 44: The space curve x = r(t). The line integral becomes I 2 = 1 2 = 1 √ 1 2 1 1 2 t + t dt · ( 2 · t) + 2 · 2 t t 2 2 1 1 + t dt = 2t2 + t2 · (3 + 3t2 ) dt = 3 + t3 1 = 10. t t 1 ♦ Example 5.4 A. Let a, h > 0. Consider the helix t ∈ R. r(t) = (x, y, z) = (a cos t, a sin t, h t), 2 2 2 This is lying on the cylinder x + y = a . Find the natural parametric representaion of the curve from (a, 0, 0), corresponding to t = 0. 2 1.5 1 –1 –1 0.5 –0.5 –0.5 0.5 0.5 1 1 Figure 45: The helix for a = 1 and h = 1 . 5 D. Find the arc length s = s(t) as a function of the parameter t. Solve this equation t = t(s), and put the result into the parametric representation above. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 70 Real Functions in Several Variables The line integral I. Let us ﬁrst ﬁnd the line element ds = r (t) dt. Since r (t) = (−a sin t, a cos t, h), we have r (t) = a2 sin2 t + a2 cos2 t + h2 = hence the arc length is t s = s(t) = r (τ ) dτ = 0 t a2 + h2 , a2 + h2 dτ = 0 a2 + t2 · t. By solving after t we get s t = t(s) = √ . 2 a + h2 When this is put into the parametric representation of the helix, we get (x, y, z) = (a cos t, a sin t, h t) s s = a cos √ , a sin √ 2 2 2 a +h a + h2 ,√ hs + h2 a2 , s ∈ R, which is the natural parametric representation of the helix. ♦ Brain power Please click the advert By 2020, wind could provide onetenth of our planet’s electricity needs. Already today, SKF’s innovative knowhow is crucial to running a large proportion of the world’s wind turbines. Up to 25 % of the generating costs relate to maintenance. These can be reduced dramatically thanks to our systems for online condition monitoring and automatic lubrication. We help make it more economical to create cleaner, cheaper energy out of thin air. By sharing our experience, expertise, and creativity, industries can boost performance beyond expectations. Therefore we need the best employees who can meet this challenge! The Power of Knowledge Engineering Plug into The Power of Knowledge Engineering. Visit us at www.skf.com/knowledge Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 71 Real Functions in Several Variables 6 The surface integral The surface integral Example 6.1 A. Find the surface integral I = F z dS, where F is given by the parametric representation (x, y, z) = r(u, v) = (u sin v, u cos v, u v) = u (sin v, cos v, v), where −1 ≤ u ≤ 1, 0 ≤ v ≤ 1. –1 1 –0.5 –0.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 –0.6 –0.4 –0.8 0.2 0.5 1 –1 Figure 46: The surface F has two components. If we keep u = 1 ﬁxed and let v vary, then we get an arc of the helix with a = h = 1, cf. Example 5.4. When (0, 0, 0) is removed, the surface is split into its two components F 1 and F2 , which are symmetric with respect to the point (0, 0, 0). The surface F1 is obtained by drawing all lines from (0, 0, 0) to a point on the helix. D. The area element is given by dS = N(u, v) du dv. We ﬁrst calculate the normal vector N(u, v) corresponding to the given parametric representation. I. It follows from r(u, v) = u (sin v, cos v, v) that ∂r = (sin v, cos v, v), ∂u ∂r = u (cos v, − sin v, 1), ∂v hence the normal vector is N(u, v) = e1 ∂r ∂r sin v × = ∂u ∂v u cos v e2 cos v −u sin v e3 v u = u (cos v + v sin v, v cos v − sin v, −1) = u{(cos v, − sin v, −1) + v (sin v, cos v, 0)}. Now (cos v, − sin v, −1) · (sin v, cos v, 0) = 0, 69 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 72 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral so the two vectors are perpendicular. Then we get by Pythagoras’s theorem N(u, v) 2 = u2 (cos v, − sin v, −1) 2 + v 2 (sin v, cos v, 0) 2 = u2 cos2 v + sin2 +1 + v 2 sin2 v + cos2 +02 = u2 2 + v 2 . Notice that −1 ≤ u ≤ 1 shows that u may be negative. When we take the square root we get the area element dS = N(u, v) du dv = u 2 + v 2 du dv. Putting D = [−1, 1] × [0, 1] we get by the reduction formula z dS = u v · u 2 + v 2 du dv I = F D 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 = u v 2 + v dv du = u du · 0 −1 −1 0 1 3 3 √ 1 3 1 2 1 2 3 u t · dt = · t2 · = 3 2 3 2 3 2 −1 2 √ 2 √ = (3 3 − 2 2). ♦ 9 2 + v 2 · v dv Example 6.2 A. Let F be the surface given by the graph representation √ 0 ≤ x ≤ 3, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 + x2 , z = xy. Find the surface integral F z dS. 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We employ more than 1500 people worldwide and offer global reach and local knowledge along with our allencompassing list of services. nnepharmaplan.com Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 73 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral 3.5 3 2.5 2 2 1.5 1.5 1 1 t 0.5 0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 s 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Figure 47: The surface F with its projection E. D. The usual procedure is to consider F as a graph of the function z = f (x, y) = xy, (x, y) ∈ E. We shall not do this here, but instead alternatively introduce a rectangular parametric representation (x, y, z) = r(u, v). Then afterwards we shall ﬁnd the weight function N(u, v) . 2 1.5 y 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x Figure 48: The projection E of F in the (x, y)plane. I. The parameters u and v are for obvious reasons not given above. They are introduced by duplicating (x, y) by the trivial formula (x, y) = (u, v), i.e. we choose the parametric representation r(u, v) = (x, y, z) = (u, v, uv), 0≤u≤ √ 3, 0≤v≤ 1 + u2 , Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 74 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral so we can distinguish between (x, y) as the ﬁrst two coordinates on the surface in the 3dimensional space, and (u, v) ∈ E in the parametric domain. By experience it is always diﬃcult to understand why we use this duplication, until one realizes that we in this way can describe two diﬀerent aspects (as described above) of the same coordinates. This will be very useful in the following. Since ∂r = (1, 0, v) ∂u ∂r = (0, 1, u), ∂v and the corresponding normal vector becomes e1 e2 e3 ∂r ∂r N(u, v) = × = 1 0 v = (−v, −u, 1). ∂u ∂v 0 1 u Hence 1 + u2 + v 2 . N(u, v) = When dS denotes the area element on F, and dS1 denotes the area element on E, then we have the correspondence dS = 1 + u2 + v 2 dS1 . The abstract surface integral over F is therefore reduced to the abstract plane integral over E by z dS = u v 1 + u2 + v 2 dS. F E Then we reduce the abstract plane integral over E in rectangular coordinates, where the vintegral is the inner one, √ √ 2 z dS = F uv 3 1 + u2 + v 2 dS = 0 E 1+u u 1 + u2 + v 2 v dv du. 0 Calculate the inner integral by means of the substitution t = v2 , dt = 2v dv. From this we get √ 1+u2 1+ 0 u2 + v2 1+u2 v dv = 0 1+u2 1 + u2 + t · 1 2 1 1 + u2 + t = 2(1 + u2 ) 2 3 3 t=0 3 1 √ 2 2 = (2 2 − 1) · 1 + u . 3 = 3 2 1 dt 2 3 2 3 − (1 + u2 ) 2 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 75 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral By insertion and b the substitution t = u2 , dt = 2u du we ﬁnally get z dS = F = = = = = √ 3 1 √ (2 2 − 1) · 1 + u2 2 du 3 0 √3 3 1 √ 1 + u2 2 u du (2 2 − 1) 3 0 3 3 1 1 √ (1 + t) 2 dt (2 2 − 1) 2 3 0 3 √ 5 1 1 2 2 (2 2 − 1) · (1 + t) 3 2 5 0 5 1 √ (2 2 − 1) · 4 2 − 1 15 √ 31(2 2 − 1) . ♦ 15 3 u· Example 6.3 Please click the advert A. A surface of revolution O is obtained by revolving the meridian curve M given by π r = a(1 + sin θ), 0 ≤ θ ≤ , a > 0, 2 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 76 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral where θ is the angle measured from the zaxis and r is the distance to (0, 0) (an arc of a cardioid, cf. Example 5.2). Find the surface integral z I= dS. 2 + y2 + z2 x O 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 –2 –2 0.2 –1 1 –1 1 2 2 Figure 49: The surface O for a = 1. An examination of the dimensions shows that x, y, z ∼ a and z a dS ∼ 2 · a2 = a. 2 2 2 a O x +y +z O · · · dS ∼ a2 , thus 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Figure 50: The meridian curve M for a = 1. The ﬁnal result must therefore be of the form c · a, where c is the constant, we are going to ﬁnd. D. When we look at surfaces (or bodies) of revolution one should always try either semipolar or spherical coordinates. Since the parametric representation of the meridian curve M is given in a way which is very similar to the spherical coordinates, it is quite reasonable to expect that one should use spherical coordinates. Although it is here possible to solve the problem by a very nasty trick, it is far better for pedagogical reasons to follow the way which most students would go. Let us analyze the reduction formula b 2π f (x, y, z) dS = F (t, ϕ) dϕ R(t) sin Θ(t) {R (t)}2 + {R(t)Θ (t)}2 dt, O a 0 Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 77 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral where F (t, ϕ) := f (R(t) sin Θ(t), cos ϕ, R(t) sin Θ(t) sin ϕ, R(r) cos Θ(t). There is no t in A., so we must start by introducing the parameter t in a convenient form. Then we shall identify the transformed function F (t, ϕ) as well as the weight function, and ﬁnally we shall carry out all the integrations. I. 1) The introduction of the parameter t. The most obvious thing is to by θ = t, i.e. M is described by r = R(t) = a (1 + sin t), 0≤t≤ θ = Θ(t) = t, π . 2 By doing this we split the diﬀerent aspects: θ belongs to the curve M, and t belongs to the parametric interval π 0, = [a, b]. 2 2) Identiﬁcation of F (t, ϕ) and the weight function. Since z = R(t) cos Θ(t) = a(1 + sin t) cos t on M, x2 + y 2 + z 2 = r2 = R(t)2 = a2 (1 + sin t)2 on M, and we obtain the integrand f (x, y, z) = z a(1+sin t) cos t cos t = 2 = = F (t, ϕ), x2 +y 2 +z 2 a (1+sin t)2 a(1+sin t) which is independent of ϕ. Since the weight function and the boundaries of does not depend 2π on t either, the ϕintegral becomes trivial, and we can put 0 dϕ = 2π outside the integral as a factor. Then we calculate the weight function, R(t) sin Θ(t) {R (t)}2 + {R(t)Θ (t)}2 {a cos t}2 + {a(1 + sin t) · 1}2 = a(1 + sin t) · sin t · a cos2 t + (1 + 2 sin t + sin2 t) = a(1 + sin t) · sin t · = a2 (1 + sin t) · sin t · 2(1 + sin t) √ 3 = 2 a2 (1 + sin t) 2 · sin t. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 78 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral 3) Integration by reduction. First we note that the parametric domain is 2dimensional, π . D = (ϕ, t) 0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π, 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 Please click the advert In fact, dimension corresponds to dimension, and since F is a C ∞ surface, the parametric domain D must necessarily be 2dimensional. (If not we have made an error, so start from the very beginning!) Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 79 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral We have now identiﬁed all functions, so we get by the reduction formula that √ 3 z cos t · 2 a2 (1 + sin t) 2 sin t dϕ dt dS = 2 + y2 + z2 x a(1 + sin t) O D π2 √ 1 sin t(1 + sin t) 2 cos t dt = 2 · a · 2π √ √ √ 1 = 2 2πa 0 1 0 1 = 2 2 πa = = = = = 1 u(1 + u) 2 du = 2 2πa = 0 0 1 (1 + u − 1) (1 + u) 2 du 1 3 (1 + u) 2 − (1 + u) 2 du 1 5 3 2 2 (1 + u) 2 − (1 + u) 2 2 2πa 5 3 0 √ 5 3 1 2 2 2πa · 3(1 + u) 2 − 5(1 + u) 2 15 0 3 4πa √ 5 2 2 · 2 3 2 −1 −5 2 −1 15 √ √ 4πa √ 2 {3(4 2 − 1) − 5(2 2 − 1)} 15 √ 4πa √ 8πa √ √ 2 {2 2 + 2} = 2 ( 2 + 1) 15 15 √ 8π(2 + 2)a . 15 √ C. Weak control. The result has the form c · a, in agreement with A. Since z ≥ 0 on O [cf. the ﬁgure], the result must be ≥ 0. We see that this is also the case here. ♦ Example 6.4 A. A surface of revolution O has an arc of a parable M as its meridian curve, where this is given by the equation z= 2 , a 0 ≤ ≤ a, a > 0. Find the surface integral x2 √ I= dS. a2 + 4az O Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 80 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 –1 –1 0.2 –0.5 –0.5 0.5 0.5 1 1 Figure 51: The surface O and its projection onto the (x, y)plane for a = 1. 1.2 1 0.8 y 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 x Figure 52: The meridian curve M for a = 1. Examination of the dimensions. It follows from x,y, z ∼ a, that x2 a2 √ ∼ √ = a. a2 + 4az a2 Since O · · · dS ∼ a2 , we get all together x2 √ dS ∼ a · a2 = a3 , a2 + 4az O i.e. the result must have the form x2 √ dS = c · a3 , 2 + 4az a O where the constant c must be positive, because the integrand is ≥ 0. D. The description invites to semipolar coordinates I 1. For the matter of training we also add I 2. Rectangular coordinates, which give a slightly diﬀerent variant, although we in the end is forced back to (semi)polar coordinates. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 81 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral I 1. Semipolar coordinates. We introduce t as a parameter by = P (t) = t. Then z = Z(t) = 1 2 t , a 0 ≤ t ≤ a. Since x = P (t) cos ϕ = t cos ϕ, y = P (t) sin ϕ = t sin ϕ, z = Z(t) = 1 2 t , a we get the following interpretation of the integrand, f (x, y, z) = √ t2 cos2 ϕ x2 , =√ a2 + 4t2 a2 + 4az and the weight function is P (t) {P (t)}2 + {Z (t)}2 =t 12 + 2 t a 2 = t a a2 + 4t2 . The parametric domain is Please click the advert D = {(t, ϕ)  0 ≤ t ≤ a, 0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π} = [0, a] × [0, 2π]. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 82 Real Functions in Several Variables The surface integral Hence we get by a reduction O √ x2 dS a2 + 4az = D t2 cos2 ϕ t √ · a2 + 4t2 a a2 + 4t2 dt dϕ 2π 1 a 3 t cos ϕ dt dϕ = t dt · cos2 ϕ dϕ a 0 0 D a 2π 1 + cos 2ϕ πa3 1 1 4 . dϕ = · t 4 2 a 4 0 0 1 a = = 3 2 C 1. Weak control. The result has the right dimension [a3 ], and it is positive, cf. A. I 2. The rectangular version. In this case we interpret the surface as the graph of the function z = f (x, y) = 1 2 (x + y 2 ) a for (x, y) ∈ E, where the parametric domain is the disc E = {(x, y)  x2 + y 2 ≤ a2 }. The weight function is 2 ∂z ∂z 1+ + ∂x ∂y 2 = 1+ 2x a 2 + 2 2y a = 1 a a2 + 4x2 + 4y 2 . We have now found everything which is needed for an application of the reduction theorem: O x2 √ dS a2 + 4az E = 1 a x2 1 a2 + 4a · (x2 + y 2 ) a x2 · a2 + 4x2 + 4y 2 = E · 1 a a2 + 4x2 + 4y 2 dx dy a2 + 4x2 + 4y 2 dx dy = 1 a x2 dx dy. E From this point it is again most natural to change to polar coordinates, O x2 √ dS a2 + 4az = = a 1 2π 2 x dx dy = ( cos ϕ) · d dϕ a 0 0 E a πa3 1 2π 1 a4 = . cos2 ϕ dϕ · 3 d = · π · 4 4 a 0 a 0 1 a 2 ♦ Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 83 Real Functions in Several Variables 7 Transformation theorems Transformation theorems Example 7.1 A. Calculate the plane integral y−x cos I= dx dy y+x B over the trapeze shown on the ﬁgure. 3 2.5 2 y 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x Figure 53: The trapeze B. D. A direct calculation applying one of the usual reduction theorems is not possible, because none of the forms y−x 2y 2x − 1 dx = cos 1 − dy cos dx = cos y+x y+x y+x can be integrated within the realm of our known functions. The situation is even worse in polar coordinates. Therefore, the only possibility left is to ﬁnd a convenient transform, such that the integrand becomes more easy to handle. y−x . One idea would be to introduce the numerator y+x as a new variable, and the denominator as another new variable. If we do this, then we must show that we obtain a unique correspondence between the domain B and a parametric domain D, which also should be found. Finally we shall ﬁnd the Jacobian. When we have found all the terms in the transformation formula, then calculate the integral. The unpleasant thing is of course the fraction Remark 7.1 This time we see that it is here quite helpful to start the discussion in D, which is not common knowledge from high school. First we discuss the problem. Based on this discussion we make a decision on the further procedure. ♦ I. According to D. we choose the numerator and the denominator as our new variables. Most people would here choose the numerator as u and the denominator as v, so we shall do the same, although it can be shown that we shall get simpler calculations if we interchange the deﬁnition of u and v. Download free ebooks at BookBooN.com 84 Real Functions in Several Variables Transformation theorems We therefore put as the most natural choice (10) numerator : u = y − x and denominator : v = y + x. Then we shall prove that this gives a onetoone correspondence. This means that we for any given u and v obtain unique solutions x and y: u+v v−y and y= . x= 2 2 Obviously the transform is continuous both ways. Since B is closed and bounded, the range D by this transform is again closed and bounded, cf. the important second main theorem for continuous functions. Since the transform is onetoone everywhere, the boundary ∂B is mapped onetoone onto the boundary ∂D. This is expressed in the following way: 1) The line x + y = 1 corresponds by (10) to v = 1. 2) The line y = x, i.e. y − x = 0, corresponds by (10) to u = 0. 3) The line y + x = 4 corresponds by (10) to v = 4. u+v v−u , i.e. to v = 2u. 4) The line y = 3x corresponds to =3 2 2 Sharp Minds  Bright Ideas! 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